Literature Report for an X-omics gut set
Introduction (back to top)

This literature report is generated for a set of concepts that you have a particular interest in. This Start Set is provided by you. The Start Set consists of concepts such as human genes, metabolites, pathways, bacteria, phenotypes and diseases. This report helps in the look-up of the relevant literature for your Start Set: it displays abstracts about each of your concepts and all inter-connections. Next, relations between the concepts of your Start Set and concepts that are part of our BioSets are described. BioSets are expert-curated sets of different biological concepts that describe a certain topic. Examples of BioSets that can optionally be included are: gut health, skin health, brain health, oncology and immunity. Finally, relations between the concepts of your Start Set and the Discovery Set are described. The Discovery Set contains over 200,000 biological concepts that are the basis of our KMAP database. The above is described in the overview picture below:

The report has been divided into several sections, designed to answer specific questions. These are listed below, you can click on the links to directly jump to a specific section.

What is known about the members of my set?
How are the concepts related to each other?
Which facts are known about the members of my set?
How are my concepts related to BioSets?
How is each concept related to new concepts?

What is known about the members of my set? (back to top)
The table below lists the concepts in your Start Set. For each of the concepts, the names and its synonyms (if any) are shown. The name of each concept is hyperlinked to a TenWise literature overview page for this concept. You can use the buttons to export the Start Set to another program. You can also use the search box to search for a concept in your set. When you type in a part of the word in this box, the table is automatically filtered and updated.

Set member Synonyms
butyratebutanate; butanoate; butyric acid; propanecarboxylate; propylformate
Anaerococcus lactolyticusPeptostreptococcus lactolyticus
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusLactobacillus rhamnosus
Anaerostipes butyraticus
TLR signalling
Bifidobacterium longum
inulin metabolism
fructanlevan; polyfructose
Lactiplantibacillus plantarumLactobacillus arabinosus; Lactobacillus arizonensis; Lactobacillus plantari; Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacterium plantarum; Streptobacterium plantarum
How are the concepts related to each other? (back to top)
The table below shows how each concept is connected with all other concepts in you Start Set. The table works as follows. Each of the concepts from your set is listed in the table in the left panel. The number between parentheses shows the number of other concepts in your set that it has a connection to. Clicking on the ">" link displays the actual members on the right hand side, each with a separate link. Clicking on this link brings you to the TenWise Literature overview page that shows the abstracts in which the relation between the two concepts are described.

Set member

The network below is a visual representation of the data that are shown in the section above. You can use the controller in the top left corner to zoom and shift the network. You can also drag the nodes in the network to alter the position of the nodes. Clicking on a single node opens a new window in which the most relevant abstracts for that node are shown.
Clicking on the lines that connect 2 nodes opens up a window in which the abstracts are shown in which both nodes co-occur.

Which facts are known about the members of my set? (back to top)
This section lists individual sentences that were obtained from all abstracts in which a concept of your Start Set was mentioned together with a BioSet concept. You can use the search box to filter for specific words. The leftmost columns links directly to the PubMed abstract.

34824The absorption of short chain fatty acids (SCFA's) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate was much greater than that of succinate or lactate.
41685Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family.
376722Pretreatment of BALB/c mice with antisera to a cross-reactive idiotype (E109IdX) expressed on many anti-bacterial levan (BL) and anti-inulin (Inu) antibodies leads to a prolonged suppression in production of IdX-bearing molecules in response to BL immunization.
396471Direct and indirect suppression induced by anti-idiotype antibody in the inulin-bacterial levan antigenic system.
417140Kinetics and ontogeny of anti-levan and anti-inulin antibody response and of expression of cross-reactive idiotype.
698981The fructan-specific myeloma protein did not react with inulin, but reacted with many levans and with perennial rye-grass levan containing only beta-D-(2 leads to 6) links.
1213996BHT and JC-1 have inulin-type structures consisting beta-(2 leads to 1)-D-fructofuranosidic linkages, with average repeating units of 8 and 27 sugar residues, respectively, whereas the water-soluble fructan from Strep.
1330844Caecal butyrate was characteristically higher in wheat bran fed rats but ispaghula produced higher butyrate in the distal colon.
1469519After standardization for exposure to foods other than breast milk, a positive age factor could be seen between 0 and 1 month of age for total amounts produced of SCFAs, acetic, propionic, and n-butyric acids.
1738218As these compounds are rapidly degraded to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the anaerobic microflora, the hypothesis was tested that this trophic effect of fiber may be mediated by SCFAs.
1738218Butyrate (10 mmol/L, increase + 89%) and propionate (25 mmol/L, + 70%) were as effective in stimulating proliferation as the combination of three SCFAs (+103%), although the effect of acetate (+31%) was minor.
1738218SCFAs, especially butyrate and propionate, are luminal trophic factors for the cecal epithelium.
1895917Cl Na 6,5%, acid production from lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, arginine, esculin and starch hydrolysis; production of levan and dextran in sucrose media) Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mitis are predominant species.
2172992Starch appears to be beneficial as a substrate for fermentation because yields of the SCFA butyrate are increased both in vitro and in vivo.
2251858Butyrate (60 mmol/l) or a mixture of SCFA (60 mmol/l acetate, 20 mmol/l propionate, 10 mmol/l butyrate) stimulated Mg and K absorption by the distal colon, while Na and water absorption was not affected.
2317475Acetate was the major SCFA in all samples at all times and, after pre-feeding with extra carbohydrate, butyrate concentrations exceeded propionate in all samples.
2366630Colonocytes were found to utilize SCFA in the order of butyrate greater than or equal to acetate greater than or equal to propionate.
2495266It was shown that the degradative products of levan or inulin and low concentrations of fructose were able to induce levanase expression.
2645309Thus, the obese subjects had exercise-induced changes in glucose and inulin metabolism consistent with greater postexercise insulin resistance, despite an impaired plasma epinephrine response to intense exercise.
2798759Fluxes of SCFA anions and of undissociated SCFAs were calculated from relative permeabilities and flux values.
2798759In the proximal colon of guinea-pig 50% of SCFAs were transported in the dissociated and 50% in the undissociated form; transport rates of the three SCFAs were similar.
2850354Availability of cereal fructans and inulin in the rat intestinal tract.
2850354The fate of cereal fructans and inulin in the gastrointestinal tract was investigated by using a rat model.
2850354Only minute amounts of fructans could be detected, hence, cereal fructans as well as inulin reaching the hindgut appeared to be almost completely fermentable.
3219326Potato starch significantly decreased the concentration of SCFA in the hindgut, while amylomaize supplementation increased propionic and butyric acids but decreased the occurrence of minor, branched-chain fatty acids.
3308844Further characterization of the gene product encoded by pFRU1 revealed that the enzyme was a beta-D-fructosidase with the highest specificity for the beta (2----6)-linked fructan polymer levan.
3308844The enzyme could also hydrolyze inulin [beta (2----1)-linked fructan], sucrose, and raffinose with 34, 21, and 12%, respectively, of the activity observed for levan.
3308844With sufficient time, both levan and inulin were degraded to completion, with no evidence of product inhibition.
3421831The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactic acid from inulin (plant fructan with 2-1 bonds) in in vitro rumen fermentations was followed.
3661705Concentrations of SCFA (also called volatile fatty acids) comparable to those found in dog stool (108 mM; 66% acetic, 24% propionic, and 10% butyric acids) regularly stimulated motility with a dose-related effect.
3661705The response was not due to the pH of the SCFA solutions and was independent of the pH at which SCFA were instilled.
3678950In all samples acetate was the principal anion but molar ratios of the three principal SCFA changed on going from colonic contents to portal blood to hepatic vein indicating greater uptake of butyrate by the colonic epithelium and propionate by the liver.
3998144The main end products of this colonic digestive process, which is anerobic, are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids.
3998144We have measured venous blood SCFA levels in healthy subjects after a 16-h fast, and then following oral doses of either 50 mmol SCFA, 5, 10, or 20 g doses of the fermentable carbohydrate lactulose, or 20 g of pectin.
6131789Short chain fatty acids [SCFA: acetate 75, propionate 35, butyrate 20 (microM)] introduced intraluminally into the colon increased the mitotic index and the labeling index of the large intestinal epithelial cells within 60 min in fasted rats.
6488201The suitability of the reductive-cleavage method for analysis of the linkage positions in D-fructofuranosyl residues of D-fructans was examined by using sucrose, chicory-root inulin, and Aerobacter levanicum levan as models.
6768829The antibody response to the inulin [(In), beta-(2 leads to 1) fructosan] determinant of bacterial levan [(BL), a beta-(2 leads to 6) polyfructosan that contains beta-(2 leads to 1) branch points] requires the presence of the a haplotype of the Igh gene complex.
6827889In order to know an effect of chronic load of SCFA on colonic functions, we studied that the acute and chronic effects of SCFA on transmural potential difference (p.
6827889Intravenous administration of SCFA (acute effect), such as propionate, butyrate, valerate or caproate, caused a transient increase in the p.
7338521Levan of Bacillus subtilis also yielded the difructose dianhydride, but inulin, inulobiose, sucrose, levanbiose, and levantriose did not produce it on enzymic reaction under similar test conditions.
7397708The association constants for the interaction of BALB/c (UPC 10, Y5476, W3082, and UPC 61) and NZB (PC 3660) myeloma anti-D-fructans in pure form, or in ascitic fluids, with high-molecular-weight levans (Ka) and with such low-molecular-weight compounds as rye-grass levan, inulin, sucrose, and D-fructo-oligosaccharides (Kia) were determined by affinity electrophoresis, measuring the extent of retardation of the D-fructan-specific band by levan and its restoration by the low-molecular-weight compounds and oligosaccharide haptens.
7397708The retarded, D-fructan-specific bands of W3082 and UPC 61 were restored by inulin, having beta-D-(2 leads to)-linkages, and rye-grass levan, having beta-D-(2 leads to 6)-linkages, and those of PC 3660, UPC 10, and Y5476 by rye-grass levan.
7397708The Kia values of inulin with W3082 and UPC 61 were 10 times those of rye-grass levan.
7547821The ileostomists were given a low-dietary-fibre diet based on white wheat bread and virtually free of inulin, and the same diet with the addition of 10 g and 30 g inulin product respectively, and the recovery and mean transit time (MTT) of inulin were estimated by tracking inulin in ileal effluent.
7612248Lactobacillus plantarum showed the same growth characteristics on selective plates and in liquid media containing inulin, after transformation with either pLPEW1 or pESIEW2.
7724557Apical superfusion with (i) a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate), (ii) an avidly metabolized SCFA (n-butyrate), or (iii) a physiologic mixture of acetate/propionate/n-butyrate produced similar results: alkalinization of the crypt lumen and acidification of subepithelial tissue.
7724557Effects were (i) dependent on the presence and orientation of a transepithelial SCFA gradient, (ii) not observed with gluconate substitution, and (iii) required activation of sustained vectorial acid/base transport by SCFAs.
7828936It was found that the enzyme specified by this plasmid hydrolyzed sucrose, raffinose, inulin and levan, but not dextran, and did not synthesize fructan or glucan from sucrose.
7911782All of the fruA mutant strains were devoid of fructan hydrolase activity when levan was used as a substrate.
7911782However, the fructan-hyperproducing strains retained the ability to hydrolyze inulin, suggesting the presence of a second fructosidase with specificity for inulin in these strains.
7926677Streptococcus mutans GS-5 synthesizes an exo-beta-D-fructosidase, FruA, capable of degrading levans, inulins, sucrose and raffinose, with the greatest activity on levans.
8074202Analysis of dose-response curves showed that n-butyric acid (4 carbons in the molecule) was most effective for both insulin and glucagon secretion among the normal SCFAs tested.
8142333Feeding wheat bran had little effect on caecal pH or total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration but was associated with a marked increase in molar proportion of butyrate and a fall in propionate.
8142333There were substantial changes in caecal total SCFA concentration and in the molar proportions of individual SCFA throughout the day but no evidence of an interaction between diet and time interval after feeding.
8145075Both the inulin and beta-cyclodextrin diets elicited high propionic acid fermentations in the cecum (approximately 45% of total short-chain fatty acids) with relatively low molar proportions of acetic and butyric acids.
8263612Despite significantly higher rates of SCFA production in pectin-fed rats, cholesterol synthesis was not inhibited, suggesting that SCFA are not the cholesterol-lowering factor of highly fermentable fiber sources.
8395594Butyrate had the strongest correlation between a specific SCFA and indices of cell proliferation.
8395594This study shows that different fibers are fermented to different SCFA in different amounts and that the in vivo concentration of certain of these SCFA is significantly correlated with cell proliferation indices.
8491724The enzyme was able to hydrolyze sucrose, raffinose, inulin, and levan but not melezitose, indicating that it was a beta-D-fructofuranosidase which was able to hydrolyze beta(2-->6)-linked fructans.
8549946Comparing the results obtained regarding the individual SCFAs, the most striking difference was the considerably lower Km value of butyrate.
8549946The study shows the ability of isolated human colonocytes to utilise each of the three major SCFAs, but does not support a pathogenic role for defective metabolism of butyrate in ulcerative colitis.
8549946The considerably lower Km of butyrate oxidation supports a specific role of butyrate as an energy source for the colonic mucosa in both health and ulcerative colitis.
8613881The total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in the cecal contents of SBF-fed rats was 100% higher than the concentration in rats fed the fiber-free diet in the EL group, but the administration of low dose and high dose OEL lowered the SCFA concentration in fiber-fed rats to that of rats fed the fiber-free diet.
8672754There were significantly higher short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in WB- and BB1-fed rat faecal pellets relative to cellulose- and BB2-fed rat faeces; butyrate, in particular, was affected.
8726286SCFAs constitute approximately two-thirds of the colonic anion concentration (70-130 mmol/l), mainly as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
8813901Consumption of beans was associated with several-fold increases in SCFA production with the greatest relative increase being for butyrate.
8813901Where the basal diet contained wholemeal bread (Expt 1) there was no effect of enhanced SCFA supply on EPR in either the caecum or colon, but with the white bread-based diet (Expt 2) adding beans produced increments in both SCFA supply and EPR in the caecum.
8813902It has increasingly been suggested that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetic, propionic and butyric acids, derived from colonic fermentation of dietary fibre and other indigestible carbohydrates, exert different physiological effects.
8865074Direct acidification of apical perfusates increased the magnitude of SCFA-induced luminal alkalinization, roughly in the same proportion to the increased concentration of non-ionized SCFA in the crypt lumen.
8865074An avidly metabolized SCFA (N-butyrate) augments crypt luminal alkalinization only slightly (0.
9009230Fructan synthesis in transgenic tobacco and chicory plants expressing barley sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase.
9009230We have recently cloned a cDNA encoding sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT), a key enzyme of fructan synthesis forming the beta-2,6 linkages typical of the grass fructans, graminans and phleins [Sprenger et al.
