Literature report for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
Contents
Related concepts
Facts with concepts
Wordclouds
Statements
References

Introduction
This report provides an overview of the most relevant scientific literature for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This overview is generated based on the occurrence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its synonyms in MEDLINE abstracts together with concepts from a number of other ontologies. This is done in a number of ways, shortly described below and described in more details in the respective sections.
  • Based on the occurrence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in these abstracts, other biomedical terms, related to diseases, drugs and pathways that occur in the same abstracts as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are retrieved.
  • In addition, the abstracts are scanned for other informative words and visualised in wordclouds.
  • Furthermore, important sentences and facts for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are retrieved and shown in a separate table with a link to the original abstracts.
  • Lastly the most relevant abstracts are shown in which Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and it's synomyms are highlighted.

This report is an interactive HTML report.The hyperlinks in this document link to other sections in the document or to external data sources (which will be opened in a separate window). Most of the tables have options for filtering, searching and exporting the data to Excel.


Related concepts
The following tables show the relation of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii with biomedical terms representing genes, diseases and pathways. Each relation is described by the number of abstracts in which both terms co-occur and a statistical score. The relations to other genes were obtained by matching to concepts from the human genes database from the website of the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee. The disease concepts for matching were obtained from the Human Disease Ontology website. The ontologies for Drugs and Pathways are TenWise proprietary ontologies (see this page for more information).

Concept ID Hits Score Link
juvenile idiopathic arthritisDERMO:000193021.0Pubmed
enthesitis-related arthritisDERMO:000193522.6Pubmed
psoriatic arthritisDERMO:000193610.8Pubmed
crohn's diseaseDERMO:0001734741.9Pubmed
hepatitis BDERMO:000242410.0Pubmed
lynch syndromeDERMO:000342511.2Pubmed
psoriasisDERMO:000012410.0Pubmed
muscular dystrophyDERMO:000179410.4Pubmed
amyloidosisDERMO:000172810.4Pubmed
lymphomaDERMO:00017251-2.0Pubmed
phenylketonuriaDERMO:000053511.0Pubmed
iron deficiencyDERMO:000014510.4Pubmed
hidradenitis suppurativaDERMO:000255011.3Pubmed
bacteremiaDERMO:000209820.6Pubmed
goutDERMO:000267310.6Pubmed
Concept ID Hits Score Link
dermatitisDOID:272350.6Pubmed
viral infectious diseaseDOID:93410.0Pubmed
liver cirrhosisDOID:508230.3Pubmed
Streptococcus pneumoniaDOID:004008412.0Pubmed
human immunodeficiency virus infectious diseaseDOID:52620.3Pubmed
psoriasisDOID:889310.0Pubmed
adenocarcinomaDOID:2991-2.0Pubmed
colorectal adenomaDOID:005086011.4Pubmed
hepatitisDOID:223720.0Pubmed
urticariaDOID:155510.6Pubmed
appendicitisDOID:833710.4Pubmed
autoimmune hypersensitivity diseaseDOID:41710.3Pubmed
intestinal diseaseDOID:529511.4Pubmed
constipationDOID:208941.0Pubmed
corneal ulcerDOID:846311.5Pubmed
Concept ID Hits Score Link
IL23RHGNC:1910011.7Pubmed
CXCL2HGNC:460311.6Pubmed
MYDGFHGNC:1694811.6Pubmed
IL2RAHGNC:600820.7Pubmed
NOD2HGNC:533162.1Pubmed
FFAR3HGNC:449912.4Pubmed
SLC16A1HGNC:1092211.7Pubmed
DACH1HGNC:266312.4Pubmed
NLRP3HGNC:1640011.0Pubmed
REG3AHGNC:860112.9Pubmed
ATG16L1HGNC:2149832.5Pubmed
IDO1HGNC:605911.4Pubmed
SLC52A1HGNC:3022511.5Pubmed
CD8AHGNC:170610.0Pubmed
STAT3HGNC:1136430.9Pubmed
Concept ID Hits Score Link
tryptophan metabolismPATH_00003311.2Pubmed
vitamin metabolismPATH_00161322.5Pubmed
JNK signallingPATH_00169011.0Pubmed
MAPK signallingPATH_00169710.6Pubmed
nucleotide metabolismPATH_00116411.2Pubmed
aerobic respirationPATH_00167711.7Pubmed
glycolysisPATH_00166720.6Pubmed
drug metabolismPATH_00067021.0Pubmed
purine metabolismPATH_00009611.2Pubmed
glycan metabolismPATH_00260712.0Pubmed
rhamnose metabolismPATH_00141412.6Pubmed
fermentative metabolismPATH_00259012.1Pubmed
lipopolysaccharide metabolismPATH_00099112.0Pubmed
Th17 differentiationPATH_00001822.1Pubmed
apoptosisPATH_0000122-2.0Pubmed
Concept ID Hits Score Link
Mycoplasma hominisTAX_209811.5Pubmed
Pseudomonas putidaTAX_30310.9Pubmed
Lactobacillus salivariusTAX_162442.6Pubmed
Parabacteroides distasonisTAX_82353.5Pubmed
Filobacterium rodentiumTAX_2819214.4Pubmed
Clostridioides difficileTAX_149612.1Pubmed
Bacteroides acidifaciensTAX_8583113.2Pubmed
Holdemania filiformisTAX_6117113.8Pubmed
Glycine maxTAX_384710.9Pubmed
Bifidobacterium longumTAX_216816132.7Pubmed
Faecalibacterium prausnitziiTAX_8534664.7Pubmed
Fusobacterium nucleatumTAX_85172.1Pubmed
Streptococcus sanguinisTAX_130511.9Pubmed
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensTAX_139011.5Pubmed
Lactobacillus agilisTAX_160113.2Pubmed
Concept ID Hits Score Link
Psoriasiform dermatitisHP:000376510.0Pubmed
DehydrationHP:000194410.3Pubmed
FeverHP:00019451-2.0Pubmed
Weight lossHP:0001824120.9Pubmed
Type II diabetes mellitusHP:0005978220.9Pubmed
ProfoundHP:001282990.7Pubmed
EczemaHP:000096420.8Pubmed
Type I diabetes mellitusHP:010065110.0Pubmed
AutoimmunityHP:000296020.3Pubmed
MalnutritionHP:000439510.0Pubmed
ScleritisHP:010053211.5Pubmed
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritisHP:000568121.1Pubmed
Cerebral palsyHP:010002110.0Pubmed
EncephalitisHP:000238320.4Pubmed
Corneal ulcerationHP:001280411.3Pubmed

Facts from sentences
The abstracts where Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is described with other genes, diseases and pathways can be further analyzed to retrieve the exact sentences in which these concepts co-occur with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. These are shown in the tables below. In each sentence the concepts are highlighted in bold and a link to the abstract in which the sentence was found is provided.