9009230Transformants of chicory, a plant naturally producing only unbranched fructans of the inulin type (beta-2,1 linkages), synthesized in addition branched fructans of the graminan type, particularly the tetrasaccharide bifurcose which is also a main fructan in barley leaves.
9067093Ulcerative colitis, an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the colonic mucosa, can be effectively treated by enemas containing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate.
9067093SCFAs such as butyrate are capable of inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing a differentiated phenotype in vitro.
9129468SCFAs), pH, and the activities of beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase, Groups of 15 and 10 patients received lactose and inulin, respectively, for a period of 19 d.
9129468SCFAs showed a slight trend toward higher molar ratios of acetate to butyrate in response to the intake of lactose or inulin.
9138199The SCFAs butyrate and propionate were used in concentrations found in human plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (0.
9349850SCFA, including butyrate, in both the proximal and distal colon (P < 0.
9349850Alternatively, rats consuming wheat bran produced more typical molar ratios of the SCFA (65:10:20), had a relatively greater concentration of butyrate than propionate, and produced a larger volume (P < 0.
9349856Cecal SCFA concentrations did not differ in LcFM, Y and M groups, but total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly greater in the LcYFM group.
9458746It is suggested that the decrease in plasma GH observed after feeding and a near-physiological ruminal SCFA increment is mediated via the parasympathetic nerve and not by pharmacological ruminal SCFA increments attributed to other pathways.
9497188It is concluded that 15 g/d inulin, fructooligosaccharide, or galactooligosaccharide did not have a negative effect on iron and calcium absorption in young healthy men.
9508842Butyrate transport was temperature dependent, and was stimulated in the presence of an outward-directed anion gradient in the order of butyrate > bicarbonate > propionate > chloride.
9530153Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transport across the colon may occur by nonionic diffusion and/or via apical membrane SCFA-/HCO3- exchange.
9530153To examine the relative importance of these processes, stripped segments of rat (Ratus ratus) proximal and distal colon were studied in Ussing chambers, and the unidirectional fluxes of radiolabeled SCFA butyrate, propionate, or weakly metabolized isobutyrate were measured.
9701194Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives.
9701194Intestinal absorption, transit, and fermentation (breath hydrogen and methane, venous acetate, blood glucose, and urine fructans) after ingestion of 10-30 g short- and long-chain fructans from chicory were studied by single-blind, crossover randomization in 10 healthy adults.
9701194The transit times of long-chain fructans were longer than those of short-chain fructans (75 compared with 30 min, P<0.
9701194Fructans with different chain lengths may have different physiologic properties and further studies of fructans in disease states are warranted.
9706221This review focuses on the fate of inulin-type fructans (namely native chicory inulin, oligofructose produced by the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of chicory inulin, and synthetic fructans produced by enzymatic synthesis from sucrose) in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as on their systemic physiological effects on mineral absorption, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hormone balance, and nitrogen homeostasis.
9706221The scientific evidence for the functional claims of inulin-type fructans is discussed, as well as their potential application in risk reduction of disease, namely constipation, infectious diarrhea, cancer, osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, and non-insulin dependent diabetes.
9917526GBF improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate.
9924268The aleurone diet, on the other hand, led to a fermentation pattern which may be considered more optimal, with lower colonic pH and higher concentrations of SCFA, in particular butyric acid.
9924288Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon.
9924288The results of this study demonstrate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the colon suggesting the potential colon tumour inhibitory properties of chicory fructans.
10191527Some of these saccharides, termed fructans, are inulin and oligofructose.
10209864Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin.
10217779The polymers of fructose, levan and inulin, as well as sucrose and raffinose, are substrates for the product of the fruA gene of Streptococcus mutans GS-5.
10217779The levels of production of fruA mRNA and FruA were elevated in cells growing on levan, inulin, or sucrose as the sole carbohydrate source, and repression was observed when cells were grown on readily metabolizable hexoses.
10395625Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon.
10395625The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans.
10450330NDO have on bowel habit; (3) there is promising evidence that consumption of inulin-type fructans may result in increased Ca absorption in man; (4) there are preliminary indications that inulin-type fructans interact with the functioning of lipid metabolism; (5) there is preliminary evidence in experimental animals of a preventive effect against colon cancer.
10477376The key to these discrepancies might reside in the different amounts and ratios of butyrate and other short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by colonic anaerobic bacteria during fermentation of fibers from different origins, wheat bran fibers being better producers and therefore more protective.
10565427Luria Bertani broth supplemented with acetate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of the three SCFA, affected cell-association and the ability to invade cultured HEp-2 cells.
10565427However, the results also suggest that the individual SCFA may play a role in modulating cell-association and the invasion phenotype and the regulation of cell-association and invasion by the SCFA was dependent on the concentration and the pH of the medium.
10565427SCFA mixture, butyrate (100 mM) and propionate (50 mM) at pH 6, differences in cell-association and invasion were observed among these cultures.
10586066Using the polyfructose, bacterial levan, as a model polysaccharide, we analyzed how V regions affect binding in anti-polysaccharide mAbs.
10586066The BALB/c mAb were mostly germline VHJ606:Vkappa11, and a subset contained presumed somatic mutations in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) that correlated with increases in avidity for the beta(2-->1) inulin linkage of levan.
10586066In this report, VHJ606 Abs containing various combinations of specifically mutated H and L chains were produced by engineered transfectants and tested for inulin avidity and levan binding.
10586066Two presumed somatic mutations seen in CDRs of the BALB/c hybridomas were shown to directly cause marked increases in avidity for inulin (VH N53H, 9-fold; VL N53I, 20-fold; together, 46-fold) but not for beta(2-->6) levan.
10586066Three-dimensional models of the V regions suggested that residues that affect binding to inulin alone are near the edge of the CDR surface, while residues involved with binding both forms of levan and affecting fine specificity are in the VH:VL junctional area.
10619166Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references.
10620476The studies have demonstrated that inulin-type fructans, when administered in the diet at high levels, do not result in mortality, morbidity, target organ toxicity, reproductive or developmental toxicity, or carcinogenicity.
10632723Analysis by HPLC showed that the commercial inulin preparations used in our study contained no low molecular mass sugars that could be responsible for the observed stabilizing effect of the fructans.
10654588In the test group, faecal lactic acid concentration and the ratio of acetic acid:total SCFA; and the ratio of butyric acid:total SCFA, in the control group were both significantly reduced (P = 0.
10681709However, the kit was found to be reliable for identification of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus salivarius.
10736623This process, namely fermentation, is an important function of the large bowel; SCFAs, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate account for approximately 80% of the colonic anion concentration and are produced in nearly constant molar ratio 60:25:15.
10736623While the fermentative production of SCFAs has been acknowledged as a principal mechanism of intestinal digestion in ruminants, the interest in the effects of SCFAs production on the human organism has been raising in the last ten years.
10736623The effects have been attributed to the oxidation of SCFAs in the colonocytes and to the ability of butyrate to induce enzymes (i.
10736623This article briefly reviews the role of SCFAs, particularly butyrate, in intestinal mucosal growth and potential clinical applications in inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the large bowel.
10763953RESULTS: In the present study, healthy colostomy subjects fed stale maize porridge had significantly more production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) (mean SCFA, HRS = 182.
10763953The SCFA butyrate (mean, HRS = 35.
10826713During its pathogenic life cycle, Salmonella typhimurium is also exposed to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially acetate, propionate, and butyrate, in the intestinal lumen, as well as the SCFA used as food preservatives.
10826713The effects of SCFA on the expression of hilA and invF-lacZY transcriptional fusions were examined to determine the potential role of SCFA in the pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium.
10826713At pH 7, hilA and invF expression was induced by acetate but not by propionate or butyrate, while at pH 6, all SCFA induced hilA and invF expression at 1 h.
10843791The effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA: acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH secretion from pituitary somatotrophs were assessed on isolated anterior pituitary cells of goats.
10843791Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium for 3 days, either in the presence (1, 3, or 10 mM) or in the absence of each SCFA, and then stimulated with GHRH (10(-12) to 10(-7) M) for 30 min, again in the presence of and at the concentration of SCFA used over the previous 3 days.
10843791In the cells cultured in the absence of SCFA, the addition of SCFA to the medium during the GHRH stimulation period did not significantly change GHRH-induced GH release.
10843791However, in cells cultured in the presence of either propionate (3 or 10 mM) or butyrate (1, 3, or 10 mM), the addition of SCFA to the medium during GHRH stimulation significantly reduced the GHRH-induced GH release.
10843791The inhibitory effects of SCFA were dependent on the concentrations of SCFA and were greater for butyrate than for propionate.
10890908The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography.
10890908These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species.
10890908Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves.
10890908Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers.
10945246GS-9 were selected as the best producers of inulase II, which produced DFA III from inulin and LFTase, which produced DFA IV from levan.
10953677SCFA infusions were isoenergetic (83 kJ/h) and provided rumen molar proportions (acetate:propionate:butyrate) of 70:20:10, 50:40:10 or 50:20:30.
10953677Portal net release of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with SCFA infusions, irrespective of the amount of butyrate infused.
10953677Energetic summation of portal net release was not significantly different between the three SCFA infusions, although it tended to be lower with high-butyrate infusion.
11031785However, the interesting correlation with the SCFA raises questions regarding possible connections between colonic bacteria, carbohydrate malabsorption, and the beneficial effect of this pattern of SCFA in several colonic diseases.
11079736Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate, play central metabolic roles in maintaining the mucosal barrier in the gut.
11103215The net absorption of LA and SCFA was in the same order (749 and 720 mmol/d respectively) with diet LF, while LA was lower (384 and 582 mmol/d) and SCFA higher (738 to 891 mmol/d) when feeding the two high-fibre diets.
11103218The sheep were maintained with a bicarbonate-buffered solution of SCFA in the reticulo-rumen along with continuous intraruminal infusion of SCFA for 4 h.
11157349Currently, food components that seem to exert the best prebiotic effects are inulin-type fructans.
11159739The present study was carried out to determine the effects of two chicory fructans--oligofructose (RaftiloseP95; average degree of polymerization DP = 4) and long chain inulin (RaftilineHP; average DP = 25), on apoptosis and bacterial metabolism associated with carcinogenesis.
11159739This is the first time that a significant effect of chicory fructans on apoptosis has been shown and the results contribute to the growing evidence that chicory fructans may have cancer preventing properties.
11193571Cl-HCO3, Cl-OH, Cl-butyrate, and butyrate-HCO3 exchanges and Na-HCO3 cotransporter are present in rat distal epithelial cells.
11193571Butyrate-HCO3 exchange (1) is also present in apical membrane vesicles (AMV) from surface, but not from crypt cells; (2) is present in BLM; and (3) is responsible for SCFA-dependent HCO3 secretion.
11193571By contrast, Cl-butyrate exchange: (1) is present in APM from both surface and crypt cells; (2) is not present in BLM; and (3) recycles butyrate by absorbing Cl.
11216498In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.
11223395It is uncertain whether SCFA have equivalent effects on absorption and whether SCFA inhibition of Cl- secretion involves effects on mucosal enzymes.
11223395We conclude that all SCFA (except acetate in distal colon) stimulate colonic Na+ absorption equally, and the mechanism does not involve mucosal SCFA metabolism or carbonic anhydrase.
11223395SCFA inhibition of cAMP-mediated secretion may involve SCFA stimulation of PDE and inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase.
11254495In C2 cells exposed to butyrate, acetate, proprionate, or the poorly metabolized SCFA isobutyrate, apical membrane NHE3 activity and protein expression increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas no changes were observed for NHE2.
11327473Fermentation of cellulose produced the lowest concentrations of total SCFA without detection of butyrate or lactate.
11435518Because all of the effects were similar for butyrate and octanoate, in contrast to acetate, we suggest that the impairment of the energy metabolism by butyrate resulted from an increase in the FADH(2)/NADH ratio due to beta-oxidation.
11573240The aim of this study was to determine: (1) whether the Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate enhance the synthesis and secretion of intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV-containing lipoproteins and (2) if so, whether these particles are able to promote cholesterol efflux in vitro.
11599989To determine inulin for labeling purposes, we developed an easy and rapid anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method following water extraction of inulin.
11599989The obtained results showed that this method provides an easier, faster and cheaper alternative than previous techniques for determining inulin with enough accuracy and precision for routine labeling purposes by direct determination of inulin by HPLC with refractive index detection.
11686781There were no significant differences between 3% inulin and oligofructose, although oligofructose seemed to be more easily fermentable, because of a trend to a higher concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the faeces of the oligofructose group.
11698242Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are found at high concentrations in the colonic lumen and affect multiple epithelial cell functions.
11698242Expression and activity of adenylyl cyclase were decreased by butyrate, whereas phosphodiesterase activity was unaffected and phosphodiesterase inhibition did not reverse the effects of butyrate on Cl(-) secretion.
11698242However, butyrate did not affect secretory responses to the calcium-dependent secretagogue carbachol, cAMP analogs, or uroguanylin, indicating that normal secretory responses to adequate levels of second messengers in butyrate-treated T(84) cells are possible.
11741852There are two primary levels of control of the expression of the fructanase gene (fruA) of Streptococcus mutans: induction by levan, inulin, or sucrose and repression in the presence of glucose and other readily metabolized sugars.
11744996The results showed this product contained high levels of SCFAs, especially acetic acid and n-butyric acid.
11749147Inulin, the polydisperse reserve polyfructose from plants such as Cichorium intybus (chicory), has been chemically modified in several ways to obtain industrially important biodegradable compounds.
11950466Levan inhibited FTF activity by 30% in solution, while dextrans and inulin had a limited effect on FTF activity.
11950466Selective inhibition of high molecular-weight fructan production by glucose, may indicate that two mechanisms are involved in the synthesis of fructans, both in solution and on the surface.
12004211RESULTS: Compared with placebo, three weeks of dietary supplementation with 24 g of inulin increased butyrate concentrations, lowered pH, decreased numbers of Bacteroides fragilis, and diminished concentrations of secondary bile acids in feces.
12005453Although the effects of a mixture of SCFAs are well documented, the relative contribution of individual SCFAs is unknown.
12005453CONCLUSIONS: In a rat model of TPN, the use of 9 mmol/L butyrate did not have the same effect on GLUT2 and proglucagon expression as a 60-mmol/L mixture of SCFAs.
12005453This suggests that the effect of a mixture of SCFAs on intestinal gene expression is not butyrate specific.
12029520The lsdB expression in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter resulted in an active enzyme which hydrolyzed levan, inulin, 1-kestose, raffinose, and sucrose, but not melezitose.
12029520The recombinant LsdB showed a fourfold higher rate of hydrolysis on levan compared to inulin, and the reaction on both substrates resulted in the successive liberation of the terminal fructosyl residues without formation of intermediate oligofructans, indicating a non-specific exo-levanase activity.
12088514Concerning short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) most studies have been using oligofructose and points at an increased butyric acid formation in the caecum of rats.
12088514As inulin has a higher molecular weight than oligofructose it might be speculated if this could be a reason to the different SCFA-profile formed.
12088514No effects on faecal concentrations of SCFA in humans have been revealed with inulin and oligofructose, which neither is expected as most of the SCFA formed during the fermentation already has been absorbed or utilized by the colonic mucosa.
12117770Compared with MC, WB significantly lowered lumenal pH and increased all SCFAs including butyrate, while proliferation did not differ between the fibres.
12117770Lumenal generation of butyrate may enhance AARGC as butyrate is proapoptotic in vitro.
12166954Fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing physiological and nutritional interest due to their health-promoting effects.
12200292Characterization of a novel fructosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri that synthesizes high-molecular-weight inulin and inulin oligosaccharides.
12368398Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation.
12368401Rats fed GG and Pec had low proportions of butyric acid (6 +/- 1 and 10 +/- 1%, respectively), whereas those fed both had a higher proportion of butyric acid (15 +/- 3%, P < 0.
12368401In conclusion, the combination of indigestible carbohydrates may affect both SCFA patterns and the site of SCFA release in the rat hindgut.
12416260Inulin-type fructans, which are nondigestible carbohydrates, have been shown to modulate the number of induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon as well as the colonic microflora in laboratory animals.
12416260The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short- and long-chained inulin-type fructan on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colon.
12419846Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.
12419846Therefore, we studied whether the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose (Raftilose-Synergy1, briefly, Synergy1, 10% of the diet), probiotics [Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb12) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG), each at 5x10(8) c.
12421838Moreover, the intestinal contents from fiber-treated colitic rats showed a significantly higher production of SCFA, mainly butyrate and propionate.
12444625Chemical syntheses of inulin and levan structures.
12570825For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation.
12571376Inulin and oligofructose belong to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans.
12584218We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat established colitis in SPF TG rats and prevent recurrent disease after antibiotics were stopped.
12586886Although 1-FEH activities were found to be considerably higher during the fructan breakdown phase, it was possible to purify substantial amounts of 1-FEH w2 from young, fructan biosynthesizing wheat stems, suggesting that this isoenzyme might play a role as a beta-(2,1)-trimmer throughout the period of active graminan biosynthesis.
12586886In this way, the species and developmental stage-specific complex fructan patterns found in monocots might be determined by the relative proportions and specificities of both fructan biosynthetic and breakdown enzymes.
12637251Ammonia reduced entry of butyrate carbon into the TCA cycle, and the proportion of CoA esterified with acetate and butyrate correlated positively with the production of CO2 and ketone bodies.
12684041Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids.
12684041Acetate, propionate, and butyrate represent the most capable SCFA, inducing calcium mobilization which subsequently regulates leukocyte function in the immune system.
12684041We have cloned the previously described putative orphan G-protein coupled receptor, GPR43, and have functionally identified SCFA as the activating ligands.
12711604Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced at high concentration by bacteria in the gut and subsequently released in the bloodstream.
12711604In the present work, we have identified two previously orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, as receptors for SCFAs.
12711604Acetate was more selective for GPR43, whereas butyrate and isobutyrate were more active on GPR41.
12711604The pharmacology of GPR43 matches indeed the effects of SCFAs on neutrophils, in terms of intracellular Ca2+ release and chemotaxis.
12740060The majority of SCFA in the gut are derived from bacterial breakdown of complex carbohydrates, especially in the proximal bowel, but digestion of proteins and peptides makes an increasing contribution to SCFA production as food residues pass through the bowel.
12740060This outcome can be seen through the effects of inorganic electron acceptors (nitrate, sulfate) on fermentation processes, where they facilitate the formation of more oxidised SCFA such as acetate, at the expense of more reduced fatty acids, such as butyrate.
12740063Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate) are largely produced in non-ruminants during the colonic bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates.
12740063Using intravenous infusion of 13C-labelled SCFA the whole-body turnover of acetate, propionate and butyrate was assessed in rats in a fasted state.
12740064Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly butyrate, were shown to regulate cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
12740064Lastly, SCFA can act directly on genes regulating cell proliferation, and butyrate is the main SCFA to display such an effect.
12749837These IS elements were not observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, or Lactobacillus plantarum.
12769445Butyrate is derived from colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, and our aim was to study whether UC patients could safely increase the fecal butyrate level by dietary means.
12769445Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, disease activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded every 4 weeks.
12769690Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that acts as a HDAC inhibitor and is being clinically evaluated as an anti-neoplastic therapeutic, primarily because of its ability to impose cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis in many tumor cell types, and its favorable safety profile in humans.
12844378The amount of butyrate was higher in the caecum of the RS-DSS rats than in the BD-DSS and FOS-DSS rats, whereas distal butyrate was higher in FOS-DSS rats.
12844378Partially explained by higher luminal levels of SCFA, especially butyrate, the healing effect of RS confirms the involvement of some types of dietary fibre in inflammatory bowel disease.
12926783Fecal concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and butyrate tended to be higher in OF-supplemented dogs (P < 0.
12970504Properties of fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases from chicory and globe thistle, two Asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin.
12970504Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) is the enzyme responsible for chain elongation of inulin-type fructans.
12970504This makes redistribution of Fru moieties from large to small fructans very likely during the period of active fructan synthesis in the root when import and concentration of Suc can be expected to be high.
12970504Therefore, the 1-kestose formed by Suc:Suc 1-fructosyltransferase is preferentially used for elongation of inulin molecules, explaining why inulins with a much higher degree of polymerization accumulate in roots of globe thistle.
12970504Inulin patterns obtained in vitro from 1-kestose and the purified 1-FFTs from both species closely resemble the in vivo inulin patterns.
14519799In humans, colonic bacteria ferment unabsorbed carbohydrates, producing the SCFA acetic, propionic and n-butyric acids.
14519799To test for interactions among the SCFA that may affect their absorption, healthy subjects (n = 10) were given 300-mL rectal infusions containing acetate (60 mmol/L), propionate (20 mmol/L) and butyrate (20 mmol/L), alone or in combinations of two or three.
14552381The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary galactooligosaccharide (Gal OS) addition on swine nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial populations, and ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and to determine their impact on ileal fermentative characteristics in vitro.
14582967The effects of different oligosaccharides [fructooligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and isomaltooligosaccharide (MOS)] and inulin on heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation and overall mutagenicity in fried ground patties were evaluated.
14608102Among the produced SCFA, butyrate appears to be responsible for increasing plasma GLP-2 concentration, in addition to the enterotrophic effects.
14633047However, in hay-fed sheep, the difference in increase among 80, 100 and 120 mmol/l SCFA was not significant, indicating that, above 80 mmol/l SCFA Jms and Jnet exhibit saturation.
14677862OF) and inulin, were tested against a 0% supplemental fructan control.
14695445In the large intestine, HAS is fermented by intestinal bacteria, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly butyrate.
14704309Prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis modulates intestinal immune functions in rats.
14704309Therefore, PRO (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12), PRE (inulin enriched with oligofructose), and SYN (combination of PRO and PRE) were fed to F344 rats for 4 wk as supplements to a high fat diet.
14962641Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced mainly in the colon by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates.
14962641Although luminal production of modest quantities of SCFAs is essential for normal colonic mucosal function, excessive production/accumulation of SCFAs may arise in premature infants due to increased luminal carbohydrates malabsorption and poor gastrointestinal motility, and may have deleterious effects on mucosal integrity.
15031663HCl or by 1 M short chain fatty acids (SCFA, acetic, propionic and butyric acid) stock solution.
15051827Similar effects were observed in SCFA possessing different carbon lengths (C3-C7), but not in branched isobutyric acid, indicating that the stimulatory properties of SCFA were related to fatty acid structure.
15063498Metabolite production was demonstrated for all strains of the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc citreum, and for some strains of Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
15066781Growth on both more common energy sources (glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, and sucrose) and inulin-type fructans was examined.
15066781The fermentations with the inulin-type fructans resulted in changes in both growth and metabolite production due to the preferential metabolism of certain fructans, especially the short-chain oligomers.
15109727IBM bound specifically to polyfructans such as inulin and levan but it did not interact with any of the glycan polymers tested in this study including cellulose, xylan, and starch.
15195908The pH and the digestibility of pectins, the concentration of total SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, bicarbonate and chloride increased.
15225596FOS)-based prebiotics Inulin, Raftiline, Raftilose and Actilight were the most effective in increasing the cellular resistance to faecal water genotoxicity, whereas fermentations with Elixor (a galactooligosaccharide) and Fibersol (a maltodextrin) were less effective.
15291402Therefore, we examined the effect of SCFA supplemented TPN on structural aspects of intestinal adaptation and hypothesized that butyrate is the SCFA responsible for these effects.
15291402METHODS: Piglets (n = 120) were randomized to (1) control TPN or TPN supplemented with (2) 60 mmol/L SCFA (36 mmol/L acetate, 15 mmol/L propionate and 9 mmol/L butyrate), (3) 9 mmol/L butyrate, or (4) 60 mmol/L butyrate.
15291402CONCLUSIONS: Butyrate is the SCFA responsible for augmenting structural aspects of intestinal adaptations by increasing proliferation and decreasing apoptosis within 4 hours postresection.
15345686We therefore hypothesized that PAT1 and its ortholog PAT2 may also be able to recognize and transport the homologous short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
15345686PAT-mediated uptake of radiolabeled proline was also dose-dependently reduced by SCFA and could be described by first order competition kinetics with apparent Ki-values for butyrate of 6.
15345686An electroneutral H+/SCFA symport mode was demonstrated by recording intracellular pH changes under voltage clamp conditions with rate constants for the initial intracellular acidification in the presence of SCFAs significantly increased in PAT-expressing oocytes.
15446478Results showed that the major SCFA produced were acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
15446478The inclusion of soluble dietary fiber (diet SBP) caused the highest concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA, whereas the increase in the production of propionate resulting from the addition of insoluble dietary fiber (diet WB) only occurred at the initial stages during 48 h in vitro fermentation.
15476976This study aimed to develop a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set for the identification of seven probiotic Lactobacillus species such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
15489207Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor-preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses, probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis), and their synbiotic combination.
15514253For WKY, increasing SF led to lower levels of the major SCFA and lower total SCFA levels in cecal digesta (P < 0.
15553141To explore the prebiotic effect of FOS and inulin, related to of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation in faecal cultures due to fermentative metabolism of intestinal microflora, analysis of SCFAs, acetic and lactic acid was achieved by co-electroosmotic capillary electrophoresis, where the electrophoretic mobility of the anionic analytes and electroosmotic flow (EOF) were similarly directed.
15596397Unlike C+IN, the dietary combination of CMC- and inulin-enhanced fermentation in the caecum of rats, however the proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate was less beneficial.
15596397Compared to CMC, inulin gave a higher concentration of SCFA, especially of butyrate and propionate.
15611351Rats from each of the three postnatal age groups were randomly divided to receive one of the following distinct SCFA solutions: acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, or a mixture of above SCFAs solutions.
15611351The severity of mucosal injury induced by luminal SCFAs administration decreased as the rats matured; by postnatal day 23, the injury caused by SCFAs was minimal.
15611351Thus, the severity of the colonic mucosal injury induced by luminal SCFAs is maturation dependent; the immature state of the mucosal defense in early postnatal age in newborn rat may explain its greater vulnerability to luminal SCFAs.
15612246The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three SCFA, butyrate, propionate and acetate, on the differentiation, proliferation, and matrix interactions of the Caco-2 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line.
15770222OBJECTIVE: In experimental animals, recent results suggest that the addition of inulin-type fructans such as oligofructose (OFS) in the diet decreases triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver tissue.
15808363The model was tested by comparing survival of bacteria isolated from humans (Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) animals (Bifidobacterium animalis, 2 strains), and fermented dairy products (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus kefirgranum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides) with their survival as determined by conventional methods.
15841496Several studies have reported that IBD is associated with impairment in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
15877886Introducing inulin-type fructans.
15877886Inulin is a generic term to cover all beta(2-->1) linear fructans.
15877886Chicory inulin is a linear beta(2-->1) fructan (degree of polymerisation (DP) 2 to 60; DPav=12), its partial enzymatic hydrolysis product is oligofructose (DP 2 to 8; DPav=4), and by applying specific separation technologies a long-chain inulin known as inulin HP (DP 10 to 60; DPav=25) can be produced.
15877886Finally, a specific product known as oligofructose-enriched inulin is obtained by combining chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose.
15877886Because of the beta-configuration of the anomeric C2 in their fructose monomers, inulin-type fructans resist hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, they classify as 'non-digestible' carbohydrates, and they are dietary fibres.
15877886In the colon, they are rapidly fermented to produce SCFA that are good candidates to explain some of the systemic effects of inulin-type fructans.
15877886Fermentation of inulin-type fructans in the large bowel is a selective process; bifidobacteria (and possibly a few other genera) are preferentially stimulated to grow, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora by increasing the number of potentially health-promoting bacteria and reducing the number of potentially harmful species.
15877886From a nutrition labelling perspective, inulin-type fructans are not only prebiotic dietary fibres; they are also low-calorie carbohydrates [6.
15877886Supported by the results of a large number of animal studies and human nutrition intervention trials, the claim 'inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption' is scientifically substantiated, but different inulin-type fructans have probably a different efficacy (in terms of effective daily dose), the most active product being the oligofructose-enriched inulin.
15877894Animal and clinical studies have shown that inulin-type fructans will stimulate an increase in probiotics (commensal bacteria) and these bacteria have been shown to modulate the development and persistence of appropriate mucosal immune responses.
15877896So far, the bifidogenic effect of oligofructose and inulin has been demonstrated in animals and in adults, of oligofructose in infants and toddlers and of a long-chain inulin (10 %) and galactooligosaccharide (90 %) mixture in term and preterm infants.
15877896Studies published post marketing show that infants fed a long-chain inulin/galactooligosaccharide mixture (0.
15877897Inulin-type fructans have been shown to improve the metabolic functions of the commensal flora.
15877897Both inulin and oligofructose stimulate colonic production of SCFA and favour the growth of indigenous lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria.
15877898Bifidobacterium longum) isolated from healthy rectal mucosa combined with a prebiotic (oligofructose-enriched inulin - Synergy 1) was developed.
15877900Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data.
15877900Research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties.
15877900Higher beneficial effects were achieved by synbiotics (mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics), long-chain inulin-type fructans compared to short-chain derivatives, and feeding high-fat Western style diets.
15877900In conclusion, evidence has been accumulated that shows that inulin-type fructans and corresponding fermentation products reduced the risks for colon cancer.
15877902Inulin-type fructans have been proposed to benefit mineral retention, thereby enhancing bone health.
15877902Inulin-type fructans enhance Mg retention.
15893395The strains belonged to 11 main RAPD-PCR fingerprinting library units identified as Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis.