PMIDFACT
21734380The decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii seems to have a prognostic value to predict relapse of Crohn's disease after surgery.
23829084The aim of the study was evaluation of the correlation between the level of clinical activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and the number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, total number of bacteria and the concentration of selected short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in stool.
31104514Objectives: Crohn's disease is characterized by a gut dysbiosis with decreased abundance of butyrate producers such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
22113988METHODS: Sections of fecal cylinders from 66 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET; 25 foregut, 30 midgut, 11 hindgut), 50 patients with CD (Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] ≥150), and 30 patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea seen at the Charité Hospital and 25 healthy controls were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes specific for five bacterial groups: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium group XIVa / Roseburia group, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae.
26852926Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes.
26852926In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted.
28683448In Crohn's disease, Parabacteroides distasonis was the most represented, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides fragilis were significantly reduced.
25844959Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is found at lower abundance in Crohn's disease and in those with postoperative recurrence.
25118238Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal gut bacterium, the absence of which may be associated with Crohn's disease.
24418903BACKGROUND: The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant and representative bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, has consistently been observed to be lower in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy individuals.
26045134BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis is characterised by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose culture supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo.
PMIDFACT
26852926Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes.
27812181Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema.
27253486One study demonstrated a strong association between high abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, and established eczema.
28668239OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Enterobacteriaceae as members of gut microbiota among patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and healthy controls.
PMIDFACT
30849075We performed systematic screening for associations, identifying and replicating associations between NOD2 variants and two taxa: the Roseburia genus and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii species.
PMIDFACT
31289141We found that the gut microbiota in Sardinian centenarians displayed a rearranged taxonomic pattern compared with those of the young and elderly, featured by depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and enriched for Methanobrevibacter smithii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis Moreover, functional analysis revealed that the microbiota in centenarians had high capacity for central metabolism, especially glycolysis and fermentation to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), although the gut microbiota in centenarians was low in genes encoding enzymes involved in degradation of carbohydrates, including fibers and galactose.
PMIDFACT
27323816Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to determine differences in microbiota among tumor tissues of different prognosis and found that Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis were more abundant in worse prognosis groups, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii displayed higher abundance in survival group.
27018166The aim of this study was to compare and correlated the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, some representative bacteria of these phyla such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium leptum and Bifidobacterium longum as a member of Actinobacteria phylum in young adults with their food intake.
31417532Our preliminary data show no differences between microbial communities of L-CRC and L-GC patients, but they plant the seed of the possible existence of a fecal microbiota pattern associated with LS genetic background, with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Parabacteroides distasonis, Ruminococcus bromii, Bacteroides plebeius, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides uniformis species being the most significantly over-represented in LS patients (comprising both L-CRC and L-GC groups) compared to healthy subjects.
29914865METHODS: We measured the relative abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp), Bifidobacterium (Bb), and Lactobacillus (Lb) by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from 2 cohorts of 903 individuals.
28683448In Crohn's disease, Parabacteroides distasonis was the most represented, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides fragilis were significantly reduced.
24857830Evidence is reviewed supporting an association between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colon cancer and for a protective role of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in inflammatory bowel disease, of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in acute intestinal inflammation, of Bifidobacterium infantis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, and of Akkermansia muciniphila in obesity and diabetes.
30619212Among the 91 OTUs whose relative abundance was altered in ASD patients, we observed a striking depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, one of the dominant bacteria in infant GM and, conversely, an increase of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a late colonizer of healthy human gut and a major butyrate producer.
28923537Among IN responders, the gut microbiome was enriched for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, and Holdemania filiformis.
26075636Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but also species not previously associated with metabolic markers including Bacteroides faecis and Dorea longicatena.
25118238We have explored the transcriptional response of organoids upon exposure to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and products generated by two abundant microbiota constituents, Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
20460669We describe a real-time quantitative assay for detection and quantification of a whole group of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria, which has recently been found to dominate in the cecum of broiler chickens.
25002542We demonstrate this approach for the beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165.
31419254We conclude there are several phylotypes of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (the only species so far defined for the genus) in this dairy herd with cows being inoculated with a mixture of several strains from a common source.
25900655UNLABELLED: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified on the basis of human clinical data.
27381339Two species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Gemmiger formicilis, had a prevalence of 100% in both groups.
23692866To document the crosstalk between the host and microbiota, we used gnotobiotic models to study the influence of two major commensal bacteria, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on this intestinal mucus layer.
31024464This work presents a novel in silico approach to the prediction and characterization of the glycolytic capacities of the beneficial intestinal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
29385239This study investigated commensal microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) and a prebiotic, both known to yield butyrate and be anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory, on CD colonization and gut integrity in mice.
28239378This strain also modulates gut microbiota increasing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a functionally important bacterium.
30634855These results, although limited by sample size, allow a better understanding of changes in mucosa-associated bacterial flora in these patients, showing that decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Provetella, and Peptostreptococcus productus in the intestinal tract may translate into a reduction in the important role of this beneficial bacterial species, which can lead to reduced protection of the gut mucosa and UC development.
29566907Therefore, counterbalancing dysbiosis using Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as a potential active component of probiotic formulations appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.
20346190There were large and statistically significant reductions in the numbers of the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P < or = 0.
28255158There was reduction in abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus bromii from controls to CP non-diabetics to CP diabetics.
28045459There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, one of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut, given its potentially important role in promoting gut health.
31528095The relative DNA abundances of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Escherichia coli in each group were correlated with the mRNA and protein expression of NLRP6, ASC, and Caspase-1 in the colon.
24708835The reaction data set was then used to reconstruct two genome scale metabolic models for gut microorganisms available in the IMG database Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32, which produces acetate during fermentation, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, which consumes acetate and produces butyrate.
18590586The prevalence of most bacterial groups examined did not change after inulin intake, although the low G+C % Gram-positive species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii exhibited a significant increase (10.
31153056The present study aimed at evaluating Faecalibacterium prausnitzii- and extracellular vesicles (EVs)-induced expression of involved genes in TLRs signaling pathway and cytokines production in Caco-2 cell line.
26710101The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome.
26127013The kinetics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, a beneficial gut microbe, were determined using a RDE with riboflavin as redox probe.
25551453The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals.
29933394The functional implications are that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an anti-inflammatory bacterium and Megasphaera, Mitsuokella multacida and Lachnospira are butyrate producers, which were enriched in HC patients, whereas Treponema and Bacteroides fragilis, which are pathogenic were abundant in FK patients, playing a potential pro-inflammatory role.
23510724The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention.
24798051The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds.
31419254The bacterial species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, beneficial to humans and animals and found in mammalian and avian gut, is also occasionally found in dairy cow milk.
23829084The aim of the study was evaluation of the correlation between the level of clinical activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and the number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, total number of bacteria and the concentration of selected short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in stool.
29933394The OTUs prominently enriched in HC were identified as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Lachnospira, Mitsuokella multacida, Bacteroides plebeius, Megasphaera and Lachnospiraceae.
29566907Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.
30844607SD male rats were administered Faecalibacterium prausnitzii for 4 weeks prior to testing during each period.
25340538Recent studies have indicated that Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium perfringens, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are also able to utilize lactulose.
25948780RESULTS: Consumption of BC30 significantly increased populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii by 0.
30685379RESULTS: Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp.
25815766Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.
25551453Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future probiotic candidates should be carefully studied before elected for in vivo studies.
30634855Our investigation for detection of the anaerobic intestinal flora showed Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella, and Peptostreptococcus productus were the predominant microflora in controls and have significant differences (P = 0.
31104514Objectives: Crohn's disease is characterized by a gut dysbiosis with decreased abundance of butyrate producers such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
26739073OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective and therapeutic effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) supernatant on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the underlying mechanisms.
25763563No significant changes in abundance of total bacteria, or of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Clostridium cluster XIVa, or Clostridium cluster IV were found, although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii showed an increase over the study period.
29051757Moreover, in the CAD-MD2 group, the increase in Enterobacteriaceae and the decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly associated with the increase in serum TMAO levels, while the decrease in the abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was associated with the reduction in the FOXP3 mRNA expression, implicated in the development and function of Treg cells.
29089436Moreover, from this community of commensal microbes, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain 16-6-I 40 fastidious anaerobe agar had the greatest effect.
31528095Mild moxibustion remarkably increased the relative DNA abundances of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii but decreased that of Escherichia coli in the gut of PI-IBS rats.
30321333Microbial 16S rRNA profiling shows that IBD patients have elevated levels of Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli, and reduced levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
19926616Main faecal microbiota represented by Bacteroides, Eubacterium rectale (Clostridium group XIVa), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii groups and Akkermansia muciniphila were inversely related to the severity of the disease.
30774408Low Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance was associated with prior antibiotic therapy (P=0.
29112296Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium.
19849869Levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly higher in obese children than in non-obese participants (P = 0.
27233082LMG 11047), displaying different ITF degradation capacities, were each grown in cocultivation with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677(T), an ITF-degrading butyrate-producing colon bacterium, as to unravel their cross-feeding interactions.
26971052It is known that IBD patients harbour an altered intestinal microbiome characterised by a depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increase of Escherichia coli.
30099893It helped to restore the original content of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
26852926Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes.
28239378Interestingly, analysis of feces microbiota demonstrated that EP1 administration increase the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects.
25888448Indeed, the reduction of the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (one of the most prevalent intestinal bacterial species in healthy adults) has been correlated with several diseases, including IBD, and most importantly, it has been shown that this bacterium has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in pre-clinical models of colitis.
23216550In this study, we investigated the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as well as Bilophila wadsworthia, in the gut microbiota of Japanese CD patients.
26775847In this study, a decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii presence has been observed in an IBS-like rodent model induced by a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress.
29566907In this review, we will focus our attention on Faecalibacterium prausnitzii biology, anti-inflammatory metabolites, modulators of this bacterium population and its impact on human health.
29152256In the FC group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance significantly increased (P = 0·024) from 3·4 to 7·0 % following Livaux™ supplementation, with eight of the nine participants showing a net increase.
25910186In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients.
26852926In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted.
23829084In CD patients, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii number and percentage of the total number of bacteria were greatly reduced.
30765132INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in gut microbiota are reduced in patients with allergic diseases compared to healthy controls.
29615108However, interpretation of viral metagenomic studies is limited by the lack of knowledge of phages infecting major human gut commensal bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bacterial symbiont repeatedly found depleted in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.
30844607Here we tested whether potential psychobiotics Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (ATCC 27766) has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and reverse the impact of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats.
26839545Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.
29089436Furthermore, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii recapitulated the effects of MET-1 on excitability of DRG neurons.
30730969Finally, urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (ρ = -0.
25815766Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.
26839545Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
29045794Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
29282825Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the Lactobacillus group and unknown Lachnospiraceae genera by bacterial DNA-based metagenome analyses.
30685379Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Prevotella spp.
29566907Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon.
25224879Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant member of the human commensal microbiota, has been proposed to have a protective role in the intestine.
28683448Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were the most representative species.
28739439Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was significantly lower in patients with T2D (P-value = 0.
28455781Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was negatively associated with ESR (R=-0.
26725514Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165 was previously reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and prevent colitis in a TNBS model.
29559959Faecalibacterium prausnitzii represents approximately 5% of the total fecal microbiota in healthy adults being one of the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults.
23831042Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population.
29146862Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant (~4%) member of the phylum Firmicutes found in the colon of healthy humans.
22607129Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal microbes in the human gut.
22101049Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited.
22357539Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant bacteria in the human gut ecosystem and it is an important supplier of butyrate to the colonic epithelium.
27048834Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the main butyrate producers in the healthy human gut.
28375212Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is considered as one of the most important bacterial indicators of a healthy gut.
29231875Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life.
28713353Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant bacteria in the healthy human microbiota.
24637606Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major commensal bacterium, and its prevalence is often decreased in conditions of intestinal dysbiosis.
25118238Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal gut bacterium, the absence of which may be associated with Crohn's disease.
30467295Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a butyrate-producing bacterium, which plays a vital role in diabetes.
26839545Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic.
12508881Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen.
26296733Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability.
17893165Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and the Bacteroides fragilis group were identified as the main contributors to microbiotal fluctuations.
28203226Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice.
24713205Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Escherichia coli have been reported as representatives of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) dysbiosis.
28255158Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance correlated negatively with plasma endotoxin and glycemic status; while plasma endotoxin correlated positively with blood glucose and negatively with plasma insulin.
24021287Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p<0.
24502607Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (R=0.
26839545Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.
28094590Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are probiotics, which have been reported to ameliorate certain gastrointestinal disorders.
23971882Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) is underrepresented in IBD patients and have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects in mice.
21525249DNA bands with a homology of 90-95% to Bacteroides uniformis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were present in greater intensities in fecal samples showing a genistein disappearance rate constant of 1.
26211820Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose.
19445821Bifidobacterium, Clostridium lituseburense and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii proportions decreased (P = 0.
31096877Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella copri and segmented filamentous bacteria.
29796620Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated dysbiosis is characterized by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect.
24418903BACKGROUND: The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant and representative bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, has consistently been observed to be lower in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy individuals.
30547746BACKGROUND: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a ubiquitous member of the human gut microbiome, constituting up to 15% of the total bacteria in the human gut.
26595550BACKGROUND: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii comprises 2 phylogroups, whose abundance in healthy and diseased gut and in conjunction with Escherichia coli has not yet been studied.
26045134BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis is characterised by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose culture supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo.
27537603BACKGROUND: Although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major bacterium in the intestine of adults, which is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, the development in infants or the response to prebiotics remains unclear.
28455781At species level, the species Acinetobacter baumannii and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were prevalent in the MRSA-positive group, whereas opposite trends were observed in 17 other species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Lactobacillus rogosae, Megamonas rupellensis and Phascolarctobacterium faecium.
24502607Anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or Lactobacilli and gut barrier functions of Akkermansia may have a key role in food intolerances.
30200390Among them, resident Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a butyrate producer with a significant anti-inflammatory effect thus expected to be useful as a next-generation probiotic.
30245977Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, cohabitants in the intestinal mucosa, are considered members of a healthy microbiota and reduction of both species occurs in several intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease.
31336737Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are highly abundant human gut microbes in healthy individuals, and reduced levels are associated with inflammation and alterations of metabolic processes involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.
PMIDFACT
28255158There was reduction in abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus bromii from controls to CP non-diabetics to CP diabetics.
27812181Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema.
27253486One study demonstrated a strong association between high abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, and established eczema.
26852926Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes.
30670241An increasing tendency in Bifidobacterium species and butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were observed after consuming non-digestible carbohydrates, although these changes did not always correlate with weight loss.
31336737Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are highly abundant human gut microbes in healthy individuals, and reduced levels are associated with inflammation and alterations of metabolic processes involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.

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Blood Thirty UNLABELLED Disease Clostridia Project Faecalibacterium Foxp3 Calprotectin Bacterial Metagenomic Inflammatory Transfection PBMCs Fap484 Bacteroides Bowel FPTRT GanedenBC Lactobacilli Fecal Holstein SCFAs Redox Phylogroup Crohn Bacteria Fusobacterium Consumption Eubacterium Bif452 Quantification Bacteroidetes Bacillus Clostridium Bifidobacteria Volunteers Faecal Treatment Interactions Prevotella Index Escherichia Roseburia Dysbiosis Forty Colorectal Firmicutes Enterococcus Uygur Treatments Integrated Peyer Variations Targeting Bifidobacterium Akkermansia BMDCs Orthology Human

Statements
The following section contains a list of sentences that contain the term Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or one of its synonyms. The sentences are ordered based on the abstracts from which they were retrieved. The highlighted link in the first column is linked to the abstract in PubMed. The search button in the top right can be used to only show sentences with a particular additional keyword.