15945463The study is concerned with the technological processing of chicory Cichorium intybus in order to isolate the fructan polysaccharide inulin (C6H10O5) and the optimization of the individual production steps of extraction (the method of purification of the raw material prior to the extraction itself and purification of the final product.
15955313Since one of these SCFAs, butyrate, is known to affect DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, we examined the effect of SCFAs on Entamoeba trophozoite DNA content.
15960982GC-MS confirmed that the main constituent monosaccharide in artichoke inulin was fructose and its degradation by inulinase indicated that it contained the expected beta-2,1-fructan bonds.
15975167Inulin and Brussels sprouts increased the butyrate and acetate proportion, respectively, while the fermented milk did not modify the caecal biochemistry.
15979820The objective of the present study was to monitor possible changes in faecal microbiota of seven healthy adult dogs related to the administration of two fructans, oligofructose and inulin.
16042586Butyrate, a short-chain-fatty-acid end product of carbohydrate fermentation in the colon, shares a number of anti-neoplastic properties with aspirin, including inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of CRC cells.
16078948Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including propionate, butyrate and acetate, are fermentation products of carbohydrates in the colon.
16085808Survival on table olives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (three strains), Lactobacillus paracasei (two strains), Bifidobacterium bifidum (one strain), and Bifidobacterium longum (one strain) at room temperature was investigated.
16126464Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats.
16126464Inulin-type fructans (inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) in the diet do increase intestinal calcium absorption in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified.
16126464We therefore assessed the effects of fermentation of inulin-type fructans on transepithelial calcium transport in rat large intestine.
16126464Thus, inulin-type fructans increase the large intestinal calcium absorption by different mechanisms including enhanced pools of soluble and ionized calcium, an increase in the absorptive surface predominantly in caecum, the increased concentrations of SCFAs, and by direct interaction with the intestinal tissue.
16204533During batch fermentation on inulin, the short fructans disappeared first, and then the longer ones were gradually consumed.
16204533Four strains were tested for extracellular hydrolytic activity against fructans, and only the two strains which ferment inulin showed this activity.
16249132Rats fed fructans had a similar increase in cecal wall weight (30%), but the relative increase in cecal levels of calbinding-9 K was 2 in the OLF group and 4 in the inulin group.
16249132The increase in whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) as measured by DXA was greater in the inulin group than in the OLF group but DXA detected an increase in the BMC of excised femurs only in the inulin group.
16249132In contrast, pQCT conducted ex vivo detected a significant increase in the area and mineral density (BMD) of the cancellous bone of both the proximal tibia and vertebra in rats fed fructans and the effect of inulin was greater (P < 0.
16249132These observations suggest that, although both inulin and OLF both have a positive effect on BMD, the greatest effect of inulin is related to the higher capacity of this fructan to reduce bone resorption.
16253138BACKGROUND: previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals.
16254517OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of butyrate-induced colonic injury on ITF gene expression in vivo and to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of ITF gene expression in vitro.
16254517To further define ITF gene regulation by butyrate, transient transfection assays were performed on a 930 bp human ITF promoter-luciferase reporter gene plasmid in LS174T cells with or without the presence of butyrate.
16254517Furthermore, butyrate reduced ITF promoter report gene activity in transfected LS174T cell, suggesting that butyric acid regulation of ITF gene is by way of a specific ITF promoter.
16263800The diet for 15 rats (E group) was supplemented with chicory inulin, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis.
16269678Ten strains of lactobacilli were assessed for their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans, which are well-known prebiotics.
16269678Significant amounts of acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol were produced when long-chain inulin or oligofructose-enriched inulin was used as the sole energy source.
16273644CONCLUSION: Sb-induced increase of fecal SCFA concentrations (especially butyrate) may explain the preventive effects of this yeast on TEN-induced diarrhea.
16300933The genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis IL1403, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 and Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 were used to design four sets of primers.
16365069Nondigestible inulin-type fructan intake can stimulate intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals.
16365069Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer periods of inulin intake and to test the effects of inulin in humans.
16366035Butyrate-paradox denotes the contrarian effects on apoptosis and cell proliferation after addition or deprivation of butyrate in cultures of large intestinal tumour-cell-lines in comparison with the healthy, intact epithelium.
16453106Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the major anions in the large intestinal lumen.
16453106In the present study, we investigated the expression of the SCFA receptor, GPR43, in the rat distal ileum and colon.
16453106We raised a rabbit antiserum against a synthesized fragment of rat GPR43; this was specific for rat GPR43.
16453106By immunohistochemistry, GPR43 immunoreactivity was localized to enteroendocrine cells expressing peptide YY (PYY), whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive (IR) enteroendocrine cells were not immunoreactive for GPR43.
16453106The results of the present study suggest that the PYY-containing enteroendocrine cells and 5-HT-containing mucosal mast cells sense SCFAs via the GPR43 receptor.
16461642This suggests a different mechanism for oligofructose breakdown between the strain of Bifidobacterium and both strains of Bacteroides, which helps to explain the bifidogenic nature of inulin-type fructans.
16490333BR11, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 and Lactococcus lactis MG1363.
16597930For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5' nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
16614404Pigs (n = 64) were assigned to 2 types of basal diets [wheat and barley (WB) or corn and wheat gluten (CG)] with or without 3% inulin (WBI or CGI) for 3 and 6 wk (n = 8/group) to test whether naturally occurring dietary fibers influence the inulin effect.
16614404Inulin did not stimulate lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers irrespective of the basal diet, although 20-50% of inulin was degraded in the jejunum.
16614404Total colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were lower in both inulin-fed groups due to reduced acetate (P < 0.
16614404Proportions of colonic butyrate were higher in pigs fed inulin-supplemented diets (P < 0.
16614404In conclusion, inulin affected intestinal SCFA and the number of pigs harboring bifidobacteria; this effect was independent of the basal diet.
16631147DP of 35, 60% ethanol-insoluble fructan of 44 and 40% ethanol-insoluble fructan of 55.
16633129Dietary carbohydrates, specifically resistant starches and dietary fiber, are substrates for fermentation that produce SCFAs, primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as end products.
16633129Therefore, a greater increase in SCFA production and potentially a greater delivery of SCFA, specifically butyrate, to the distal colon may result in a protective effect.
16652946Purification and Characterization of Wheat beta(2-->1) Fructan:Fructan Fructosyl Transferase Activity.
16652946Fructan:fructan fructosyl transferase (FFT) catalyzes fructosyl transfer between fructan molecules to elongate the fructan chain.
16666465Apparent mean DP of elongation zone fructan was higher than that of leaf blade fructan in wheat and timothy, but the reverse occurred for tall fescue.
16887608Acetate, propionate and butyrate were formed from cysteine, whereas the main products of methionine metabolism were propionate and butyrate.
16887671The commercial prebiotics investigated were fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and lactulose.
16905479Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.
16923221Factorial analyses (2x2) of caecal SCFA pools showed significant differences between HAMS and HAMSB, and that cooking significantly lowered caecal butyrate pools.
16924934In this study, we have assessed the effect of EPSs produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium longum NB667, and Bifidobacterium animalis IPLA-R1 on the adhesion of probiotic and enteropathogen strains to human intestinal mucus.
16941416In addition, lower cecal acetate and butyrate concentrations and higher fecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were observed in rats fed the CS diet when compared to those fed the CE diet.
16971578Total in vitro production of SCFA/kg of feed DM was dependent on the amount of ileal substrate available for fermentation; that is, increased concentrations of NSP in the diet led to an increase in the SCFA that may be available to the animal (P < 0.
16973914SCFAs (acetate, butyrate, or propionate) were applied to the central compartment of a three-compartment flat-sheet preparation of the rat middle to distal colon.
16982832The adherence of EPEC strain E2348/69 on HEp-2 and Caco-2 cells, in the presence of fructooligosaccharides, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactulose, and raffinose was determined by cultural enumeration and microscopy.
17036745Different effects of difructose anhydride III and inulin-type fructans on caecal microbiota in rats.
17036745The effects of different kinds of inulin-type fructans on caecal microbiota were evaluated in rats.
17036745In the DFAIII group, caecal propionate, butyrate, counts of bifidobacteria, and total anaerobes were lower than in the inulin group, while caecal propionate, succinate, counts of bifidobacteria, and total anaerobes were lower than in the FOS group.
17056678Cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria during growth on oligofructose.
17056678In vitro coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and two acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria, Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 and Roseburia intestinalis DSM 14610, with oligofructose as the sole energy source, were performed to study interspecies interactions.
17056678These and similar cross-feeding mechanisms could play a role in the colon ecosystem and contribute to the combined bifidogenic/butyrogenic effect observed after addition of inulin-type fructans to the diet.
17078753OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and pH on neutrophil oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and morphology after exposure to acetate, propionate, butyrate, or succinate at pH 5.
17092371Effects of different inulin-type fructan fractions were studied on atherosclerotic plaque formation in male apo E-deficient mice.
17092371Thirty-two mice were randomly divided into four groups and received either a semi-purified sucrose-based diet (control group), or diets in which sucrose was replaced in part by various inulin-type fructans (10 g/100 g): long-chain inulin, oligofructose, or an oligofructose-enriched inulin for 16 weeks.
17092371The apo E-deficient mice fed long-chain inulin or an oligofructose-enriched inulin had about 35 % and 25 % less atherosclerotic lesion area compared with the control group, respectively.
17092371Both the long-chain inulin and an oligofructose-enriched inulin significantly lowered hepatic cholesterol concentrations compared with the control diet (P<0.
17092371The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque formation is more potent in the presence of long-chain inulin, either alone or in combination with oligofructose (an oligofructose-enriched inulin), and that this probably is related to changes in lipid metabolism.
17098230Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), produced by colonic bacterial flora, affect numerous epithelial cell functions.
17110960Culturing of faecal material using chicory inulin as the sole carbohydrate source revealed the presence of a greater diversity of inulin-utilizing bacterial species in FOS-fed rats as compared with the control rats, although both contained species which effectively utilized inulin.
17110960The majority of cultivable inulin-utilizing species fell within the Clostridium coccoides group and Clostridium leptum subgroup, some of which were related to previously cultured butyrate-producing bacteria from the intestines of various animals.
17137493In the inulin and oligofructose groups, higher levels of butyrate and propionate, respectively, were measured.
17166881In conclusion, RS altered the colonic luminal environment by increasing the concentration of SCFAs including butyrate and lowering production of potentially toxic protein fermentation products.
17187590The G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), with distinct rank order potencies.
17187590In each model, the rank-order of activity was acetate (C2) approximately propionate (C3) approximately butyrate (C4) > pentanoate (C5) approximately formate (C1), consistent with activity at the GPR43 receptor.
17187590However, the ability of SCFAs to inhibit neuronally mediated contractions of the colon was similar in tissues from wild-type and GPR43 gene knockout mice, with identical rank-orders of potency.
17187590In conclusion, SCFAs can modulate intestinal motility, but these effects can be independent of the GPR43 receptor.
17191477Inulin production from chicory is hampered by the enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) that degrades inulin and limits its yield.
17191477We are generating a transgenic chicory plants with suppressed FEH (exohydrolas) genes using RNAi resulting in supressed inulin degradation.
17205292Levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate increased in one patient, and SCFA/total OA levels increased in three patients.
17211138Butyrate at a low concentration (2 mM) promotes intestinal barrier function as measured by a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and a significant decrease in inulin permeability.
17211138Butyrate at a high concentration (8 mM) reduces TER and increases inulin permeability significantly.
17211138Intestinal barrier function impairment induced by high concentrations of butyrate is most likely related to butyrate-induced cytotoxicity due to apoptosis.
17241351Inulin-type fructans of longer degree of polymerization exert more pronounced in vitro prebiotic effects.
17241351METHODS AND RESULTS: Two short chain fructans - oligofructose (DP 2-20) and inulin (DP 3-60) - were administered to the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) at 2.
17241351Both fructans exerted prebiotic effects with significantly higher butyrate and propionate production and stimulation of lactic acid-producing bacteria.
17255840OBJECTIVES: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are known to provide energy to colonocytes, whereas overproduction of SCFAs can cause mucosal injury in premature infants.
17263839Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705, Bifidobacterium longum 46, Bifidobacterium lactis 420 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 were shown to be the most effective in toxin removal among 11 tested strains.
17284748OBJECTIVE: The objective was to verify whether the prebiotic concept (selective interaction with colonic flora of nondigested carbohydrates) as induced by a synbiotic preparation-oligofructose-enriched inulin (SYN1) + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (BB12)-is able to reduce the risk of colon cancer in humans.
17291072Inulin, the polydisperse polyfructose, extracted from chicory, was modified via esterification with acyl phosphonates.
17291072The grafting of an acyl chain onto the inulin backbone under different conditions led to a highly efficient synthesis of a series of inulin esters, with interesting tensioactive properties.
17293485In addition to sucrose, the enzyme hydrolyzed 1-kestose, nystose, and raffinose but not inulin and levan.
17297109Furthermore, we thought it likely that effects of inulin might be greater when rumen NH3 was already low, as would be indicated by significant interactions between inulin infusion and dietary RDP level on rumen NH3, milk production, and urinary purine derivative excretion.
17311984These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride.
17316019Enzymatic production of galactooligosaccharides by beta-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 15708.
17316019The production of galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) by transgalactosylation using beta-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 15708 was studied.
17381985Inulin-type fructans are fermented by gut bacteria to yield SCFA, including butyrate which is trophic for colonocytes and induces glutathione S-transferases (GST) that detoxify carcinogens.
17381985SCFA were quantified and a SCFA mixture was prepared accordingly.
17386092Concentrated oat beta-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum.
17445348Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms.
17452031SCFA) production in the colon and subsequent occurrence of SCFA in blood.
17452031The applicability of the method was tested in an extensively characterized pig model yielding portal SCFA concentrations ranging from 70 microM (butyric acid) to 150 microM (propionic acid) to 440 microM (acetic acid) prior to butyrate tracer infusion, reaching butyric acid isotopic steady state within 2 h.
17488118All supplemented cultures showed significant rises in total SCFA production, with a particularly high proportion of butyric acid being produced from AX fermentation.
17499838In this investigation, the effect of SDBS on SCFAs production from WAS was investigated, and the potential of using fermentative SCFAs to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was tested.
17591708The aim of this study was to feed a commercially available form of fructan carbohydrate (inulin, 3 g/kg of BW per day) to normal ponies and to ponies predisposed to laminitis, to mimic a change from a basal hay diet to lush spring-summer pasture.
17618955Long-term administration of inulin-type fructans has no significant lipid-lowering effect in normolipidemic humans.
17618955Short-term studies have shown that the addition to diet of inulin-type fructans, a nondigestible carbohydrate, may have a plasma lipid-lowering effect in humans.
17618955The study was aimed at determining whether a prolonged (6 months) administration of inulin-type fructans to healthy subjects has a lipid-lowering action.
17618955Compared with the administration of placebo, the administration of inulin-type fructans had no effect on plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and hepatic lipogenesis and induced only a nonsignificant trend for decreased plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration.
17618955Of all the messenger RNA concentrations measured, none was significantly modified by the administration of inulin-type fructans.
17618955In conclusion, contrary to what was observed in short-term studies, we observed no significant beneficial effect of a long-term (6-month) administration of inulin-type fructans on plasma lipids in healthy human subjects.
17644636Expression of fosE in a non-FOS-fermenting strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, enabled the recombinant strain to metabolize FOS, inulin, sucrose, and levan.
17651076Of the fecal SCFAs, propionate and butyrate concentrations were significantly increased in the HSO group.
17697171Species with maximum interference capacity against mutans streptococci included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
17706222Treatment of higher eukaryotic cells with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate causes decreased levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and hyperacetylation of histones, and thereby affects gene expression, cell growth and differentiation.
17706222Transit of the Entamoeba organism through areas of the host intestine with distinct pH and SCFA concentrations would therefore result in very different levels of SCFA within the parasite.
17711612Recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production in the colon.
17711612As previously shown for RAF, the supplementation with agave fructans (TEQ and DAS) induced a higher concentration of GLP-1 and its precursor, proglucagon mRNA, in the different colonic segments, thus suggesting that fermentable fructans from different botanical origin and chemical structure are able to promote the production of satietogenic/incretin peptides in the lower part of the gut, with promising effects on glucose metabolism, body weight and fat mass development.
17761014Chicory roots are rich in inulin that is degraded into SCFA in the caecum and colon.
17761014In conclusion, by setting up a multi-tracer approach to simultaneously assess the turnovers of acetate, propionate and butyrate it was demonstrated that a chronic chicory-rich diet significantly increases peripheral acetate turnover but not that of propionate or butyrate in rats.
17899402Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 2-4 carbon monocarboxylates including acetate, propionate and butyrate, are known to have a variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects on the intestine.
17899402Previously, we reported that the SCFA receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), is expressed by enteroendocrine and mucosal mast cells in the rat intestine.
17951492Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.
17951492Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits.
17951492Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.
17951492Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.
17951493Prebiotic capacity of inulin-type fructans.
17951493In vitro and in vivo evidence has accumulated to confirm the prebiotic effects of inulin-derived fructans.
17951495Inulin-type fructans including oligofructose and fructooligosaccharides derived from sucrose by enzymatic transfructosylation are the best investigated food ingredients in this respect.
17951495Inulin-type fructans stimulated mineral absorption and bone mineral accretion when combined with probiotic lactobacilli and in the presence of antibiotics.
17951495Direct comparison of different inulin-type fructans revealed a more pronounced effect by inulin or a mixture of long-chain inulin and oligofructose than by oligofructose alone.
17951495Mechanisms on how inulin-type fructans mediate this effect include acidification of the intestinal lumen by short-chain fatty acids increasing solubility of minerals in the gut, enlargement of the absorption surface, increased expression of calcium-binding proteins mainly in the large intestine, modulated expression of bone-relevant cytokines, suppression of bone resorption, increased bioavailability of phytoestrogens, and, via stimulation of beneficial commensal microorganisms, increase of calcium uptake by enterocytes.
17951495Under certain conditions, inulin-type fructans may improve mineral absorption by their impact on the amelioration of gut health including stabilization of the intestinal flora and reduction of inflammation.
17951495The abundance of reports indicate that inulin-type fructans are promising substances that could help to improve the supply with available calcium in human nutrition and by this contribute to bone health.
17951496Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton.
17951496Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control.
17951507Overview of experimental data on reduction of colorectal cancer risk by inulin-type fructans.
17951507Inulin-type fructans may counteract the effects via their gut flora-mediated fermentation products in vitro and in vivo.
17951507Important products formed by fermentation of inulin-type fructans with human gut flora are short-chain fatty acids.
17951507In animal models inulin-type fructans prevent and retard colorectal carcinogenesis.
17951507Several studies reported the reduction of chemically induced preneoplastic lesions or tumors in the colon of rodents treated with inulin-type fructans.
17951507The human intervention study (SYNCAN project) sought to provide the experimental evidence for risk reduction by inulin-type fructans in humans.
17951508Inulin-type fructans have been used in infants and children because of their prebiotic potential to modulate the intestinal flora and influence the innate and adaptive immune response favorably.
18042411Compared with chicory inulin (C-INU), long-chain inulin (L-INU) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 1% (w/v) B-INU promoted the specific growth rate of beneficial bacteria.
18050954Among these LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum are frequently used for probiotic products.
18050954We designed four species-specific primer pairs for multiplex PCR from the 16S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and 23S rRNA genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
18051293The enzyme preparation was then successfully used to hydrolyze pure inulin and raw inulin from Asparagus racemosus for the preparation of a high-fructose syrup.
18061431Nutrition and the microbial flora are considered to have a marked influence on the risk of colorectal cancer, the formation of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) possibly playing a major role as chemopreventive products of microbial fermentation in the colon.
18061431In this study, we investigated the effects of butyrate, other SCFAs, and of a number of phenolic SCFA and trans-cinnamic acid derivatives formed during the intestinal degradation of polyphenolic constituents of fruits and vegetables on global histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in nuclear extracts from colon carcinoma cell cultures using tert-butoxycarbonyl-lysine (acetylated)-4-amino-7-methylcoumarin (Boc-Lys(Ac)-AMC) as substrate.
18061431Interestingly, butyrate was also the most potent HDAC inhibitor in a whole-cell HeLa Mad 38-based reporter gene assay, while all polyphenol metabolites and all other SCFAs tested were much less potent; some were completely inactive.
18061431The findings suggest that butyrate plays an outstanding role as endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the colon, and that other SCFAs and HDAC-inhibitory polyphenol metabolites present in the colon seem to play a much smaller role, probably because of their limited levels, their marked cytotoxicity and/or their limited intracellular availability.
18064448Here, we have compared three families of linear oligosaccharides (fructans (inulins), malto-oligosaccharides, manno-oligosaccharides) for their chain-length dependent protection of egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes against membrane fusion.
18205991Fermentation products, SCFA, particularly butyrate, are considered a sign of 'good' bowel health but the influence of bacterial population composition and diet on inter-individual difference in metabolites and colonic health is poorly understood.
18205991Two individuals with butyrate concentrations below 10 mmol/kg were considered to be 'low butyrate types' and may represent an at-risk population for bowel health.
18205991The exact relationship of these SCFA values to the overall bacterial profiles and SCFA-producer bacterial groups was not direct nor linear.
18319240Two wheat fructan-synthesizing enzymes, sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft2, or sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft1, were introduced into rice plants, and rice transformants that accumulate fructans were successfully obtained.
18338853Here we demonstrate that systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies can deconvolute multiple biological activities of SCFA-hexosamine analogues by demonstrating that triacylated monosaccharides, including both n-butyrate- and acetate-modified ManNAc analogues, had dramatically different activities depending on whether the free hydroxyl group was at the C1 or C6 position.
18340001Inulin can stimulate the growth of the intestinal bacteria as well as alter the ratio among various short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced.
18340001In the present study, we analyzed the effect of dietary inulin on the intestinal bacterial community as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of universal 16S rDNA after amplication with PCR and SCFA profile.
18340001Inulin did not affect the total concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta.
18342987Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans.
18342987The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants.
18342987SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed.
18387111The degree of polymerization of inulin-like fructans affects cecal mucin and immunoglobulin A in rats.
18387111Cecal fermentation products substantially differed between WS and SD rats fed DP8 fructan, with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the major organic acids in the former but lactate predominating in the latter.
18387111Cecal fermentability of fructans in both strains generally decreased with increasing DP of fructans, and this was especially manifest in reduction of the amounts of lactate in DP16 and 23.
18387111The present study shows that the different fermentation patterns of fructans affect cecal mucin and IgA; mucin is likely to respond to cecal SCFA production, whereas IgA increases when fermentation occurs rapidly and lactate is a major fermentation product.
18430007The SCFA profile (51 : 32 : 17; acetate : propionate : butyrate) was considered propionate-rich.
18461293Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification.
18463979Orally administered PG significantly increased the concentration of total SCFAs and n-butyrate in rat colonic feces.
18524324Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains.
18539803During incubation, the increases in levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were considerably more pronounced in cultures with EPS, glucose, and inulin than in controls without carbohydrates added, indicating that the substrates assayed were fermented by intestinal bacteria.
18539803Shifts in molar proportions of SCFA during incubation with EPS and inulin caused a decrease in the acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio, a possible indicator of the hypolipidemic effect of prebiotics, with the lowest values for this parameter being obtained for EPS from the species Bifidobacterium longum and from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain C52.
18539808Differential transcriptional response of Bifidobacterium longum to human milk, formula milk, and galactooligosaccharide.
18539808In order to gain insight into the effects of human breast milk on the development of the intestinal bifidobacteria and associated health effects, the transcriptome of Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 grown in breast milk and formula milk containing galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides was compared to that obtained in a semisynthetic medium with glucose.
18567760Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50.
18596316Cecal infusion of butyrate does not alter cecal concentration of butyrate in piglets fed inulin.
18596316BACKGROUND: Cecal or distal colonic concentration of butyrate has been used as an index of butyrate production from various fermentable carbohydrates.
18596316However, we previously found that cecal concentration of butyrate does not correlate with the rate of synthesis of butyrate in the cecal lumen.
18596316As part of a larger study of the cellular effects of cecal infusions of butyrate, we sought to rule out the null hypothesis that cecal infusion of butyrate also would not alter butyrate concentration in the cecum.
18596316RESULTS: There was no effect of cecal butyrate infusion on butyrate concentration (mM; I vs II) in the cecum (5.
18596316CONCLUSIONS: At an entry rate into the cecum within the physiological range, butyrate had no effect on cecal or distal colonic luminal concentration of butyrate.
18614971Low concentrations of butyrate and of short-chain fatty acids have been found in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and this may justify therapy with butyrate and mesalazine in this disease.
18662357Day-old broilers (n = 80) were assigned to four dietary treatments, either fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with sucrose (4%), inulin (1%) or sucrose and inulin.
18662357Inulin enhanced the concentration or metabolic activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the caecum.
18673391Eight selected synbiotics (short-chain fructooligosaccharides or fructooligosaccharides, each combined with one of four probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 or Bifidobacterium longum 46) were added to 24-h pH-controlled anaerobic faecal batch cultures.
18684730Dietary resistant starch (RS), as a high amylose maize starch (HAMS), prevents dietary protein-induced colonocyte genetic damage in rats, possibly through the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate produced by large bowel bacterial RS fermentation.
18701826Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A, and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a randomized controlled pilot trial.
18701826AIM: To determine the efficacy of a combination of Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.
18713652In vitro comparison of the prebiotic effects of two inulin-type fructans.
18713652Significant changes in the pH and levels of ammonia with both inulin-type fructans were observed, as well as higher levels of acetic, lactic and formic acids (P< or =0.
18713652This study provides proof for the prebiotic effectiveness of HSI, and shows that inulin-type fructans with higher DP might have a prolonged bifidogenic effect, thus could extend the saccharolytic metabolism and low pH to the distal parts of the colon.
18721684Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus.
18723323OBJECTIVE: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), butyrate, propionate, and acetate, produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, can modulate the transcription of certain genes by inhibiting histone deacetylase in colonocytes and several other cell types in vitro.
18779917NAT)Inulin) or a reformulated inulin ((REF)Inulin, based on a combination of short- and long chain fructans) or dehydrated chicory.
18779917SCFA), especially butyrate.
18779917In conclusion, with the present model, both (NAT)Inulin and (REF)Inulin exerted similar effects as to (1) cecal fermentation and profile of end-products of bacterial metabolism, (2) stimulation of Ca and Mg digestive absorption and (3) overall effects on bone parameters.
18779917The particular effects of the chicory crude fractions on digestive fermentation and bone parameters suggest possible synergisms between inulin-type fructans and other nutrients.
18812643In 2003, two orphan G protein coupled receptors (GPRs), GPR41 and GPR43, have been cloned and demonstrated to be receptors for SCFAs.
18812643Thus, we had attempted to make antibodies raised against GPR43 and GPR41 to elucidate the roles of SCFAs on colonic functions.
18812643We have also evaluated the effects of SCFAs on colonic motility to define the physiological roles on luminal SCFAs.
18812643By immunohistochemistry, GPR43 immunoreactivity was localized with enteroendocrine cells expressing peptide YY, whereas 5-HT immunoreactive enteroendocrine cells were not immunoreactive for GPR43.
18812643The present results suggest that the SCFA-induced physiological effects on colonic functions might be attributable to the activation of SCFA receptors on epithelial cells in the colon.
18818303FFA2 (GPR43) has been identified as a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that include acetate and propionate.
18954354METHODS: Six Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and 931; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LB21; Lactobacillus paracasei subsp.
19011052In vitro kinetic analysis of fermentation of prebiotic inulin-type fructans by Bifidobacterium species reveals four different phenotypes.
19011052These variations indicate niche-specific adaptation of bifidobacteria and could have in vivo implications on the strain specificity of the stimulatory effect of inulin-type fructans on bifidobacteria.
19022956The AXOS and XOS preparations with a low avDP (butyrate production and boosted bifidobacteria concentrations in the cecum, but did not significantly lower the concentrations of branched SCFA, which are considered to be markers of protein fermentation by intestinal microbiota.
19022956Compared with this optimal AXOS preparation, FOS and inulin resulted in similar bifidogenic effects with increased production of colonic acetate (inulin) but not of butyrate.
19030908Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women.
19037899Plant fructan active enzymes (FAZYs), including the enzymes involved in inulin metabolism, namely sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.
19049655With the exception of LAC, the test carbohydrates increased the production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and modified SCFA profiles.
19083428Samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours for total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acetate, propionate, and butyrate measurement via gas chromatography.
19083428The rate of FOS fermentation was higher than IN fermentation during 0 to 4 hours for all SCFAs, and the rate of IN fermentation was higher than FOS fermentation during 12 to 24 hours for all SCFAs.
19134020Infants received at least 60 mL of commercially available cow's milk formula with or without probiotic supplementation [Bifidobacterium longum (BL999) 1 x 10(7) colony forming unit (CFU)/g and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR) 2 x 10(7) CFU/g] daily for the first 6 months.
19138435The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta.
19138435In the colon, positive correlations were observed between the total thickness of the mucous layer and the area of neutral mucins, the pool of SCFA and the pool of acetic acid, while it was negatively correlated with the proportion of butyrate.
19138435In conclusion, a diet providing a large pool of SCFA with a low proportion of butyrate in the colon stimulates the formation of a thick mucous layer, which probably benefits intestinal health.
19175922BACKGROUND: The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root.
19199596In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose.
19199596Substrates studied included short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, and polydextrose.
19199596Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chain oligosaccharides were more rapidly fermented and produced more SCFA and gas than substrates with greater degrees of polymerization.