PMIDNRSENT FACT
26211820 1 Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose.
24798051 1 The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds.
26739073 1 OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective and therapeutic effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) supernatant on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the underlying mechanisms.
26775847 1 In this study, a decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii presence has been observed in an IBS-like rodent model induced by a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress.
26725514 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165 was previously reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and prevent colitis in a TNBS model.
22357539 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant bacteria in the human gut ecosystem and it is an important supplier of butyrate to the colonic epithelium.
26296733 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability.
22607129 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal microbes in the human gut.
25551453 1 The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals.
24708835 1 The reaction data set was then used to reconstruct two genome scale metabolic models for gut microorganisms available in the IMG database Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32, which produces acetate during fermentation, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, which consumes acetate and produces butyrate.
25551453 2 Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future probiotic candidates should be carefully studied before elected for in vivo studies.
23831042 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population.
24502607 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (R=0.
24502607 2 Anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or Lactobacilli and gut barrier functions of Akkermansia may have a key role in food intolerances.
25118238 1 We have explored the transcriptional response of organoids upon exposure to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and products generated by two abundant microbiota constituents, Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
25118238 2 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal gut bacterium, the absence of which may be associated with Crohn's disease.
26839545 3 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.
26839545 2 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
26839545 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic.
24021287 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p<0.
26839545 4 Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.
12508881 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen.
24418903 1 BACKGROUND: The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant and representative bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, has consistently been observed to be lower in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy individuals.
30844607 2 SD male rats were administered Faecalibacterium prausnitzii for 4 weeks prior to testing during each period.
30844607 1 Here we tested whether potential psychobiotics Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (ATCC 27766) has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and reverse the impact of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats.
20460669 1 We describe a real-time quantitative assay for detection and quantification of a whole group of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria, which has recently been found to dominate in the cecum of broiler chickens.
24637606 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major commensal bacterium, and its prevalence is often decreased in conditions of intestinal dysbiosis.
25002542 1 We demonstrate this approach for the beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165.
25900655 1 UNLABELLED: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified on the basis of human clinical data.
20346190 1 There were large and statistically significant reductions in the numbers of the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P < or = 0.
18590586 1 The prevalence of most bacterial groups examined did not change after inulin intake, although the low G+C % Gram-positive species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii exhibited a significant increase (10.
26595550 1 BACKGROUND: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii comprises 2 phylogroups, whose abundance in healthy and diseased gut and in conjunction with Escherichia coli has not yet been studied.
23692866 1 To document the crosstalk between the host and microbiota, we used gnotobiotic models to study the influence of two major commensal bacteria, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on this intestinal mucus layer.
25763563 1 No significant changes in abundance of total bacteria, or of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Clostridium cluster XIVa, or Clostridium cluster IV were found, although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii showed an increase over the study period.
29566907 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon.
25948780 1 RESULTS: Consumption of BC30 significantly increased populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii by 0.
29566907 3 Therefore, counterbalancing dysbiosis using Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as a potential active component of probiotic formulations appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.
29566907 2 Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.
29566907 4 In this review, we will focus our attention on Faecalibacterium prausnitzii biology, anti-inflammatory metabolites, modulators of this bacterium population and its impact on human health.
23216550 1 In this study, we investigated the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as well as Bilophila wadsworthia, in the gut microbiota of Japanese CD patients.
25888448 1 Indeed, the reduction of the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (one of the most prevalent intestinal bacterial species in healthy adults) has been correlated with several diseases, including IBD, and most importantly, it has been shown that this bacterium has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in pre-clinical models of colitis.
19849869 1 Levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly higher in obese children than in non-obese participants (P = 0.
22101049 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited.
28239378 1 Interestingly, analysis of feces microbiota demonstrated that EP1 administration increase the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects.
26127013 1 The kinetics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, a beneficial gut microbe, were determined using a RDE with riboflavin as redox probe.
28239378 2 This strain also modulates gut microbiota increasing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a functionally important bacterium.
23829084 2 In CD patients, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii number and percentage of the total number of bacteria were greatly reduced.
23829084 1 The aim of the study was evaluation of the correlation between the level of clinical activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and the number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, total number of bacteria and the concentration of selected short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in stool.
25910186 1 In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients.
25224879 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant member of the human commensal microbiota, has been proposed to have a protective role in the intestine.
24713205 1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Escherichia coli have been reported as representatives of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) dysbiosis.
26045134 1 BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis is characterised by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose culture supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo.
26710101 1 The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome.

References
In this table a number of abstracts for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are shown. The abstracts were obtained from the database based on the number of hits with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or one of its synonyms. The search button in the top right can be used to only show abstracts with a particular additional keyword.

References
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii upregulates regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines in treating TNBS-induced colitis. Xinyun Qiu;Mingming Zhang;Xiaotong Yang;Na Hong;Chenggong Yu. 2013. J Crohns Colitis. 7. PMID: 23643066

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) is a common anaerobic bacteria colonized in the human gut and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are usually lack of F. prausnitzii. The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capacity of F. prausnitzii by comparing it with Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) in both cellular and animal experiments. METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat models were treated with F. prausnitzii, B. longum, F. prausnitzii supernatant or F. prausnitzii medium, respectively. Interleukin (IL)-10, TGF-β1 and IL-12p70 in human PBMCs culture supernatant and rat blood serum were detected. The frequency of CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg in human PBMCs, rat PBMCs and rat splenocytes were investigated. Besides, the T-bet, GATA-3, ROR-γt and Foxp3 mRNA in human PBMCs, histopathologic characteristics of the intestinal mucosal and weight loss in the rat models were examined. RESULTS: F. prausnitzii, B. longum and F. prausnitzii supernatant clearly facilitated the induction of IL-10 and TGF-β1, while induced relatively mild production of IL-12p70 in both cellular and animal models. The F. prausnitzii, B. longum and supernatant differed in their capacity to induce T-bet, GATA-3 and ROR-γt mRNA expression in human PBMCs (both bacterial strains inhibited the expression of ROR-γt while supernatant inhibited the T-bet and GATA-3). However, all of them induced the Foxp3 and Treg production and ameliorated the TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, F. prausnitzii supernatant exhibited the supreme anti-inflammatory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: F. prausnitzii and its unidentified metabolites in the supernatant are promising candidates in treating IBD, and further research remains necessary to elucidate the safety, efficacy, optimum and mechanism of this bacterium in the clinical practice.
Identification of metabolic signatures linked to anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Sylvie Miquel;Marion Leclerc;Rebeca Martin;Florian Chain;Marion Lenoir;Sébastien Raguideau;Sylvie Hudault;Chantal Bridonneau;Trent Northen;Benjamin Bowen;Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán;Harry Sokol;Muriel Thomas;Philippe Langella. 2015. MBio. 6. PMID: 25900655

UNLABELLED: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified on the basis of human clinical data. The mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are still unknown. Gnotobiotic mice harboring F. prausnitzii (A2-165) and Escherichia coli (K-12 JM105) were subjected to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. The inflammatory colitis scores and a gas chromatography-time of flight (GC/TOF) mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profile were monitored in blood, ileum, cecum, colon, and feces in gnotobiotic mice. The potential anti-inflammatory metabolites were tested in vitro. We obtained stable E. coli and F. prausnitzii-diassociated mice in which E. coli primed the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), allowing a durable and stable establishment of F. prausnitzii. The disease activity index, histological scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and serum cytokine levels were significantly lower in the presence of F. prausnitzii after TNBS challenge. The protective effect of F. prausnitzii against colitis was correlated to its implantation level and was linked to overrepresented metabolites along the GIT and in serum. Among 983 metabolites in GIT samples and serum, 279 were assigned to known chemical reactions. Some of them, belonging to the ammonia (α-ketoglutarate), osmoprotective (raffinose), and phenolic (including anti-inflammatory shikimic and salicylic acids) pathways, were associated with a protective effect of F. prausnitzii, and the functional link was established in vitro for salicylic acid. We show for the first time that F. prausnitzii is a highly active commensal bacterium involved in reduction of colitis through in vivo modulation of metabolites along the GIT and in the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by low proportions of F. prausnitzii in the gut microbiome. This commensal bacterium exhibits anti-inflammatory effects through still unknown mechanisms. Stable monoassociated rodents are actually not a reproducible model to decipher F. prausnitzii protective effects. We propose a new gnotobiotic rodent model providing mechanistic clues. In this model, F. prausnitzii exhibits protective effects against an acute colitis and a protective metabolic profile is linked to its presence along the digestive tract. We identified a molecule, salicylic acid, directly involved in the protective effect of F. prausnitzii. Targeting its metabolic pathways could be an attractive therapeutic strategy in IBD.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients. Harry Sokol;Bénédicte Pigneur;Laurie Watterlot;Omar Lakhdari;Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán;Jean-Jacques Gratadoux;Sébastien Blugeon;Chantal Bridonneau;Jean-Pierre Furet;Gérard Corthier;Corinne Grangette;Nadia Vasquez;Philippe Pochart;Germain Trugnan;Ginette Thomas;Hervé M Blottière;Joël Doré;Philippe Marteau;Philippe Seksik;Philippe Langella. 2008. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105. PMID: 18936492

A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the dominant phylum Firmicutes has been observed repeatedly in Crohn disease (CD) patients. In this study, we determined the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of CD patients at the time of surgical resection and 6 months later using FISH analysis. We found that a reduction of a major member of Firmicutes, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, is associated with a higher risk of postoperative recurrence of ileal CD. A lower proportion of F. prausnitzii on resected ileal Crohn mucosa also was associated with endoscopic recurrence at 6 months. To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of F. prausnitzii in both in vitro (cellular models) and in vivo [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced] colitis in mice. In Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter gene for NF-kappaB activity, F. prausnitzii had no effect on IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activity, whereas the supernatant abolished it. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation by F. prausnitzii led to significantly lower IL-12 and IFN-gamma production levels and higher secretion of IL-10. Oral administration of either live F. prausnitzii or its supernatant markedly reduced the severity of TNBS colitis and tended to correct the dysbiosis associated with TNBS colitis, as demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. F. prausnitzii exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on cellular and TNBS colitis models, partly due to secreted metabolites able to block NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 production. These results suggest that counterbalancing dysbiosis using F. prausnitzii as a probiotic is a promising strategy in CD treatment.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii inhibits interleukin-17 to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats. Mingming Zhang;Xinyun Qiu;Hao Zhang;Xiaotong Yang;Na Hong;Yonghua Yang;Hui Chen;Chenggong Yu. 2014. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 25275569

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been shown that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), one of the dominant intestinal bacterial flora, may protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with the underlying mechanisms being unclear. METHODS: The impacts of F. prausnitzii and its metabolites on IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway markers were determined in human monocytes and a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. F. prausnitzii and its culture medium (containing complete metabolites) were used to treat the rats in vivo, as well as rat splenocytes and human monocytes in vitro. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in colon tissue, plasma and cell culture medium. RESULTS: The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii increased plasma anti-Th17 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-12)and suppressed IL-17 levels in both plasma and colonic mucosa, with ameliorated colonic colitis lesions. This inhibition of IL-17 release has also been observed in both rat splenocytes and human venous monocytes in vitro. The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii also suppressed Th17 cell differentiation induced by cytokines (TGF-ß and IL-6) and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro. The metabolites of F. prausnitzii in the culture supernatant exert a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the bacterium itself. F. prausnitzii protected the colon mucosa against the development of IBD by its metabolites, suggesting a promising potential for the use of F. prausnitzii and its metabolic products in the treatment of IBD.
Changes in the Abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Phylogroups I and II in the Intestinal Mucosa of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Patients with Colorectal Cancer. Mireia Lopez-Siles;Margarita Martinez-Medina;Romà Surís-Valls;Xavier Aldeguer;Miriam Sabat-Mir;Sylvia H Duncan;Harry J Flint;L Jesús Garcia-Gil. 2015. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 22. PMID: 26595550

BACKGROUND: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii comprises 2 phylogroups, whose abundance in healthy and diseased gut and in conjunction with Escherichia coli has not yet been studied. This work aims to determine the contribution of F. prausnitzii phylogroups I and II in intestinal disease and to assess their potential diagnostic usefulness as biomarkers for gut diseases. METHODS: Total F. prausnitzii, its phylogroups, and E. coli loads were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA gene on biopsies from 31 healthy controls (H), 45 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 25 patients with ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and 20 patients with colorectal cancer. Data were normalized to total bacterial counts and analyzed according to patients' disease location and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Lower levels of both total F. prausnitzii and phylogroup I were found in subjects with CD, ulcerative colitis, and colorectal cancer (P < 0.001) compared with H subjects. Phylogroup I load was a better biomarker than total F. prausnitzii to discriminate subjects with gut disorders from H. Phylogroup II depletion was observed only in patients with CD (P < 0.001) and can be potentially applied to differentiate ulcerative pancolitis from colonic CD. No statistically significant correlation between E. coli and any of the 2 F. prausnitzii phylogroups was found in any group of patients or by inflammatory bowel disease location. Phylogroup I was lower in active patients with CD, whereas those CD with intestinal resection showed a reduction in phylogroup II. Treatments with mesalazine and immunosuppressants did not result in the recovery of F. prausnitzii phylogroups abundance. CONCLUSIONS: F. prausnitzii phylogroup I was depleted in CD, ulcerative colitis, and colorectal cancer, whereas phylogroup II was specifically reduced in CD. Quantification of F. prausnitzii phylogroups and E. coli may help to identify gut disorders and to classify inflammatory bowel disease location.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 has a high capacity to induce IL-10 in human and murine dendritic cells and modulates T cell responses. Oriana Rossi;Lisette A van Berkel;Florian Chain;M Tanweer Khan;Nico Taverne;Harry Sokol;Sylvia H Duncan;Harry J Flint;Hermie J M Harmsen;Philippe Langella;Janneke N Samsom;Jerry M Wells. 2016. Sci Rep. 6. PMID: 26725514

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165 was previously reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and prevent colitis in a TNBS model. We compared the immunomodulatory properties of strain A2-165 to four different F. prausnitzii isolates and eight abundant intestinal commensals using human dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse BMDCs in vitro. Principal component analysis revealed that the cytokine response to F. prausnitzii A2-165 is distinct from the other strains in eliciting high amounts of IL-10 secretion. The mouse DNBS model of relapsing IBD was used to compare the protective effects of F. prausnitzii A2-165 and Clostridium hathewayi, a low secretor of IL-10, on the Th1-driven inflammatory response to DNBS; attenuation of disease parameters was only observed with F. prausnitzii. In an in vivo mouse model of nasal tolerance to ovalbumin, F. prausnitzii A2-165 enhanced ovalbumin-specific T cell proliferation and reduced the proportion of IFN-γ(+) T cells in CLNs. Similarly, in vitro F. prausnitzii A2-165 stimulated BMDCs increased ovalbumin-specific T cell proliferation and reduced the number of IFN-γ(+) T cells. These mechanisms may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of F. prausnitzii in colitis and support the notion that this abundant bacterium might contribute to immune homeostasis in the intestine via its anti-inflammatory properties.
Quantification of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii- and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria in the cecum of chickens by real-time PCR. M Lund;L Bjerrum;K Pedersen. 2010. Poult Sci. 89. PMID: 20460669

The intestinal microbial community is playing an important role in health and production performance of chickens. To understand the effect on the intestinal microflora induced by various feeding strategies, feed additives, infections, and intestinal disorders, it is important to have methods for quantifying potentially important bacteria in the intestine. We describe a real-time quantitative assay for detection and quantification of a whole group of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria, which has recently been found to dominate in the cecum of broiler chickens. The F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria were quantified using a multiprobe assay in which one primer set was used to amplify DNA from all bacteria, whereas 2 probes detected all bacteria and the group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria, respectively. The multiprobe assay accurately quantified the percentage of this group in a sample if it constituted more than approximately 5% of the total bacterial community. If the fraction of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria was lower than 5%, a duplex assay was applied in which the total bacteria were amplified in one tube and the F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria was amplified in another tube using a specific forward primer. The F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria was quantified in the cecum and ileum of conventional and organic raised chickens, in chickens kept in an isolator from 1 d of age, and in hatcher material. Quantification of this group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria has not been performed before by real-time PCR, but results confirm previous results obtained by cloning and sequencing showing that the F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria constitutes a major fraction of the cecal bacterial community in chickens. Furthermore, results indicate that the poultry farm environment plays a role in recruitment and development of these bacteria in the intestinal microflora.
Colonisation by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. E Varela;C Manichanh;M Gallart;A Torrejón;N Borruel;F Casellas;F Guarner;M Antolin. 2013. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 38. PMID: 23725320

BACKGROUND: Although incrimination of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD is widely accepted, few data are available about the role of specific bacteria. Potentially, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties, might be deficient in ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To quantify F. prausnitzii in the faecal microbiota of UC patients in remission and determine its relationship with relapse. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 116 UC patients in remission, 29 first-degree relatives and 31 healthy controls. A subset of eighteen patients, recruited during the first month of remission, underwent a 1-year follow-up. Total bacteria and F. prausnitzii were measured by quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR, copies/g). Calprotectin was determined as inflammatory index (μg/g). RESULTS: We found that F. prausnitzii was reduced in patients (median, IQR: 1.4 × 10⁸ , 5.1 × 10⁷-4.5 × 10⁸) and relatives (1.7 × 10⁸, 9.3 × 10⁷-5.1 × 10⁸) vs. controls (6.5 × 10⁸, 3.7 × 10⁸-1.6 × 10⁹, P < 0.0001). Moreover, low counts of F. prausnitzii were associated with less than 12 months of remission (8.0 × 10⁷, 2.0 × 10⁷-3.5 × 10⁸ vs. 2.1 × 10⁸, 1.0 × 10⁸-7.9 × 10⁸, P < 0.001) and more than 1 relapse/year (8.0 × 10⁷, 3.2 × 10⁷-3.8 × 10⁸ vs. 1.9 × 10⁸, 6.8 × 10⁷-6.0 × 10⁸, P < 0.01). When patients were followed up, F. prausnitzii increased steadily until reaching similar levels to those of controls if remission persisted (2.9 × 10⁸, 9.3 × 10⁶-1.2 × 10⁹; calprotectin: 76, 19-212), whereas it remained low if patients relapsed (2.2 × 10⁸, 1.4 × 10⁶-3.3 × 10⁸; calprotectin: 1760, 844-3662 P < 0.05 vs. controls). CONCLUSIONS: Defective gut colonisation by F. prausnitzii occurred in UC patients during remission and in their unaffected relatives. The recovery of the F. prausnitzii population after relapse is associated with maintenance of clinical remission.
Is the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii relevant to Crohn's disease? Wenjing Jia;Rebekah N Whitehead;Lesley Griffiths;Claire Dawson;Rosemary H Waring;David B Ramsden;John O Hunter;Jeffrey A Cole. 2010. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 310. PMID: 20695899

Reports that bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum, especially the species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, are less abundant in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and supernatants from cultures of this bacterium are anti-inflammatory prompted the investigation of the possible correlations between the abundance of F. prausnitzii and the response to treatment in patients with gut diseases and healthy controls. In a randomized, double-blind trial, faeces were collected from healthy volunteers, and from patients with active CD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable bowel syndrome before and after treatment. The levels of F. prausnitzii DNA in faecal suspensions were determined by PCR. Treatment by an elemental diet was effective, resulting in decreases in both the Harvey and Bradshaw index (P<0.001) and the concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (P<0.05). The total levels of F. prausnitzii in faecal samples from CD patients at presentation were lower than those in the other groups both before and after the treatment. There was no correlation between F. prausnitzii abundance and the severity of CD before treatment. Clinical improvement unexpectedly correlated with a significant decrease in the abundance of F. prausnitzii, especially the A2-165 subgroup (P<0.05). Our data suggest that a paucity of F. prausnitzii in the gastrointestinal microbial communities is likely to be a minor aetiological factor in CD: recovery following elemental diet is attributed to lower levels of gut flora.
Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth. Mireia Lopez-Siles;Tanweer M Khan;Sylvia H Duncan;Hermie J M Harmsen;L Jesús Garcia-Gil;Harry J Flint. 2011. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78. PMID: 22101049

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.
The commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is protective in DNBS-induced chronic moderate and severe colitis models. Rebeca Martín;Florian Chain;Sylvie Miquel;Jun Lu;Jean-Jacques Gratadoux;Harry Sokol;Elena F Verdu;Premysl Bercik;Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán;Philippe Langella. 2014. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 20. PMID: 24418903

BACKGROUND: The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant and representative bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, has consistently been observed to be lower in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy individuals. We have shown that both F. prausnitzii and its culture supernatant (SN) have anti-inflammatory and protective effects in a TNBS-induced acute colitis mouse model. Here, we tested the effects of both F. prausnitzii and its SN in moderate and severe DNBS-induced chronic colitis mouse models. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of DNBS. After either 4 or 10 days of recovery (severe and moderate protocols, respectively), groups of mice were intragastrically administered either with F. prausnitzii A2-165 or with its culture SN for 7 or 10 days. Three days before being sacrificed, colitis was reactivated by administration of a lower dose of DNBS. The severity of colitis at the time of being sacrificed was assessed by weight loss and macroscopic and microscopic scores. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine levels, lymphocyte populations, and changes in microbiota were studied. RESULTS: Intragastric administration of either F. prausnitzii or its SN led to a significant decrease in colitis severity in both severe and moderate chronic colitis models. The lower severity of colitis was associated with down-regulation of MPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and T-cell levels. CONCLUSIONS: We show, for the first time, protective effects of both F. prausnitzii and its SN during both the period of recovery from chronic colitis and colitis reactivation. These results provide further evidence that F. prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory bacterium with therapeutic potential for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air. M Tanweer Khan;Jan Maarten van Dijl;Hermie J M Harmsen. 2014. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 24798051

The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strain HTF-F and Its Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Attenuate Clinical Parameters in DSS-Induced Colitis. Oriana Rossi;M Tanweer Khan;Martin Schwarzer;Tomas Hudcovic;Dagmar Srutkova;Sylvia H Duncan;Ellen H Stolte;Hana Kozakova;Harry J Flint;Janneke N Samsom;Hermie J M Harmsen;Jerry M Wells. 2015. PLoS One. 10. PMID: 25910186

A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165, the biofilm forming strain HTF-F and the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) isolated from strain HTF-F. For this purpose, the immunomodulatory properties of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM were studied in vitro using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Then, the capacity of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM of HTF-F to suppress inflammation was assessed in vivo in the mouse dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis model. The F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM had anti-inflammatory effects on the clinical parameters measured in the DSS model but with different efficacy. The immunomodulatory effects of the EPM were mediated through the TLR2-dependent modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production in antigen presenting cells, suggesting that it contributes to the anti-inflammatory potency of F. prausnitzii HTF-F. The results show that F. prausnitzii HTF-F and its EPM may have a therapeutic use in IBD.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (ATCC 27766) has preventive and therapeutic effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Zikai Hao;Wei Wang;Rong Guo;Hong Liu. 2019. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 104. PMID: 30844607