19202100We found that, although a high concentration of SCFAs inhibited the growth of EHEC, at low concentrations, the SCFAs markedly enhanced the expression of the virulence genes required for cell adherence and the induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions.
19202100Of the SCFAs tested, butyrate markedly enhanced the expression of these virulence-associated genes, even at the low concentration of 1.
19202100Expression of a constitutively active mutant of Lrp enhanced the expression of the LEE genes in the absence of butyrate, and a response-defective Lrp derivative reduced the response to butyrate.
19207856AIMS: To investigate the effects of the medium and cryoprotective agents used on the growth and survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during freeze drying.
19210567Microbial fructosyltransferases are polymerases that are involved in microbial fructan (levan, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide) biosynthesis.
19250571Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tumour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis.
19251883Coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium species and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveal a mechanistic insight into the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans.
19251883Four bifidobacteria, each representing a cluster of strains with specific inulin-type-fructan degradation capacities, were grown in coculture fermentations with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262, a strain able to metabolize both oligofructose and inulin.
19251883Bifidobacterium adolescentis LMG 10734, a strain that could degrade oligofructose (displaying a preferential breakdown mechanism) but that did not grow on inulin, managed to become competitive when oligofructose and short fractions of inulin started to accumulate in the fermentation medium.
19251883Bifidobacterium angulatum LMG 11039(T), a strain that was previously shown to degrade all oligofructose fractions simultaneously and to be able to partially break down inulin, was competitive from the beginning of the fermentation, consuming short fractions of inulin from the moment they appeared.
19251883These observations indicate that distinct subgroups within the large-intestinal Bifidobacterium population will be stimulated by different groups of prebiotic inulin-type fructans, a variation that could be reflected in differences concerning their health-promoting effects.
19326913First, a "mix and match" strategy showed that different SCFA (n-butyrate and acetate) appended to the same core sugar altered biological activity, complementing previous results [Campbell et al.
19369375DESIGN: In a bicentric, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial that was stratified for center and birth weight, 45 infants received enteral probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; BB536-LGG) and 49 received placebo.
19383551Dietary fibres are indigestible food ingredients that reach the colon and are then fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting mainly in the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
19383551Those SCFA, especially butyrate, are recognised for their potential to act on secondary chemoprevention by slowing growth and activating apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
19383551Because butyrate increased histone acetylation and phosphorylation of ERK in HT29 cells, inhibition of histone deacetylases and the influence on MAPK signalling are possible mechanisms of GST activation by butyrate.
19480672These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae.
19523707The potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 1685 isolated from a child's faeces and the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were investigated for their capability to influence the innate immune response of HT29 intestinal epithelial cells towards Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
19523724BACKGROUND & AIMS: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate and butyrate) are important energy sources for colonocytes and are assumed to play a key role in gut health.
19523724Local effects of SCFAs have been investigated, but less is known about whole body metabolism of these SCFAs.
19523724SCFAs uptake by the liver was significant for propionate and butyrate; -5.
19563442Plant development, nutritional status and stress exposure all affect fructan metabolism, and while fructan biochemistry is well understood, knowledge of its regulation has remained fragmentary.
19563442However, upon transfer to high-carbon (C)/low-nitrogen (N) medium, expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) was strongly induced and inulin accumulated.
19563442In HRCs, cold-induced expression of fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH I and IIa) was similar to cold induction in taproots, even in the absence of accumulated inulin.
19572543Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were the main SCFA produced from digested oat flours during fermentation.
19572543Total SCFA after 24 h of fermentation were not different, but the formation rates of total SCFA differed between individuals.
19574715Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the most commonly found anions found in the monogastric mammalian large intestine, and are known to have a variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
19625695Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier.
19625695To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model.
19633122In vitro kinetics of prebiotic inulin-type fructan fermentation by butyrate-producing colon bacteria: implementation of online gas chromatography for quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas production.
19633122Kinetic analyses of bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption, and metabolite production of five butyrate-producing clostridial cluster XIVa colon bacteria grown on acetate plus fructose, oligofructose, inulin, or lactate were performed.
19633122LMG 11047 on inulin, hardly any production of butyrate and CO2 was detected, indicating a lack of competitiveness of the butyrate producer.
19633122Complete recovery of metabolites during fermentations of clostridial cluster XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria allowed stoichiometric balancing of the metabolic pathway for butyrate production, including H2 formation.
19649017RESULTS: Feeding anionic salts did not change the ruminal pH, total concentration of SCFA, or distribution pattern of the main SCFA acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid or valeric acid (p>0.
19700676The strains belong to the species Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
19732471HT29 cells were treated for 24-72 h with the fs or synthetic mixtures mimicking the fs in SCFA, butyrate or deoxycholic acid (DCA) contents, and the influence on cell growth was determined.
19741203Total SCFA and butyrate were significantly higher in Native Africans than in both American groups.
19783749Second, in hull-less barley cultivars the beta-glucan, amylose, amylopectin, crude protein, and soluble NSP contents determined the microbial community composition and activity as follows: (i) the amylose contents of the hull-less barley varieties increased the butyrate production and the abundance of Clostridium butyricum-like phylotypes, (ii) the beta-glucan content determined the total amounts of SCFA, and (iii) the amylopectin and starch contents affected the abundance of Clostridium ramosum-like phylotypes, members of Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Bacteroides-like bacteria.
19807780Because several of the dominant butyrate producers differ in their DNA % G+C content, analysis of thermal melt curves obtained for PCR amplicons of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene provides a convenient and rapid qualitative assessment of the major butyrate producing groups present in a given sample.
19844649Two separate experiments were conducted with hybrid striped bass to evaluate four potential prebiotics: GroBiotic-A (partially autolyzed brewer's yeast, dairy ingredient components, and fermentation products), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and inulin.
19854378Substrates included medium- and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, polydextrose (POL), and 50:50 substrate blends.
19892901OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the mechanism regulating the underlying response of GLUT2 to the SCFA butyrate.
19949794The aims of this study were to examine long-term growth interactions of five probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus plantarum HA8, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium jensenii 702 in a co-culture system and to determine their adhesion ability to human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.
19963161Changes in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and microarchitecture of calcium- and iron-deficient rats fed diets supplemented with inulin-type fructans.
19963161Our hypothesis was that inulin-type fructans (ITF), which are known to affect mineral absorption, could increase Ca and Fe bioavailability in Ca- and Fe-deficient rats.
20004081Butyrate and propionate induced activated or non-activated neutrophil apoptosis via HDAC inhibitor activity but without activating GPR-41/GPR-43 pathways.
20004081Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may be a candidate to control neutrophil apoptosis because SCFAs are normally produced in the gut and related products have been approved for human use.
20004081The mRNA expressions of GPR-43 and a1 protein were reduced by butyrate and propionate.
20005104Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is a G-protein coupled receptor for which only short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported as endogenous ligands.
20075040Inulin and levan synthesis by probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri strains: characterization of three novel fructansucrase enzymes and their fructan products.
20075040Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively.
20075040Here, we report an evaluation of fructan synthesis in three Lactobacillus gasseri strains, identification of the fructansucrase-encoding genes and characterization of the recombinant proteins and fructan (oligosaccharide) products.
20075040DSM 20604 and 20077 synthesize inulin (and oligosaccharides) and levan products, respectively.
20130660Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of the fermentable fibre inulin on postprandial glucose, insulin, SCFA, FFA, and gut hormone responses in healthy subjects.
20130660Overnight fasted healthy subjects (n = 12) were studied for 6 h after consuming 400 mL drinks, containing 80 g high-fructose corn syrup (80HFCS), 56 g HFCS (56HFCS), or 56 g HFCS plus 24 g inulin (Inulin), using a randomized, single-blind, crossover design.
20130660Serum acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher after Inulin than after HFCS drinks from 4-6 h.
20139609Inulin-type fructans stimulated the growth of exogenously administered Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20139609This study examined the effects of the inulin-type fructans known as fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and inulin on the growth and persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20139609Cultivation in medium that contained either FOS or inulin revealed that both fructans supported the growth of LP14.
20139609These results suggest that inulin-type fructans support the growth of LP14 in the luminal contents only during their passage through the gut.
20163663Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing butyrate producer, may help butyrate production particularly when combined with lactobacilli.
20298795Enzymes in the newly described rumen bacterium, Treponema zioleckii strain kT, capable of digesting Timothy grass fructan, inulin, and sucrose were identified and characterized.
20361257Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius species isolated from early childhood caries and identified to the species level in a previous study (Svec et al.
20394002Storage time caused a decrease in inulin content and an average degree of polymerization, accompanied by an increase of free fructose and sucrose due to depolymerization of inulin.
20399779Acetate but not butyrate stimulated leptin secretion in wild-type mesenteric adipocytes, consistent with mediation of the response by GPR43 rather than GPR41.
20399779Pertussis toxin prevented stimulation of leptin secretion by propionate in epididymal adipocytes, implicating Galpha(i) signalling mediated by GPR43 in SCFA-stimulated leptin secretion.
20416127High dietary intake of prebiotic inulin-type fructans in the prehistoric Chihuahuan Desert.
20416127Archaeological evidence from dry cave deposits in the northern Chihuahuan Desert reveal intensive utilisation of desert plants that store prebiotic inulin-type fructans as the primary carbohydrate.
20416127Ancient cooking features, stable carbon isotope analysis of human skeletons, and well-preserved coprolites and macrobotanical remains reveal a plant-based diet that included a dietary intake of about 135 g prebiotic inulin-type fructans per d by the average adult male hunter-forager.
20451635In this paper we investigate the in vitro production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after addition of inulin, propionibacteria or a combination of both in an experimental model of mice cecal slurries.
20451635In conclusion, dairy propionibacteria are potential candidates to develop new functional foods helpful to ensure the intestinal production of SCFA during inulin supplementation and to control the overgrowth of bacteria belonging to Bacteroides and Clostridium genera.
20452074On the basis of these activities, two strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 20 and Bifidobacterium longum PCB 133, were chosen for an in vivo trial in poultry.
20482283Parsippany, NJ, USA), psyllium (PS) (Metamucil, Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH, USA), and inulin (Fiber Sure, Procter & Gamble)--for pH, SCFAs, and gas production.
20482283PS had a declining rate of SCFA production from 12 to 24 hours, whereas WD and inulin had a higher rate during that period.
20482283Differences in fermentation rate, gas production, and SCFA production observed for WD, PS, and inulin may affect their gastrointestinal tolerance and require further study.
20563285In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples.
20579180Chicory (Cichorium intybus) belongs to plants of the Compositae family accumulating energy in the form of inulin fructan.
20653543Prebiotic properties have been demonstrated for inulin-type fructans, galactoolicosaccharides and lactulose.
20653543Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), considered as inulin-type fructans, represent an important source of prebiotic compounds that are widely used as an ingredient in functional foods.
20671196The major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced in the colonic lumen by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber.
20671196Since sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1, SLC5A8) has recently been shown to play a role in Na(+)-coupled transport of monocarboxylates, including SCFA, such as luminal butyrate, we examined the effects of proinflammatory TNF-α on SMCT1 expression and function and potential anti-inflammatory role of probiotic Lactobacillus species in counteracting the TNF-α effects.
20679207Real-time PCR analysis showed that the β-fructofuranosidase and adjacent ABC transport protein showed greatest induction during growth on inulin, whereas the 1-phosphofructokinase enzyme and linked sugar phosphotransferase transport system were most strongly up-regulated during growth on fructose, indicating that these two clusters play distinct roles in the use of inulin.
20679207Escherichia coli and shown to hydrolyze fructans ranging from inulin down to sucrose, with greatest activity on fructo-oligosaccharides.
20680564The bacterium was able to grow on Timothy grass fructan, inulin, sucrose, fructose and glucose as a sole carbon source, reaching absorbance of population in a range of 0.
20680564The bacterial cell extract catalyzed the degradation of Timothy grass fructan, inulin and sucrose in relation to carbon source present in growth medium.
20735858Participants were children aged 1 - 23 months, who were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: Oral rehydration therapy plus placebo; Oral rehydration solution plus Saccharomyces boulardii; or Oral rehydration solution plus a compound containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii.
20800681Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity.
20822177Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA24W and DPPMASL33, Lactobacillus fermentum DPPMA114, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DPPMAAZ1 showed the highest activities and were selected as the mixed starter to ferment various soy milk preparations, which mainly differed for chemical composition, protein dispersibility index, and size dimension.
20822875This study characterized a glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) β-galactosidase of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LacA) and compared lactose hydrolysis, hydrolysis of oNPG, pNPG and pNPG-analogues and galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) formation to GH2 β-galactosidases of Streptococcus thermophilus (LacZ type), Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
20826633Inulin prolongs survival of intragastrically administered Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20832691Microencapsulation was done by spray-coating of dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 or Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15708 cultures with fat.
20878538PURPOSE OF WORK: Using inulin (polyfructose) obtained from Jerusalen artichokes, we have produced fructose free of residual glucose using a recombinant inulinase-secreting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a one-step fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tubers.
20926374The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers.
20926374Together our data shows that a butyrate-rich microenvironment may select for tumor cells that are able to metabolize butyrate, which are also phenotypically more aggressive.
20930850SCFAs, mostly propionate and butyrate, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells, but clinical trials had mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of SCFAs.
20930850Herein we demonstrate that propionate and butyrate induced autophagy in human colon cancer cells to dampen apoptosis whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiated SCFA induced apoptosis.
20951815Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties.
20965125Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%) were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 10⁷-10⁸ CFU/ml.
20971204Reduction of initial SCFA concentrations from 80 to 40 mmol/L resulted in diminished absolute flux rates, but the relative proportions of mucosal disappearance and intracellular metabolization of individual SCFA were slightly enhanced.
20971890These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption.
20971890Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule.
20979106The role of SCFAs, particularly butyrate, in colon cancer therapy has been extensively studied, and its tumor suppressive functions are believed to be due to their intracellular actions, notably inhibition of histone deacetylase.
20979106In our study, we show that SCFAs also exert their antitumor effects via receptor GPR43 and that GPR43 is frequently lost in colon cancer cells.
20979106Restoration of GPR43 expression in HCT8 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and activated caspases, leading to increased apoptotic cell death after propionate/butyrate treatment.
20979106Our results suggest that GPR43 functions as a tumor suppressor by mediating SCFA-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptotic cell death in colon cancer.
21037113Unexpected presence of graminan- and levan-type fructans in the evergreen frost-hardy eudicot Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae): purification, cloning, and functional analysis of a 6-SST/6-SFT enzyme.
21037113Inulin-type fructans with β(2,1) fructosyl linkages typically accumulate in the core eudicot families (e.
21037113Asteraceae), while levan-type fructans with β(2,6) linkages and branched, graminan-type fructans with mixed linkages predominate in monocot families.
21037113Here, we describe the unexpected finding that graminan- and levan-type fructans, as typically occurring in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), also accumulate in Pachysandra terminalis, an evergreen, frost-hardy basal eudicot species.