The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease,including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing.An abundance of preclinical studies have shown that psychobiotics acting via the brain-gut-axis can affect brain development, function and behavior. Here we tested whether potential psychobiotics Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (ATCC 27766) has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and reverse the impact of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats. The experiment was divided into two phases, the first stage was CUMS procedure period and the second stage was convalescence period. SD male rats were administered Faecalibacterium prausnitzii for 4 weeks prior to testing during each period. Behavior, growth status, SCFAs produced, plasma cytokine, endocrinology and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. Our findings indicate that the administration of F. prausnitzii had preventive and therapeutic effects on CUMS-induced depression-like and anxiety-like behavior. In addition, F. prausnitzii administration could significantly prevent the reduction of the whole-body, femur and tibia BMD during the recovery phase. Moreover, the growth status of rats fed the F. prausnitzii was better than the rats by CUMS. And F. prausnitzii administration led to higher levels of SCFAs in the cecum and higher levels of cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the plasma, prevented the effects on corticosterone, C-reaction protein and cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) release induced by CUMS, changes that were associated with the effects seen on behavior. These results provide further evidence that gut microflora play a role in anxiety and depression. Subject to the confirmation of these results, probiotics might offer a useful novel therapeutic approach to neuropathological disorders and/or as adjunct therapies in psychiatric disorders and support the recent broadening of the definition of psychobiotic. Finally, this study supports F. prausnitzii has significant potential as a psychobiotic.
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii influence the production of mucus glycans and the development of goblet cells in the colonic epithelium of a gnotobiotic model rodent. Laura Wrzosek;Sylvie Miquel;Marie-Louise Noordine;Stephan Bouet;Marie Joncquel Chevalier-Curt;Véronique Robert;Catherine Philippe;Chantal Bridonneau;Claire Cherbuy;Catherine Robbe-Masselot;Philippe Langella;Muriel Thomas. 2013. BMC Biol. 11. PMID: 23692866

BACKGROUND: The intestinal mucus layer plays a key role in the maintenance of host-microbiota homeostasis. To document the crosstalk between the host and microbiota, we used gnotobiotic models to study the influence of two major commensal bacteria, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on this intestinal mucus layer. B. thetaiotaomicron is known to use polysaccharides from mucus, but its effect on goblet cells has not been addressed so far. F. prausnitzii is of particular physiological importance because it can be considered as a sensor and a marker of human health. We determined whether B. thetaiotaomicron affected goblet cell differentiation, mucin synthesis and glycosylation in the colonic epithelium. We then investigated how F. prausnitzii influenced the colonic epithelial responses to B. thetaiotaomicron. RESULTS: B. thetaiotaomicron, an acetate producer, increased goblet cell differentiation, expression of mucus-related genes and the ratio of sialylated to sulfated mucins in mono-associated rats. B. thetaiotaomicron, therefore, stimulates the secretory lineage, favoring mucus production. When B. thetaiotaomicron was associated with F. prausnitzii, an acetate consumer and a butyrate producer, the effects on goblet cells and mucin glycosylation were diminished. F. prausnitzii, by attenuating the effects of B. thetaiotaomicron on mucus, may help the epithelium to maintain appropriate proportions of different cell types of the secretory lineage. Using a mucus-producing cell line, we showed that acetate up-regulated KLF4, a transcription factor involved in goblet cell differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: B. thetaiotaomicron and F. prausnitzii, which are metabolically complementary, modulate, in vivo, the intestinal mucus barrier by modifying goblet cells and mucin glycosylation. Our study reveals the importance of the balance between two main commensal bacteria in maintaining colonic epithelial homeostasis via their respective effects on mucus.
Mucosa-associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Escherichia coli co-abundance can distinguish Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease phenotypes. Mireia Lopez-Siles;Margarita Martinez-Medina;David Busquets;Miriam Sabat-Mir;Sylvia H Duncan;Harry J Flint;Xavier Aldeguer;L Jesús Garcia-Gil. 2014. Int J Med Microbiol. 304. PMID: 24713205

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) diagnosis requires comprehensive examination of the patient. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Escherichia coli have been reported as representatives of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) dysbiosis. The aim was to determine whether or not quantification of these species can be used as a complementary tool either for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. METHODS: Mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii and E. coli abundance was determined in 28 controls (H), 45 CD, 28 UC patients and 10 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the F. prausnitzii-E. coli index (F-E index) was calculated. Species abundances were normalized to total bacteria and human cells. Data was analyzed taking into account patients' phenotype and most relevant clinical characteristics. RESULTS: IBD patients had lower F. prausnitzii abundance than H and IBS (P<0.001). CD patients showed higher E. coli counts than H and UC patients (P<0.001). The F-E index discriminated between H, CD and UC patients, and even between disease phenotypes that are usually difficult to distinguish as ileal-CD (I-CD) from ileocolonic-CD and colonic-CD from extensive colitis. E. coli increased in active CD patients, and remission in I-CD patients was compromised by high abundance of this species. Treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α diminished E. coli abundance in I-CD whereas none of the treatments counterbalanced F. prausnitzii depletion. CONCLUSION: F. prausnitzii and E. coli are useful indicators to assist in IBD phenotype classification. The abundance of these species could also be used as a supporting prognostic tool in I-CD patients. Our data indicates that current medication does not restore the levels of these two species to those found in a healthy gut.
Association between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Reduction and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature. Yuan Cao;Jun Shen;Zhi Hua Ran. 2014. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2014. PMID: 24799893

Background. Laboratory data suggests a reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) is confirmed both in fecal samples in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Numerous observational studies have suspected dysbiosis, an imbalance between protective and harmful bacteria to be relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD. Methods. Medline, EMBASE, Pubmed, and others. were searched by 2 independent reviewers. Of 48 abstracts reviewed, 11 studies met our inclusion criteria (subject N = 1180). Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.2. Results. The bacterial count of F. prausnitzii in IBD patients was significantly lower (6.7888 ± 1.8875) log10 CFU/g feces than healthy controls (7.5791 ± 1.5812) log10 CFU/g feces; P < 0.0001. The Standardization Mean Difference of F. prausnitzii in IBD patients was -0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.07--0.80). Subgroup analyses revealed a trend toward a greater effect for CD (SMD: -1.13, 95% CI: -1.32--0.94) when compared to UC (SMD: -0.78, 95% CI: -0.97--0.60). Conclusions. The abundance of F. prausnitzii was decreased in IBD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, the reduction of F. prausnitzii and misbalance of the intestinal microbiota are particularly higher in CD patients with ileal involvement.
Decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the gut microbiota of Crohn's disease. Takehide Fujimoto;Hirotsugu Imaeda;Kenichiro Takahashi;Eiji Kasumi;Shigeki Bamba;Yoshihide Fujiyama;Akira Andoh. 2012. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 28. PMID: 23216550

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dysbiosis is thought to be relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we investigated the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as well as Bilophila wadsworthia, in the gut microbiota of Japanese CD patients. METHODS: Forty-seven CD patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Abundance of F. prausnitzii in fecal samples was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The gut microbiota profile was evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. RESULTS: The abundance of F. prausnitzii significantly decreased in CD patients compared with healthy subjects. B. wadsworthia was scarcely detected in the same samples. Among CD patients, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, C-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly lower, and serum albumin levels were significantly higher in the high F. prausnitzii group compared with the low group. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis showed that fecal bacterial communities of CD patients differed from those of healthy individuals. The changes in simulated bacterial composition indicated that class Clostridia, including genus Faecalibacterium, was significantly less abundant in CD patients as compared with healthy individuals. The bacterial diversity measured by the Shannon Diversity Index was significantly reduced in CD patients compared with healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: The decreased abundance of class Clostridia, including F. prausnitzii, may translate into a reduction of commensal bacteria-mediated, anti-inflammatory activities in the mucosa, which are relevant to the pathophysiology of CD. In contrast, the role of B. wadsworthia was suspected to be minimal.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii prevents physiological damages in a chronic low-grade inflammation murine model. Rebeca Martín;Sylvie Miquel;Florian Chain;Jane M Natividad;Jennifer Jury;Jun Lu;Harry Sokol;Vassilia Theodorou;Premysl Bercik;Elena F Verdu;Philippe Langella;Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán. 2015. BMC Microbiol. 15. PMID: 25888448

BACKGROUND: The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 10(13)-10(14) microorganisms. The importance of this intestinal microbiota is highlighted when a disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium appears (a phenomenon called dysbiosis) leading to an illness status, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Indeed, the reduction of the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (one of the most prevalent intestinal bacterial species in healthy adults) has been correlated with several diseases, including IBD, and most importantly, it has been shown that this bacterium has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in pre-clinical models of colitis. Some dysbiosis disorders are characterized by functional and physiological alterations. Here, we report the beneficial effects of F. prausnitzii in the physiological changes induced by a chronic low-grade inflammation in a murine model. Chronic low-grade inflammation and gut dysfunction were induced in mice by two episodes of dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) instillations. Markers of inflammation, gut permeability, colonic serotonin and cytokine levels were studied. The effects of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant (SN) were then investigated. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in classical inflammation markers confirming that inflammation was subclinical. However, gut permeability, colonic serotonin levels and the colonic levels of the cytokines IL-6, INF-γ, IL-4 and IL-22 were higher in DNBS-treated than in untreated mice. Importantly, mice treated with either F. prausnitzii or its SN exhibited significant decreases in intestinal permeability, tissue cytokines and serotonin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that F. prausnitzii and its SN had beneficial effects on intestinal epithelial barrier impairment in a chronic low-grade inflammation model. These observations confirm the potential of this bacterium as a novel probiotic treatment in the management of gut dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.
Enhanced butyrate formation by cross-feeding between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis. David Rios-Covian;Miguel Gueimonde;Sylvia H Duncan;Harry J Flint;Clara G de los Reyes-Gavilan. 2015. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 362. PMID: 26420851

Cross-feeding is an important metabolic interaction mechanism of bacterial groups inhabiting the human colon and includes features such as the utilization of acetate by butyrate-producing bacteria as may occur between Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium genera. In this study, we assessed the utilization of different carbon sources (glucose, starch, inulin and fructooligosaccharides) by strains of both genera and selected the best suited combinations for evidencing this cross-feeding phenomenon. Co-cultures of Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii S3/L3 with fructooligosaccharides as carbon source, as well as with F. prausnitzii A2-165 in starch, were carried out and the production of short-chain fatty acids was determined. In both co-cultures, acetate levels decreased between 8 and 24 h of incubation and were lower than in the corresponding B. adolescentis monocultures. In contrast, butyrate concentrations were higher in co-cultures as compared to the respective F. prausnitzii monocultures, indicating enhanced formation of butyrate by F. prausnitzii in the presence of the bifidobacteria. Variations in the levels of acetate and butyrate were more pronounced in the co-culture with fructooligosaccharides than with starch. Our results provide a clear demonstration of cross-feeding between B. adolescentis and F. prausnitzii.
Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers. Carla Foditsch;Richard Van Vleck Pereira;Erika Korzune Ganda;Marilia Souza Gomez;Eduardo Carvalho Marques;Thiago Santin;Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho. 2015. PLoS One. 10. PMID: 26710101

Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral administration of F. prausnitzii improves gastrointestinal health and growth of preweaned calves, supporting its use as a potential probiotic.
Action and function of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in health and disease. Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder;Alessandra Valéria de Sousa Faria;Sheila Siqueira Andrade. 2018. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 31. PMID: 29566907

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon. So far, this commensal bacterium has been considered as a bioindicator of human health, once when its population is altered (decreased), inflammatory processes are favored. Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Therefore, counterbalancing dysbiosis using Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as a potential active component of probiotic formulations appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. However, once this microbial is very sensitive to oxygen, the formulation development is a great challenge. In this review, we will focus our attention on Faecalibacterium prausnitzii biology, anti-inflammatory metabolites, modulators of this bacterium population and its impact on human health.
How can Faecalibacterium prausnitzii employ riboflavin for extracellular electron transfer? M Tanweer Khan;Wesley R Browne;Jan Maarten van Dijl;Hermie J M Harmsen. 2012. Antioxid Redox Signal. 17. PMID: 22607129

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal microbes in the human gut. It is an important supplier of butyrate to the colonic epithelium, and low numbers of faecalibacteria have been associated with severe inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies revealed that F. prausnitzii shuttles electrons extracellularly to oxygen in systems containing flavins and thiols. Since this electron shuttling to oxygen strongly stimulates growth, the present studies were aimed at elucidating the role of riboflavin as an extracellular electronophore of F. prausnitzii. We show that F. prausnitzii can use riboflavin as a mediator for extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the anode of microbial fuel cell systems. However, this bacterium relies on exogenous riboflavin, since it does not secrete this compound as shown by the analysis of a spent growth medium using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Importantly, CV showed that riboflavin can undergo fully reversible redox cycling under physiologically relevant conditions. Lastly, riboflavin is shown to mediate the electrochemical oxidation of the main bacterial reducing equivalent NADH. Based on our present observations, we hypothesize that riboflavin is of major importance as a redox mediator for bacterial EET and growth in the human gut.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health. S Miquel;R Martín;O Rossi;L G Bermúdez-Humarán;J M Chatel;H Sokol;M Thomas;J M Wells;P Langella. 2013. Curr Opin Microbiol. 16. PMID: 23831042

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved.
Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and their interaction. Ibrahim E El-Semman;Fredrik H Karlsson;Saeed Shoaie;Intawat Nookaew;Taysir H Soliman;Jens Nielsen. 2014. BMC Syst Biol. 8. PMID: 24708835

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease by acting as a metabolic organ. Metagenomic sequencing has shown how dysbiosis in the gut microbiota is associated with human metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Modeling may assist to gain insight into the metabolic implication of an altered microbiota. Fast and accurate reconstruction of metabolic models for members of the gut microbiota, as well as methods to simulate a community of microorganisms, are therefore needed. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) database contains functional annotation for nearly 4,650 bacterial genomes. This tremendous new genomic information adds new opportunities for systems biology to reconstruct accurate genome scale metabolic models (GEMs). RESULTS: Here we assembled a reaction data set containing 2,340 reactions obtained from existing genome-scale metabolic models, where each reaction is assigned with KEGG Orthology. The reaction data set was then used to reconstruct two genome scale metabolic models for gut microorganisms available in the IMG database Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32, which produces acetate during fermentation, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, which consumes acetate and produces butyrate. F. prausnitzii is less abundant in patients with Crohn's disease and has been suggested to play an anti-inflammatory role in the gut ecosystem. The B. adolescentis model, iBif452, comprises 699 reactions and 611 unique metabolites. The F. prausnitzii model, iFap484, comprises 713 reactions and 621 unique metabolites. Each model was validated with in vivo data. We used OptCom and Flux Balance Analysis to simulate how both organisms interact. CONCLUSIONS: The consortium of iBif452 and iFap484 was applied to predict F. prausnitzii's demand for acetate and production of butyrate which plays an essential role in colonic homeostasis and cancer prevention. The assembled reaction set is a useful tool to generate bacterial draft models from KEGG Orthology.
Identification of an anti-inflammatory protein from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a commensal bacterium deficient in Crohn's disease. E Quévrain;M A Maubert;C Michon;F Chain;R Marquant;J Tailhades;S Miquel;L Carlier;L G Bermúdez-Humarán;B Pigneur;O Lequin;P Kharrat;G Thomas;D Rainteau;C Aubry;N Breyner;C Afonso;S Lavielle;J-P Grill;G Chassaing;J M Chatel;G Trugnan;R Xavier;P Langella;H Sokol;P Seksik. 2015. Gut. 65. PMID: 26045134

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis is characterised by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose culture supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo. However, the chemical nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds has not yet been determined. METHODS: Peptidomic analysis using mass spectrometry was applied to F. prausnitzii supernatant. Anti-inflammatory effects of identified peptides were tested in vitro directly on intestinal epithelial cell lines and on cell lines transfected with a plasmid construction coding for the candidate protein encompassing these peptides. In vivo, the cDNA of the candidate protein was delivered to the gut by recombinant lactic acid bacteria to prevent dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-colitis in mice. RESULTS: The seven peptides, identified in the F. prausnitzii culture supernatants, derived from a single microbial anti-inflammatory molecule (MAM), a protein of 15 kDa, and comprising 53% of non-polar residues. This last feature prevented the direct characterisation of the putative anti-inflammatory activity of MAM-derived peptides. Transfection of MAM cDNA in epithelial cells led to a significant decrease in the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway with a dose-dependent effect. Finally, the use of a food-grade bacterium, Lactococcus lactis, delivering a plasmid encoding MAM was able to alleviate DNBS-induced colitis in mice. CONCLUSIONS: A 15 kDa protein with anti-inflammatory properties is produced by F. prausnitzii, a commensal bacterium involved in CD pathogenesis. This protein is able to inhibit the NF-κB pathway in intestinal epithelial cells and to prevent colitis in an animal model.
Anti-nociceptive effect of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in non-inflammatory IBS-like models. S Miquel;R Martín;A Lashermes;M Gillet;M Meleine;A Gelot;A Eschalier;D Ardid;L G Bermúdez-Humarán;H Sokol;M Thomas;V Theodorou;P Langella;F A Carvalho. 2016. Sci Rep. 6. PMID: 26775847

Visceral pain and intestinal dysbiosis are associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder without available efficient therapies. In this study, a decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii presence has been observed in an IBS-like rodent model induced by a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress. Moreover, it was investigated whether F. prausnitzii may have an impact on colonic sensitivity. The A2-165 reference strain, but not its supernatant, significantly decreased colonic hypersensitivity induced by either NMS in mice or partial restraint stress in rats. This effect was associated with a reinforcement of intestinal epithelial barrier. Thus, F. prausnitzii exhibits anti-nociceptive properties, indicating its potential to treat abdominal pain in IBS patients.
Low counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in colitis microbiota. H Sokol;P Seksik;J P Furet;O Firmesse;I Nion-Larmurier;L Beaugerie;J Cosnes;G Corthier;P Marteau;J Doré. 2009. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 15. PMID: 19235886

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is suspected to play a role in colitis and particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. The aim was to compare the fecal microbiota composition of patients with colitis to that of healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: fecal samples from 22 active Crohn's disease (A-CD) patients, 10 CD patients in remission (R-CD), 13 active ulcerative colitis (A-UC) patients, 4 UC patients in remission (R-UC), 8 infectious colitis (IC) patients, and 27 HS were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial counts were transformed to logarithms (Log(10) CFU) for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes (Clostridium leptum and Clostridium coccoides groups) were less represented in A-IBD patients (9.7; P = 0.004) and IC (9.4; P = 0.02), compared to HS (10.8). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii species (a major representative of the C. leptum group) had lower counts in A-IBD and IC patients compared to HS (8.8 and 8.3 versus 10.4; P = 0.0004 and P = 0.003). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was lower in A-IBD (1.3; P = 0.0001) and IC patients (0.4; P = 0.002). Compared to HS, Bifidobacteria were less represented in A-IBD and IC (7.9 and 7.7 versus 9.2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiota of patients with IBD differs from that of HS. The phylum Firmicutes and particularly the species F. prausnitzii, are underrepresented in A-IBD patients as well as in IC patients. These bacteria could be crucial to gut homeostasis since lower counts of F. prausnitzii are consistently associated with a reduced protection of the gut mucosa.
Association between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and dietary fibre in colonic fermentation in healthy human subjects. Robin F J Benus;Tjip S van der Werf;Gjalt W Welling;Patricia A Judd;Moira A Taylor;Hermie J M Harmsen;Kevin Whelan. 2010. Br J Nutr. 104. PMID: 20346190

The intestinal microbiota are a complex ecosystem influencing the immunoregulation of the human host, providing protection from colonising pathogens and producing SCFA as the main energy source of colonocytes. Our objective was to investigate the effect of dietary fibre exclusion and supplementation on the intestinal microbiota and SCFA concentrations. Faecal samples were obtained from healthy volunteers before and after two 14 d periods of consuming formulated diets devoid or supplemented with fibre (14 g/l). The faecal microbiota were analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and SCFA were measured using GLC. There were large and statistically significant reductions in the numbers of the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P < or = 0.01) and Roseburia spp. (P < or = 0.01) groups during both the fibre-free and fibre-supplemented diets. Significant and strong positive correlations between the proportion of F. prausnitzii and the proportion of butyrate during both baseline normal diets were found (pre-fibre free r 0.881, P = 0.001; pre-fibre supplemented r 0.844, P = 0.002). A significant correlation was also found between the proportional reduction in F. prausnitzii and the proportional reduction in faecal butyrate during both the fibre-free (r 0.806; P = 0.005) and the fibre-supplemented diet (r 0.749; P = 0.013). These findings may contribute to the understanding of the association between fibre, microbiota and fermentation in health, during enteral nutrition and in disease states such as Crohn's disease.
The gut anaerobe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii uses an extracellular electron shuttle to grow at oxic-anoxic interphases. M Tanweer Khan;Sylvia H Duncan;Alfons J M Stams;Jan Maarten van Dijl;Harry J Flint;Hermie J M Harmsen. 2012. ISME J. 6. PMID: 22357539

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant bacteria in the human gut ecosystem and it is an important supplier of butyrate to the colonic epithelium. Low numbers of faecalibacteria have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Despite being extremely oxygen sensitive, F. prausnitzii is found adherent to the gut mucosa where oxygen diffuses from epithelial cells. This paradox is now explained on the basis of gas tube experiments, flavin-dependent reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoate and microbial fuel cell experiments. The results show that F. prausnitzii employs an extracellular electron shuttle of flavins and thiols to transfer electrons to oxygen. Both compounds are present in the healthy human gut. Our observations may have important implications for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease, for example, with flavin- or antioxidant rich diets, and they provide a novel key insight in host-microbe interactions at the gut barrier.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Crohn's disease - is there any connection? Mirosława Gałecka;Patrycja Szachta;Anna Bartnicka;Liliana Łykowska-Szuber;Piotr Eder;Andreas Schwiertz. 2013. Pol J Microbiol. 62. PMID: 23829084

The aim of the study was evaluation of the correlation between the level of clinical activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and the number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, total number of bacteria and the concentration of selected short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in stool. 34 individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease participated in this study in 2011. The disease activity was determined according to the Crohn Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and total number of bacteria were monitored by RT-PCR. The concentrations of SCFA were determined by gas chromatography. In CD patients, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii number and percentage of the total number of bacteria were greatly reduced. In patients with CD the percentage of acetate was elevated (70%), while the percentages of propionate and butyrate were significantly reduced (14.9% and 7.99%, respectively).
Functional metabolic map of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a beneficial human gut microbe. Almut Heinken;M Tanweer Khan;Giuseppe Paglia;Dmitry A Rodionov;Hermie J M Harmsen;Ines Thiele. 2014. J Bacteriol. 196. PMID: 25002542