21037113Part of the complex graminan- and levan-type fructans as accumulating in vivo can be produced in vitro by a sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) enzyme with inherent sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan 6-exohydrolase side activities.
21037113This enzyme produces a series of cereal-like graminan- and levan-type fructans from sucrose as a single substrate.
21037113The finding that cereal-type fructans accumulate in a basal eudicot species further confirms the polyphyletic origin of fructan biosynthesis in nature.
21040500Can dietary fructans lower serum glucose?BACKGROUND: Convincing evidence indicates that the consumption of inulin-type fructans, inulin, and oligofructose has beneficial effects on blood glucose changes in animal models, although data in humans have been considered equivocal.
21040500As such, a systematic review of available literature on humans was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary inulin-type fructans on serum glucose.
21040500Exclusion criteria, such as the absence of a control group, lack of information on the quantity of inulin-type fructans used, and lack of glucose values at outcome, were established.
21040500CONCLUSION: Based on the present systematic review, it does not appear that inulin-type fructans have a significant lowering effect on serum glucose in humans.
21040500More RCT are needed to determine whether inulin-type fructans, inulin, and oligofructose have beneficial effects on blood glucose in humans.
21070220In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that immune cells from patients with IBD are less sensitive to anti-inflammatory agents in the gut as exemplified by the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) n-butyrate.
21078530Remarkably, although no variations in the proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate were found, at the end of the assay the total SCFA concentration in the faeces of rats fed bifidobacteria was significantly higher and those in caecum content significantly lower, than that of the placebo group.
21106924Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.
21106924The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects.
21115338Inulin-type fructans with prebiotic properties counteract GPR43 overexpression and PPARγ-related adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice.
21115338Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are nondigestible/fermentable carbohydrates which are able - through the modification of the gut microbiota - to counteract high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, endotoxemia and related-metabolic alterations.
21135754To determine the specificity of effect and sustainability of response in vivo, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v), Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (LrR0011), and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (BbR0071) were added repeatedly or intermittently to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats.
21167700The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2αβ)] by rat neutrophils.
21266094Do SCFA have a role in appetite regulation?The recently discovered SCFA-activated G-coupled protein receptors FFA receptor 2 and FFA receptor 3 are co-localised in l-cells with the anorexigenic 'ileal brake' gut hormone peptide YY, and also in adipocytes, with activation stimulating leptin release.
21266094However, findings are mixed from investigations into the effects of the prebiotic inulin-type fructans on appetite.
21270368In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g of inulin + 5 g of galactooligosaccharides increased the weight, bacterial load, and total folate content in the piglet colon; however, these changes were insufficient to modify indices of whole body folate status.
21276631There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate.
21292244RIM afforded eight fractions: levan exopolysaccharide (EPS), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) of levan and inulin types with different degrees of polymerization (dp 2-7) and monosaccharides fructose:glucose=9:1.
21292244Fractions with dp 4-7 were mixtures of FOSs of levan (2,6-βFruf) and inulin (1,2-βFruf) type.
21292244Identification of levan 2,6-βFruf and inulin 1,2-βFruf type oligosaccharides in the incubation medium suggests both levansucrase and inulosucrase enzymes activity in Bacillus sp.
21420242Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber.
21420242SCFAs in activating an immune response in preadipocytes is possible given the expression of a SCFA receptor in these cells, the demonstration that adipocytes and preadipocytes have immunity related functions, the observation that 2mM SCFAs stimulated the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and that concentrations of SCFAs can reach elevated levels at sites of bacterial infection.
21430242Butyrate and other SCFA produced by bacterial fermentation of resistant starch (RS) or nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) promote human colonic health.
21430242Fecal SCFA levels varied widely among participants at entry (butyrate concentrations: 3.
21430242BMI explained 27% of inter-individual butyrate variation, whereas protein, starch, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat intake explained up to 16, 6, 2, 4, and 2% of butyrate variation, respectively.
21430242Overall, acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations were higher when participants consumed RS compared with entry and NSP diets, but individual responses varied.
21430242SCFA concentrations (except butyrate) and excretions were higher for males than for females.
21450362Cross-feeding between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria explains bifdobacterial competitiveness, butyrate production, and gas production.
21450362Inulin-type fructans are not digested and reach the human colon intact, where they are selectively fermented by the colon microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria.
21450362Bifidobacteria display phenotypic variation on strain level as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans.
21450362Also, different chain lengths of inulin-type fructans may stimulate different subgroups within the bifidobacterial population.
21450362The end-metabolites of inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria reflect their growth rates on these polymers.
21450362Other colon bacteria are also able to degrade inulin-type fructans, as is the case for lactobacilli, Bacteroides, certain enterobacteria, and butyrate producers.
21463533However, enzymes such as inulinase or fructan 1-exohydorolase (1-FEH) involved in inulin degradation in burdock roots are still not known.
21463533Purified recombinant protein showed hydrolyzing activity against β-2, 1 type fructans such as 1-kestose, nystose, fructosylnystose and inulin.
21467635Inulin, a fructooligossacharide, is one component of oral biofilm fructan that is used as an energy source by oral bacteria.
21568326Glucans obtained from barley, seaweed, bacteria, and mushroom sclerotia were incubated with pure cultures of Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis for a 24 h batch fermentation to evaluate their bifidogenic effect with inulin as the positive control.
21626746Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.
21628635Ileal and fecal starch output, postileal crude protein yield, fecal total SCFA and total butyrate content, and gene copies of Bifidobacterium spp.
21637015Association of the rats with the SIHUMI (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Blautia producta, Clostridium ramosum, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum) resulted in increased faecal concentrations of short chain fatty acids compared to germfree animals.
21698257SCFAs induce mouse neutrophil chemotaxis through the GPR43 receptor.
21698257Some of these effects have been suggested to occur through the direct actions of SCFAs on the GPR43 receptor in neutrophils, though the precise role of this receptor in neutrophil activation is still unclear.
21698257These effects of SCFAs were mimicked by low concentrations of the synthetic GPR43 agonist phenylacetamide-1 and were abolished in GPR43(-/-) BMNs.
21698257SCFAs and phenylacetamide-1 also elicited GPR43-dependent activation of PKB, p38 and ERK and these responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin, indicating a role for Gi proteins.
21712835SUBJECTS/METHODS: Overnight fasted NI (n=9) and HI (n=9) subjects were studied for 4  h on two separate days after consuming 300  ml drinks containing 75  g glucose (Glucose) or 75  g glucose plus 24  g inulin (Inulin) using a randomized, single-blind, crossover design.
21712835RESULTS: Inulin elicited a higher breath hydrogen and methane areas under the curve (AUC), but the increases in SCFA responses were not statistically significant.
21712835The rate of rebound of FFA was reduced by Inulin, with FFA at 4  h being less after Inulin than Glucose, regardless of insulin status (0.
21712835CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that inulin increases short-term markers for colonic fermentation, but a longer study period may be necessary to observe differences in SCFA production.
21831780The main SCFA are acetate, propionate and butyrate which have numerous documented effects promoting large bowel function.
21831780RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the host.
21883787Both LC-AX and IN increased SCFA levels and induced a shift from acetate towards health-promoting propionate and butyrate respectively.
21979490The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate.
21979490The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3.
21992950Many of the physiologic properties of the microbiota can be attributed to fermentation and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
21992950Prebiotics such as galactooligosaccharides together with inulins and their fructooligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to modify the species composition of the colonic microbiota, and in various degrees, to manifest several health-promoting properties related to enhanced mineral absorption, laxation, potential anticancer properties, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects, including atopic disease.
22072352INTRODUCTION: Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon.
22072352Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes.
22075547Butyrate is the most biologically potent of the SCFAs in colon epithelial cells, inhibiting human colon carcinoma cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in vitro.
22145650Linear ion trap MS(n) of enzymatically synthesized 13C-labeled fructans revealing differentiating fragmentation patterns of β (1-2) and β (1-6) fructans and providing a tool for oligosaccharide identification in complex mixtures.
22145650Fructans are formed by the addition of β-d-fructofuranosyl units to sucrose, leading to very complex mixtures of 1-kestose based inulins, 6-kestose linked levans, and 6G-kestose derived neoseries inulins and levans in cool season grasses such as Lolium perenne.
22145650The identification of isomeric fructan oligomers in chromatographic analysis of crude plant extracts is often hampered by the lack of authentic standards, and unambiguous peak assignment usually requires time-consuming analyses of purified fructan oligomers.
22145650We have developed a LC-MS(n) method for the separation and detection of fructan isomers and present here evidence for specific MS(n) fragmentation patterns associated with β 1-2 (inulins) and β 2-6 (levans) fructans.
22145650C2 in both inulins and levans and to differentiate reducing-end from nonreducing end cross ring cleavages in levans.
22149628Both samples produced SCFA concentrations similar to guar gum, which favored acetate and propionate over butyrate production.
22157240METHODS: Fifty patients with D-IBS were randomized into placebo or probiotic mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus 1.
22186417This study investigated the expression of G protein-coupled receptors GPR43 and GPR41 receptors in human uteroplacental tissues and the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in modulating inflammatory pathways in fetal membranes.
22186417GPR43-SCFA interactions may represent novel pathways that regulate inflammatory processes involved in human labor.
22190648Quantitative PCR revealed enriched expression of the SCFA receptors ffar2 (grp43) and ffar3 (gpr41) in GLP-1-secreting L cells, and consistent with the reported coupling of GPR43 to Gq signaling pathways, SCFAs raised cytosolic Ca2+ in L cells in primary culture.
22254083The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate (C(2)), propionate (C(3)) and butyrate (C(4)) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacteria fermentation in the intestine.
22264499Consumption of XOS in combination with inulin did not decrease the concentrations of acetate and p-cresol, but increased in addition the faecal concentrations of total SCFA and propionate.
22281315Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus reuteri were screened.
22293211These results suggest raw yam is effective as a source of RS and facilitates production of short chain fatty acid (SCFA), especially butyrate, in the rat cecum.
22336744On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan.
22350318Probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were grown in media having water activities (a (w)) adjusted between 0.
22357741SCFA, respectively, indicating that β-glucan may partly modify gene expression via increased SCFA generation.
22399522LNnT fermentation produced larger amounts of gas, total SCFA, acetate, and butyrate than did the other substrates, whereas HMO and scFOS produced higher amounts of propionate and lactate, respectively.
22399522In general, pH change, total SCFA, acetate, and propionate production were greater in pooled inoculum from FF and 9-d-old piglets, whereas SR-derived inoculum produced higher amounts of butyrate and lactate after 4 h fermentation.
22444409The results of our study suggest the importance of using inulin-type fructans in the nutrition of young rabbits.
22444767SCFA) production was observed, accompanied by shifts towards increased butyrate at 20 mg and increased propionate at 30 mg of capric acid (P < 0.
22452835The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.
22457395SSB correlated inversely with total large bowel SCFA, including colonic butyrate concentration (R(2) = 0.
22491987Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici.
22495063Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles.
22495063RESULTS: When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production.
22506074Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms.
22506074Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates.
22506074It was suggested that SCFAs may regulate gut hormones via their endogenous receptors Free fatty acid receptors 2 (FFAR2) and 3 (FFAR3), but direct evidence is lacking.
22506074We examined the effects of SCFA administration in mice, and show that butyrate, propionate, and acetate all protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
22506074In addition, FFAR3 plays a minor role in butyrate stimulation of Glucagon-like peptide-1, and is not required for butyrate- and propionate-dependent induction of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.
22542995There was a significant difference between untreated CD patients and healthy adults, as well as between treated CD patients and healthy adults, regarding acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and total SCFAs.
22556209METHODS: We studied a group of 150 patients who were randomised in two groups after parental consent was obtained, to receive either a daily feeding supplementation with a multispecies probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacteruim infantis, Streptococcus thermophillus) 1 g per day plus their regular feedings or to receive their regular feedings with nothing added (control group), over the period of January 2007 through June 2010.
22582294Inulin, a linear β-fructan, is present in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels of up to 20% in chicory root.
22582294Our objectives were to assess the effect of intra-amniotic administration of inulin at 17 d of incubation on the iron status of broiler chicks (at hatch, 21 d) and to continue to monitor iron status with and without dietary inulin on these hatchlings for 42 d.
22582294The study included 3 prehatch treatment groups (n = 30): 1) inulin, inulin solution (4% inulin/0.
22648862Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly butyrate, are claimed to improve mucosal integrity, reduce intestinal permeability and act as anti-inflammatory agents for the colon mucosa.
22648862We evaluated the effects of oral administration of SCFA or butyrate in the 5FU-induced mucositis.
22648862Mice received water, SCFA or butyrate during all experiment (10 days) and a single dose of 5FU (200 mg/kg) 3 days before euthanasia.
22648862Butyrate alone was more efficient at improving those parameters than in SCFA solution and also reduced intestinal permeability.
22648862The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ZO-1 tended to be higher in the SCFA supplemented but not in the butyrate supplemented group.
22654504Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms, play a critical role in energy metabolism and physiology of ruminants as well as in human health.
22654504Our findings provide insight into the regulation of butyrate transport and metabolism in the rumen epithelium, which will guide our future efforts in exploiting potential beneficial effect of butyrate in animal well-being and human health.
22743314The fructans inulin and oligofructose have been shown to improve iron absorption in animals through colonic uptake, but this has not been confirmed in humans.
22795678Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season.
22795678The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism.
22795678SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.
22806829The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 promote cholesterol efflux and suppress inflammation in THP-1 cells.
22806829CONCLUSION: Our study shows that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 activated LXR and induced cholesterol efflux by promoting expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1.
22816655Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.
22816655This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression.
22859763Indices of gastrointestinal fermentation and manure emissions of growing-finishing pigs as influenced through singular or combined consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin.
22859763We hypothesized that dietary Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), with or without the inclusion of a purified oligofructose (inulin), may reduce odor without compromising nutrient digestibility.
22935343The benefits of inulin-type fructans for bowel health are well established, but less so for other fructan sources.
22968408The survival of single strains of Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri was investigated in synbiotics that included 10 mg/ml of fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and pectic-oligosaccharides in an alginate matrix under refrigerated (4 °C) aerobic storage conditions.
22976799We have tested the hypothesis that inulin-type fructans (ITF), by promoting microbial production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), influence cancer cell proliferation outside the gut.
22976799RESULTS: Inulin-type fructans treatment reduces hepatic BaF3 cell infiltration, lessens inflammation and increases portal propionate concentration.
22976799Furthermore, the activation of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), a Gi/Gq-protein-coupled receptor also known as GPR43 and that binds propionate, lessens the proliferation of BaF3 and other human cancer cell lines.
22990462Survival time of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (LGG) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radical was significantly longer compared with the mid- and non-antioxidative strains, Lactobacillus paracasei Fn032 and Lactobacillus plantarum Fn001, respectively.
23060857Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets.
23060857The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length.
23060857Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health.