The human gut microbiota plays a central role in human well-being and disease. In this study, we present an integrated, iterative approach of computational modeling, in vitro experiments, metabolomics, and genomic analysis to accelerate the identification of metabolic capabilities for poorly characterized (anaerobic) microorganisms. We demonstrate this approach for the beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165. We generated an automated draft reconstruction, which we curated against the limited biochemical data. This reconstruction modeling was used to develop in silico and in vitro a chemically defined medium (CDM), which was validated experimentally. Subsequent metabolomic analysis of the spent medium for growth on CDM was performed. We refined our metabolic reconstruction according to in vitro observed metabolite consumption and secretion and propose improvements to the current genome annotation of F. prausnitzii A2-165. We then used the reconstruction to systematically characterize its metabolic properties. Novel carbon source utilization capabilities and inabilities were predicted based on metabolic modeling and validated experimentally. This study resulted in a functional metabolic map of F. prausnitzii, which is available for further applications. The presented workflow can be readily extended to other poorly characterized and uncharacterized organisms to yield novel biochemical insights about the target organism.
Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets. Carla Foditsch;Thiago M A Santos;Andre G V Teixeira;Richard V V Pereira;Juliana M Dias;Natália Gaeta;Rodrigo C Bicalho. 2015. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 25551453

The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%). Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future probiotic candidates should be carefully studied before elected for in vivo studies.
Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis. Ping Yao;Min Cui;Haikun Wang;Hongliang Gao;Lei Wang;Tao Yang;Yongbo Cheng. 2016. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016. PMID: 26839545

Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.
Enterococcus durans EP1 a Promising Anti-inflammatory Probiotic Able to Stimulate sIgA and to Increase Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Abundance. Paula Carasi;Silvia María Racedo;Claudine Jacquot;Anne Marie Elie;María de Los Ángeles Serradell;María C Urdaci. 2017. Front Immunol. 8. PMID: 28239378

Enterococcus species, principally Enterococcus faecium are used as probiotics since a long time with preference in animal applications but safety considerations were updated and also new uses as probiotics can be envisaged. Fifteen Enterococcus strains isolated from different foods were identified and analyzed for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Three Enterococcus durans strains were selected to study their immunomodulatory properties on PBMC and Caco2 cells. Two strains presented a profile toward a mild inflammatory Th1 response considering TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10 cytokines ratios. The third strain EP1, presented an anti-inflammatory potential and was selected for in vivo studies. In mice, the strain was well tolerated and did not cause any adverse effects. EP1 administration increased the amount of IgA+ cells in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) after 7 days of administration. In fecal samples, the IgA content increased gradually and significantly from day 7 to day 21 in treated group. Additionally, IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 gene expression significantly decreased on day 21 in Peyer's patches and IL-17 decreased in MLN. Mice treated with the probiotic showed significant lower mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucins in the ileum at day 7 while their expression was normalized at day 21. Colonic expression of il-1β, il6, and mucins remain diminished at day 21. Ileum and colon explants from treated mice stimulated in vitro with LPS showed a significant reduction in IL-6 and an increase in IL-10 secretion suggesting an in vivo protective effect of the probiotic treatment against a proinflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, analysis of feces microbiota demonstrated that EP1 administration increase the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, we demonstrated that EP1 strain is a strong sIgA inducer and possess mucosal anti-inflammatory properties. This strain also modulates gut microbiota increasing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a functionally important bacterium. Thus, E. durans EP1 is not only a good candidate to increases F. prausnitzii in some cases of dysbiosis but can also be interesting in gut inflammatory disorders therapy.
Quantitative differences in intestinal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in obese Indian children. Ramadass Balamurugan;Gemlyn George;Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss;Jancy Hepsiba;Aarthy M S Chandragunasekaran;Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna. 2009. Br J Nutr. 103. PMID: 19849869

Gut bacteria contribute to energy conservation in man through their ability to ferment unabsorbed carbohydrate. The present study examined the composition of predominant faecal microbiota in obese and non-obese children. The participants (n 28) aged 11-14 years provided fresh faecal samples and completed a dietary survey consisting of 24 h diet recall and a FFQ of commonly used foods taken over the previous 3 months. Faecal bacteria were quantitated by real-time PCR using primers targeted at 16S rDNA. Of the participants, fifteen (seven female) were obese, with median BMI-for-age at the 99th percentile (range 97 to>99) while thirteen participants (seven female) were normal weight, with median BMI-for age being at the 50th percentile (range 1-85). Consumption of energy, carbohydrates, fat and protein was not significantly different between the obese and non-obese participants. There was no significant difference between the two groups in faecal levels of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium species, Lactobacillus acidophilus group or Eubacterium rectale. Levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly higher in obese children than in non-obese participants (P = 0.0253). We concluded that the finding of increased numbers of F. prausnitzii in the faeces of obese children in south India adds to the growing information on alterations in faecal microbiota in obesity.
Ecology and metabolism of the beneficial intestinal commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Sylvie Miquel;Rebeca Martín;Chantal Bridonneau;Véronique Robert;Harry Sokol;Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán;Muriel Thomas;Philippe Langella. 2014. Gut Microbes. 5. PMID: 24637606

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major commensal bacterium, and its prevalence is often decreased in conditions of intestinal dysbiosis. The phylogenic identity of this bacterium was described only recently. It is still poorly characterized, and its specific growth requirements in the human gastrointestinal tract are not known. In this review, we consider F. prausnitzii metabolism, its ecophysiology in both humans and animals, and the effects of drugs and nutrition on its population. We list important questions about this beneficial and ubiquitous commensal bacterium that it would be valuable to answer.
Differential modulation by Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii of host peripheral lipid metabolism and histone acetylation in mouse gut organoids. Sabina Lukovac;Clara Belzer;Linette Pellis;Bart J Keijser;Willem M de Vos;Roy C Montijn;Guus Roeselers. 2014. MBio. 5. PMID: 25118238

UNLABELLED: The gut microbiota is essential for numerous aspects of human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of many host-microbiota interactions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of the microbiota on host epithelium using a novel ex vivo model based on mouse ileal organoids. We have explored the transcriptional response of organoids upon exposure to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and products generated by two abundant microbiota constituents, Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. We observed that A. muciniphila metabolites affect various transcription factors and genes involved in cellular lipid metabolism and growth, supporting previous in vivo findings. Contrastingly, F. prausnitzii products exerted only weak effects on host transcription. Additionally, A. muciniphila and its metabolite propionate modulated expression of Fiaf, Gpr43, histone deacetylases (HDACs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), important regulators of transcription factor regulation, cell cycle control, lipolysis, and satiety. This work illustrates that specific bacteria and their metabolites differentially modulate epithelial transcription in mouse organoids. We demonstrate that intestinal organoids provide a novel and powerful ex vivo model for host-microbiome interaction studies. IMPORTANCE: We investigated the influence of the gut microbiota and microbially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gut functioning. Many commensal bacteria in the gut produce SCFAs, particularly butyrate, acetate, and propionate, which have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disorders. Organoids-small crypt-villus structures grown from ileal intestinal stem cells-were exposed to SCFAs and two specific gut bacteria. Akkermansia muciniphila, found in the intestinal mucus, was recently shown to have a favorable effect on the disrupted metabolism associated with obesity. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal gut bacterium, the absence of which may be associated with Crohn's disease. We showed that in our model, A. muciniphila induces stronger effects on the host than F. prausnitzii. We observed that A. muciniphila and propionate affect the expression of genes involved in host lipid metabolism and epigenetic activation or silencing of gene expression. We demonstrated that organoids provide a powerful tool for host-microbe interaction studies.
Mucosa-associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii phylotype richness is reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Mireia Lopez-Siles;Margarita Martinez-Medina;Carles Abellà;David Busquets;Miriam Sabat-Mir;Sylvia H Duncan;Xavier Aldeguer;Harry J Flint;L Jesús Garcia-Gil. 2015. Appl Environ Microbiol. 81. PMID: 26296733

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis.
Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov. Sylvia H Duncan;Georgina L Hold;Hermie J M Harmsen;Colin S Stewart;Harry J Flint. 2003. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 52. PMID: 12508881

Two newly isolated strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria from human faeces are shown here to be related to Fusobacterium prausnitzii, which is regarded as one of the most abundant colonizers of the human colon. These strains, along with Fusobacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27768(T) and 27766, are non-motile and produce butyrate, formate and lactate, but not hydrogen as fermentation products. A new finding is that all four strains produce D-lactate, but not L-lactate. The strains have a requirement for acetate in the growth medium and this may account for the previously reported requirement for rumen fluid. The DNA G+C content of the four strains is 47-57 mol%. Together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing, this establishes that Fusobacterium prausnitzii strains are only distantly related to Fusobacterium sensu stricto and are more closely related to members of Clostridium cluster IV (the Clostridium leptum group). It is proposed that a new genus, Faecalibacterium gen. nov. be created; this genus should include Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov. ATCC 27768(T) (= NCIMB 13872(T)) (formerly Fusobacterium prausnitzii) as the type species together with ATCC 27766 and the newly isolated strains A2-165 and L2-6.
Effect of inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Carlett Ramirez-Farias;Kathleen Slezak;Zoë Fuller;Alan Duncan;Grietje Holtrop;Petra Louis. 2008. Br J Nutr. 101. PMID: 18590586

Prebiotics are food ingredients that improve health by modulating the colonic microbiota. The bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic inulin is well established; however, it remains unclear which species of Bifidobacterium are stimulated in vivo and whether bacterial groups other than lactic acid bacteria are affected by inulin consumption. Changes in the faecal microbiota composition were examined by real-time PCR in twelve human volunteers after ingestion of inulin (10 g/d) for a 16-d period in comparison with a control period without any supplement intake. The prevalence of most bacterial groups examined did not change after inulin intake, although the low G+C % Gram-positive species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii exhibited a significant increase (10.3% for control period v. 14.5% during inulin intake, P=0.019). The composition of the genus Bifidobacterium was studied in four of the volunteers by clone library analysis. Between three and five Bifidobacterium spp. were found in each volunteer. Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum were present in all volunteers, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium dentium were also detected. Real-time PCR was employed to quantify the four most prevalent Bifidobacterium spp., B. adolescentis, B. longum, B. pseudocatenulatum and B. bifidum, in ten volunteers carrying detectable levels of bifidobacteria. B. adolescentis showed the strongest response to inulin consumption, increasing from 0.89 to 3.9% of the total microbiota (P=0.001). B. bifidum was increased from 0.22 to 0.63% (P<0.001) for the five volunteers for whom this species was present.
A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Kathleen Machiels;Marie Joossens;João Sabino;Vicky De Preter;Ingrid Arijs;Venessa Eeckhaut;Vera Ballet;Karolien Claes;Filip Van Immerseel;Kristin Verbeke;Marc Ferrante;Jan Verhaegen;Paul Rutgeerts;Séverine Vermeire. 2013. Gut. 63. PMID: 24021287

OBJECTIVE: Bacteria play an important role in the onset and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unlike in Crohn's disease (CD), in which dysbiosis has been better characterised, in ulcerative colitis (UC), only small cohorts have been studied and showed conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated in a large cohort if the microbial signature described in CD is also present in UC, and if we could characterise predominant dysbiosis in UC. To assess the functional impact of dysbiosis, we quantified the bacterial metabolites. DESIGN: The predominant microbiota from 127 UC patients and 87 age and sex-matched controls was analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Differences were quantitatively validated using real-time PCR. Metabolites were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Based on DGGE analysis, the microbial signature previously described in CD was not present in UC. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a lower abundance of Roseburia hominis (p<0.0001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p<0.0001) in UC patients compared to controls. Both species showed an inverse correlation with disease activity. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were reduced in UC patients (p=0.014), but no direct correlation between SCFA and the identified bacteria was found. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of the fecal microbiota of UC patients differs from that of healthy individuals: we found a reduction in R hominis and F prausnitzii, both well-known butyrate-producing bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum. These results underscore the importance of dysbiosis in IBD but suggest that different bacterial species contribute to the pathogenesis of UC and CD.
Abundance and diversity of GI microbiota rather than IgG4 levels correlate with abdominal inconvenience and gut permeability in consumers claiming food intolerances. Berit Hippe;Marlene Remely;Natalie Bartosiewicz;Monika Riedel;Claudia Nichterl;Lulit Schatz;Sandra Pummer;Alexander Haslberger. 2014. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 14. PMID: 24502607

Food intolerances are an increasing global health problem. Interactions between genetics and environmental changes such as microbial- and stress factors remain poorly understood. Whereas the analyses of IgE mediated allergic responses is based on solid concepts, the roles of microbiota, gut permeability, and IgG antibodies remain widely unclear and are under fierce discussion for scientific relevance. The present pilot study analyzes forty participants, under consultation of nutritional health professionals, for gastrointestinal discomfort and claimed food intolerances. Food frequency questionnaire addresses nutrition, lifestyle and present discomfort. Feces samples are analyzed for dominant microbiota using 16S rDNA based methods and the fecal marker Calprotectin. Blood samples are analyzed for IgG4 levels. The total microbial abundance significantly correlates with claimed discomfort (R=-0.37; p=0.02). The abundance and diversity of microbiota significantly correlates with low Calprotectin values (R=-0.35; p=0.01) and with higher abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (R=0.78; p<0.01) and Akkermansia (R=0.82; p<0.01). Participants with low discomfort show enhanced Clostridium Cluster XIVa (p=0.008). An increased diversity is also correlating with reduced antibodies against IgG4 of egg white (R=0.68; p<0.01). Data suggest an interaction of low gut permeability and reduced inflammation with an established microbial equilibrium. Self-reported abdominal inconvenience of participants relates mainly to characteristics of microbiota and gut permeability. Anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or Lactobacilli and gut barrier functions of Akkermansia may have a key role in food intolerances. The role of IgG4 linking food immune responses with intolerances remains unclear.
Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in an apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Dulantha Ulluwishewa;Rachel C Anderson;Wayne Young;Warren C McNabb;Peter van Baarlen;Paul J Moughan;Jerry M Wells;Nicole C Roy. 2014. Cell Microbiol. 17. PMID: 25224879

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant member of the human commensal microbiota, has been proposed to have a protective role in the intestine. However, it is an obligate anaerobe, difficult to co-culture in viable form with oxygen-requiring intestinal cells. To overcome this limitation, a unique apical anaerobic model of the intestinal barrier, which enabled co-culture of live obligate anaerobes with the human intestinal cell line Caco-2, was developed. Caco-2 cells remained viable and maintained an intact barrier for at least 12 h, consistent with gene expression data, which suggested Caco-2 cells had adapted to survive in an oxygen-reduced atmosphere. Live F. prausnitzii cells, but not ultraviolet (UV)-killed F. prausnitzii, increased the permeability of mannitol across the epithelial barrier. Gene expression analysis showed inflammatory mediators to be expressed at lower amounts in Caco-2 cells exposed to live F. prausnitzii than UV-killed F. prausnitzii, This, consistent with previous reports, implies that live F. prausnitzii produces an anti-inflammatory compound in the culture supernatant, demonstrating the value of a physiologically relevant co-culture system that allows obligate anaerobic bacteria to remain viable.
Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study. Marlene Remely;Berit Hippe;Isabella Geretschlaeger;Sonja Stegmayer;Ingrid Hoefinger;Alexander Haslberger. 2015. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 127. PMID: 25763563

BACKGROUND: An impaired gut microbiota has been reported as an important factor in the pathogenesis of obesity. Weight reduction has already been mentioned to improve gut microbial subpopulations involved in inflammatory processes, though other subpopulations still need further investigation. Thus, weight reduction in the context of a fasting program together with a probiotic intervention may improve the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota. METHODS: In this pilot study, overweight people underwent a fasting program with laxative treatment for 1 week followed by a 6 week intervention with a probiotic formula. Gut microbiota were analyzed on the basis of 16s rDNA with a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions about nutritional behavior, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before and after the intervention. RESULTS: We observed an increase in microbial diversity over the study period. No significant changes in abundance of total bacteria, or of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Clostridium cluster XIVa, or Clostridium cluster IV were found, although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii showed an increase over the study period. In addition, Akkermanisa and Bifidobacteria increased in abundance due to intervention. The inflammation-associated gut microbes Enterobacteria and Lactobacilli increased during the first week and then declined by the end of the intervention. Two-thirds of the study participants harbored Archaea. No significant improvements of eating habits were reported, although physical activity improved due to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that caloric restriction affects gut microbiota by proliferating mucin-degrading microbial subpopulations. An additional intervention with a probiotic formula increased probiotic-administered gut microbial populations.
Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 Modulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in Older Men and Women. Edna P Nyangale;Sean Farmer;Howard A Cash;David Keller;David Chernoff;Glenn R Gibson. 2015. J Nutr. 145. PMID: 25948780

BACKGROUND: Advancing age is linked to a decrease in beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and reduced aspects of innate immune function. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether daily consumption of a probiotic [Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30); GanedenBC(30)] could improve immune function and gut function in men and women aged 65-80 y, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. METHOD: Thirty-six volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) or the probiotic BC30 (1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/capsule). Volunteers consumed 1 treatment capsule per day for 28 d, followed by a 21-d washout period before switching to the other treatment. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of each treatment period. Fecal samples were used to enumerate bacterial groups and concentrations of calprotectin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from whole blood to assess natural killer cell activity and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured in plasma. RESULTS: Consumption of BC30 significantly increased populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii by 0.1 log10 cells/mL more than during consumption of the placebo (P = 0.03), whereas populations of Bacillus spp. increased significantly by 0.5 log10 cells/mL from baseline in volunteers who consumed BC30 (P = 0.007). LPS-stimulated PBMCs showed a 0.2 ng/mL increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 28 d after consumption of BC30 (P < 0.05), whereas the placebo did not affect IL-10, and no overall difference was found in the effect of the treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of BC30 by adults aged 65-80 y can increase beneficial groups of bacteria in the human gut and potentially increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study shows the potential benefits of a probiotic to improve dysbiosis via modulation of the microbiota in older persons.
Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry for probing kinetics of anaerobic microbial metabolism--case study of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Antonin Prévoteau;Annelies Geirnaert;Jan B A Arends;Sylvain Lannebère;Tom Van de Wiele;Korneel Rabaey. 2015. Sci Rep. 5. PMID: 26127013

Monitoring in vitro the metabolic activity of microorganisms aids bioprocesses and enables better understanding of microbial metabolism. Redox mediators can be used for this purpose via different electrochemical techniques that are either complex or only provide non-continuous data. Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disc electrode (RDE) can alleviate these issues but was seldom used and is poorly characterized. The kinetics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165, a beneficial gut microbe, were determined using a RDE with riboflavin as redox probe. This butyrate producer anaerobically ferments glucose and reduces riboflavin whose continuous monitoring on a RDE provided highly accurate kinetic measurements of its metabolism, even at low cell densities. The metabolic reaction rate increased linearly over a broad range of cell concentrations (9 × 10(4) to 5 × 10(7) cells.mL(-1)). Apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed with respect to riboflavin (KM = 6 μM; kcat = 5.3 × 10(5) s(-1), at 37 °C) and glucose (KM = 6 μM; kcat = 2.4 × 10(5) s(-1)). The short temporal resolution allows continuous monitoring of fast cellular events such as kinetics inhibition with butyrate. Furthermore, we detected for the first time riboflavin reduction by another potential probiotic, Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum. The ability of the RDE for fast, accurate, simple and continuous measurements makes it an ad hoc tool for assessing bioprocesses at high resolution.
(1)H NMR Spectroscopy of Fecal Extracts Enables Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia. Aurelien Amiot;Anthony C Dona;Anisha Wijeyesekera;Christophe Tournigand;Isabelle Baumgaertner;Yann Lebaleur;Iradj Sobhani;Elaine Holmes. 2015. J Proteome Res. 14. PMID: 26211820

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its etiopathogenesis and earlier diagnosis. Here, we investigated the fecal metabolic phenotype of patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia and controls using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR as well as Wif-1 methylation levels in stools, serum, and urine and correlated to the metabolic profile of each patient. The predictivity of the model was 0.507 (Q(2)Y), and the explained variance was 0.755 (R(2)Y). Patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia demonstrated increased fecal concentrations of four short-chain fatty acids (valerate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and decreased signals relating to β-glucose, glutamine, and glutamate. The predictive accuracy of the multivariate (1)H NMR model was higher than that of the guaiac-fecal occult blood test and the Wif-1 methylation test for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia. Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose. These preliminary results suggest that fecal metabonomics may potentially have a future role in a noninvasive colorectal screening program and may contribute to our understanding of the role of these dysregulated molecules in the cross-talk between the host and its bacterial microbiota.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis. Han Song;Young Yoo;Junghyun Hwang;Yun-Cheol Na;Heenam Stanley Kim. 2015. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 137. PMID: 26431583

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious global epidemic associated with a modern lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: Although aberrant interactions between gut microbes and the intestinal immune system have been implicated in this skin disease, the nature of the microbiome dysfunction underlying the disease remains unclear. METHODS: The gut microbiome from 132 subjects, including 90 patients with AD, was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. Reference genomes from the Human Microbiome Project and the KEGG Orthology database were used for metagenome analyses. Short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples were compared by using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: We show that enrichment of a subspecies of the major gut species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is strongly associated with AD. In addition, the AD microbiome was enriched in genes encoding the use of various nutrients that could be released from damaged gut epithelium, reflecting a bloom of auxotrophic bacteria. Fecal samples from patients with AD showed decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, which have anti-inflammatory effects. This is likely a consequence of an intraspecies compositional change in F prausnitzii that reduces the number of high butyrate and propionate producers, including those related to the strain A2-165, a lack of which has been implicated in patients with Crohn disease. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that feedback interactions between dysbiosis in F prausnitzii and dysregulation of gut epithelial inflammation might underlie the chronic progression of AD by resulting in impairment of the gut epithelial barrier, which ultimately leads to aberrant TH2-type immune responses to allergens in the skin.
[Effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii supernatant on Th17 cell and IL-17A in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis mice]. Xiaoli Huang;Xin Zhang;Xianyan Fei;Zhaogui Chen;Chengong Yu. 2016. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 40. PMID: 26739073

OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective and therapeutic effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) supernatant on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the underlying mechanisms.
 METHODS: Forty male mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a treatment group and a prevention group (n=10 in each group). The colorectal histopathologic damage score (HDS) were calculated; the proportion of helper T cell (Th17) in mononuclear cells (MNC) in spleen, the levels of IL-17A and IL-6 in plasma were detected; the mRNA levels of transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt), interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-6 in colon mucosa tissues were also determined.
 RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the colon HDS in the treatment group and the prevention group were significantly decreased (both P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the treatment group and the prevention group (P>0.05). The proportion of Th17 cells in spleen in the treatment group and the prevention group was also remarkably lower than that in the model group (both P<0.01). The levels of IL-17A and IL-6 in plasma in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group (both P<0.05). The mRNA expression of ROR-γt, IL-17A and IL-6 in the colon mucosa tissues in the treatment group were remarkably lower than those in the model group (all P<0.05). But there was no statistic difference in the level of IL-6 in the plasma and the colon mucosa tissues between the prevention group and the model group (P>0.05).
 CONCLUSION: Fp supernatant has protective and therapeutic effects on ulcerative colitis in mice induced by DSS, which might be mediated by decrease of Th17 and IL-17A levels in the plasma and the colon mucosa tissues. Fp supernatant also can decrease mice colitis by reducing IL-6 levels.