23060857The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence indicate that FFA2 and FFA3 mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet, and that they may be of interest as targets for treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases.
23121506Butyrate, propionate and total SCFA were higher (or tended) for RVU and WVU when compared with CB and SB (p = 0.
23145871Exposure to a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix at different developmental time points differentially modulates immune responses in mice.
23145871Mice were fed either a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix-enriched diet or a control diet during the perinatal and/or postweaning periods.
23146568These receptors, free fatty acid receptor-2 and -3 (FFAR2 and FFAR3), are expressed not only in the gut epithelium where SCFAs are produced, but also at multiple other sites considered to be metabolically important, such as adipose tissue and pancreatic islets.
23146568Because of these relatively recent findings, studies examining the role of these receptors, FFAR2 and FFAR3, and their ligands, SCFAs, in metabolism are emerging.
23166711Additionally, three SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate, and butyrate, exerted a strong synergy in augmenting HDP gene expression in chicken cells.
23166711Consistently, supplementation of chickens with a combination of three SCFAs in water resulted in a further reduction of Salmonella enteritidis in the cecum as compared to feeding of individual SCFAs.
23195147All the fructan (inulin) with a DP ⩾ 3 (i.
23195147The vacuoles were also found to be the sole cell compartments containing fructan synthesizing enzyme activities (sucrose-sucrose-fructosyl-transferase and fructan-fructan-fructosyl-transferase) and fructan degrading enzyme activity (fructan exohydrolase), depending on the stage of development of the tubers.
23200660Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp.
23200660In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp.
23369447We conclude that not only exogenous sucrose but glucose can induce Fructan biosynthesis; fructans of both inulin type and inulin neoseries are also biosynthesized from glucose accumulated in asparagus tissues; the glucose molecules (or its metabolic products) were incorporated into Fructans as structural monomers.
23387872Furthermore, it was found that concentrations of formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in STG culture increased significantly during the fermentation, and its total SCFA concentration was relatively higher than those of the control and glucose cultures at 6 and 12 h fermentation.
23396737The Lepicol probiotic formula contained Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus deslbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
23411512OBJECTIVE: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, etc.
23518684Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolic products of carbohydrate fermentation by the microbiota and constitute the main source of energy for host colonocytes.
23518684Here, we show that the SCFA butyrate regulates intestinal ANGPTL4 expression in a PPAR-γ-independent manner.
23518684Although PPAR-γ is not required for butyrate-driven intestinal ANGPTL4 expression, costimulating with PPAR-γ ligands and SCFAs leads to additive increases in ANGPTL4 levels.
23518684We suggest that PPAR-γ and butyrate rely on two separate regulatory sites, a PPAR-responsive element downstream the transcription start site and a butyrate-responsive element(s) within the promoter region, 0.
23518684Furthermore, butyrate gavage and colonization with Clostridium tyrobutyricum, a SCFA producer, can independently induce expression of intestinal ANGPTL4 in germ-free mice.
23518684Thus, oral administration of SCFA or use of SCFA-producing bacteria may be additional routes to maintain intestinal ANGPTL4 levels for preventive nutrition or therapeutic purposes.
23542733The reported validated method has been successfully used for the in vitro screening of supernatants of bacterial cultures for the presence of butyric acid, aiming to select for butyric acid-producing bacteria.
23571641The authors evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium longum (BL) on mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and inflammatory response in experimental model of septic peritonitis.
23572712Bifidobacterium breve + Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus rhamnosus was the most efficient.
23600961BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects.
23669739Dietary fiber (DF) can be broken down into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid by gut microbiota to obtain energy.
23714623Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans.
23724235Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes.
23831725Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium displayed positive correlations with butyrate/SCFA production (r = 0.
23864942The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important.
23864942To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids.
23864942Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries.
23941288Healthy cultures gave two-fold higher growth and SCFA levels with up to ten-fold higher butyrate production.
23941288Starch gave the highest growth and SCFA production (particularly butyrate), indicating starch-enhanced saccharolytic activity.
24018374In a recent paper published in Science, Wendy Garrett and her colleagues report an exciting role of the three most abundant microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, in colonic regulatory T cell (cTreg) homeostasis.
24028202Using two such models (SHIME(R) and TIM-2), we compared how long-chain arabinoxylan (LC-AX), a wheat-derived potentially prebiotic fiber, and inulin (IN), a well-established prebiotic compound, modulate SCFA production and bifidobacteria composition.
24061342The concentrations of butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were significantly higher in the OL group, but the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and valerate and the acetate to propionate ratio in the OL group were not significantly different between the two groups.
24077708Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested.
24078132Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.
24078132Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was used as a source of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose.
24082880RESULTS: In coeliacs on GFD for more than 1 year, the individual SCFAs, total SCFA, and fermentation index did not differ significantly from the findings in controls.
24119813We conclude that transient increases in cyclin D1 transcription contribute to butyrate-induced papillae growth and subsequently to the increased absorption of SCFA in the ruminal epithelium of goats.
24129393KEY MESSAGE: Nucleotidic polymorphisms were identified in fructan exohydrolases genes which are statistically associated with enhanced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization.
24129393This association was confirmed on a wider panel of 116 unrelated families in which the FEH polymorphism explained 35 % of the post-harvest variance for inulin content, 36 % of variance for sucrose content, 18 % for inulin degree of polymerization, 23 % for free fructose content and 22 % for free glucose content.
24129393These polymorphisms were associated with significant post-harvest changes of inulin content, inulin chain length and free sugars content.
24132573These observations indicate that SCFAs exhibit protective effects against ethanol-induced barrier disruption via AMPK activation, suggesting a potential for SCFAs as prophylactic and/or therapeutic factors against ethanol-induced gut leakiness.
24136789Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that arise from the fermentation of fibers by the colonic microbiota.
24136789Cecal interconversion, pointing to microbial cross-feeding, was high between acetate and butyrate, low between butyrate and propionate, and almost absent between acetate and propionate.
24141712Here, we show that SCFA-GPR43 interactions profoundly affect the gut inflammatory response.
24141712CONCLUSIONS: SCFA-GPR43 interactions modulate colitis by regulating inflammatory cytokine production in mononuclear cells.
24158368These results suggest that the duration of time that animals are fed a high-grain diet may increase propionate, butyrate, and lactate absorption, and that cattle may decrease SCFA absorption and increase saliva production shortly after an acute bout of ruminal acidosis.
24177567These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription.
24281559Biochemical Traits, Survival and Biological Properties of the Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Grown in the Presence of Prebiotic Inulin and Pectin as Energy Source.
24281559Inulin stimulated the production of the relevant healthy bio-molecule butyrate, which amount was 30% higher respect of growth in the presence of glucose.
24281668In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro.
24281668Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively.
24299785Inulin-type fructans: a review on different aspects of biochemical and pharmaceutical technology.
24299785Due to their wide distribution in nature and significant role in industry, the extraction, isolation and characterization of inulin-type fructans are gaining attention in recent years.
24299785This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of biochemical and pharmaceutical technology of inulin-type fructans.
24305827Free fatty acids receptor 3 (FFA3, GPR41) and 2 (FFA2, GPR43), for which the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate are agonist, have emerged as important G-protein-coupled receptors influenced by diet and gut flora composition.
24314205Small oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization or DP of 2-7) are taken up, in a sequential order, indicating intracellular degradation and as such giving these bacteria a competitive advantage towards other inulin-type fructan degraders such as lactobacilli, bacteroides and roseburias.
24314205The production of high amounts of acetate that accompanies inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria cross-feeds other colon bacteria involved in the production of butyrate.
24315753Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, also called GPR43) is reported to play a critical role in mediating the actions of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in humans and mice.
24315753With the use of a pGL4-SRE-luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that pFFA2 expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells could be activated by acetate, propionate, and butyrate equipotently, whereas pFFA2L could be activated only by acetate and propionate, indicating that both pFFA2 and pFFA2L are functional receptors for SCFAs with nonidentical pharmacologic properties.
24352969Continuous rumen pH and SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) absorption were measured.
24356281The antineoplastic potential of MCFA remains underexplored; accordingly, we compared the MCFA lauric acid (C12:0) to the SCFA butyrate (C4:0) in terms of their capacity to induce apoptosis, modify glutathione (GSH) levels, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and modify phases of the cell cycle in Caco-2 and IEC-6 intestinal cell lines.
24356281Butyrate protected IEC-6 cells from ROS-induced damage, whereas lauric acid induced high levels of ROS compared to butyrate.
24359228However, maize FOPS led to continual production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), resulting in the highest SCFA and butyrate production at the end of the fermentation.
24361558Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments.
24388214GPCRs, particularly GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A, have been identified as receptors for SCFAs.
24389673RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate a role for SCFAs, in particular propionate and butyrate, in metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases, through the activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors and modification of transcription factors.
24390308Mice fed a high-fiber diet had increased circulating levels of SCFAs and were protected against allergic inflammation in the lung, whereas a low-fiber diet decreased levels of SCFAs and increased allergic airway disease.
24394459The major products of carbohydrate metabolism are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate.
24412651Here, we show that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate, which are generated by fermentation of soluble fiber by the gut microbiota, activate IGN via complementary mechanisms.
24454707The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1) with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations.
24458110In the mammalian colon SCFAs such as acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation and reach about 100 mM under physiological conditions.
24458110In this decade, SCFA receptor genes and their expression in the intestine have been identified as free fatty acid receptor (FFA)2 and FFA3.
24585705OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics could counteract the thiazolidinedione (TZD, PPARγ activator) induced-fat mass gain, without affecting its beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis, in high-fat (HF) diet fed mice.
24601699The efficacy of the prebiotic inulin (PRE) on the activities of β-glucuronidase, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), counts of coliforms and lactobacilli, immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transcription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in colon tissue were examined.
24601699CONCLUSION: Inulin suppressed expression observed markers, which play an important role in carcinogenesis and in the inflammatory process, which predisposes to the use of inulin in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (Tab.
24625969RESULTS: Butyrate at 5 mM increases the apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells and induces impairment of intestinal barrier functions as determined by decreased TER and increased inulin-FITC permeability.
24625969CONCLUSIONS: p38 MAPK can be activated by butyrate and is involved in the butyrate-induced apoptosis and impairment of intestinal barrier function.
24711120SCFA (butyrate, propionate, and acetate) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography.
24779583METHODS AND RESULTS: Three established dog probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum VET9A, Lactobacillus plantarum VET14A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VET16A, and their mixture were assessed using the dog mucus pathogen exclusion model.
24804847Both butyrate incubation and hypoxia upregulate genes involved in the ruminal transport of SCFA and their metabolites.
24804847We aimed to investigate the influence of n-butyrate on the mRNA expression of proteins involved in the transmembranal transfer of n-butyrate metabolites and short-chain fatty acids in ruminal epithelium.
24807711The lytic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are induced in cell culture by sodium butyrate (NaB), a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.
24843795One hundred children with mild to moderate AD (2-9 years old) were randomly allocated to the probiotics (Lactobacilluss casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium lactis) or placebo groups.
24915372Immunological properties of inulin-type fructans.
24915372Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy.
24915372It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
24915372Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function.
24915372Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease.
24926285The SCFA Receptor GPR43 and Energy Metabolism.
24926285Of these receptors, GPR43 is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.
24926285During feeding, SCFAs are produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, and these SCFAs become important energy sources for the host.
24933989Orally administered butyrate + inulin as supplement to mesalazine in UC or gluten free diet in CD was effective in reducing disease activity with a marked improvement of serum metabolomic profiles (including SA reduction) and gut microbiota in both diseases.
24936375Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei.
24936375Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains.
24936375Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.
24969566Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women.
24969566BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota.
24969566The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations between Bifidobacterium species, SCFA and host biological markers of metabolism.
24979150SCFA and not with the microbiota suggesting that SCFA and F:B ratio vary together and may be interrelated.
24979150More in-depth studies looking at the metabolic fate of SCFA produced in LN and OWOB participants are needed in order to determine the role of SCFA in obesity.
24987069Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 and sodium n-butyrate in lipopolysaccharide-triggered inflammation: comparison of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line and primary hepatocyte monocultures with a porcine enterohepatic co-culture system.
24991236Inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by strains of Lactobacillus plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with inulin.
24991236Inulin and RG14 + 0% Inulin had significantly (p < 0.
25025584Synbiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus+Lactobacillus acidophilus+inulin) attenuates oxidative stress and colonic damage in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced colon carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats: a long-term study.
25046106The effect on SCFA was correlated to specific neutral sugars where xylose increased the ileal butyric acid proportion, whereas arabinose increased the fecal butyric acid proportion.
25078377The SCFA concentrations in all the inulin groups were significantly higher than in the carbohydrate-free and cellulose groups at 24 and 48 h.
25078377In particular, inulin DP 15 exhibited a clear potential to be used as a prebiotic with significant increases in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations, and concomitantly propionate and butyrate productions than cellulose at the early incubation time.
25107977One such substrate, inulin, is a polydisperse fructan found in a wide variety of plants.
25107979Distinct immunomodulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by two different polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900.
25118238Many commensal bacteria in the gut produce SCFAs, particularly butyrate, acetate, and propionate, which have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disorders.
25153877Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits.
25153877The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which confirmed a branched fructan structure.
25163639METHODS: Two hundred and ten infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks had been randomised for a trial with probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, colostrums and lactoferrin (NBL probiotic ATP®; Nobel, Istanbul, Turkey) between February 2012 and August 2013 when a VRE outbreak also took place.
25207862SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.
25212148The increase in butyrate seemed to be in exchange for propionate, whilst the total SCFA production remained similar.
25227295In contrast, microbiota-specific TREG in the colon do not appear to require RA, but can be regulated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbial metabolites that signal through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR43.
25271242Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity.
25274213Two of these receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: acetate, propionate, and butyrate), which are important energy sources for the host.
25274213Hence, GPR41 and GPR43 are also a focus of research into energy regulation via SCFAs.
25274213We report that these SCFA receptors are involved in energy homeostasis: GPR41 regulates sympathetic activity, and GPR43 regulates adipose-insulin signaling by sensing SCFAs produced by gut microbiota.
25295259NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917.
25298006The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and/or prebiotics polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) can alter the colonic sensitivity in a neonatal rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia and to determine whether altered sensitivity is associated with changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain.
25317120Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats.
25317120OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt.
25320182BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the main products of microbial fermentation in the gut and might mediate some of the effects of gut microbiota and nutrition on development, metabolism, and pathogenesis of obesity and other diseases.
25340203The aim of this intervention study was to investigate the influences of non-surgical periodontal therapy on levels of SCFAs in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP), and analyze the concentrations of SCFAs in sites with or without the detected putative periodontal pathogens.
25352682Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.
25367106APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice.
25369827OBJECTIVE: A parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-week intervention was performed in healthy males, to study the effect of a blend of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell-52, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11, Bifidobacterium longum ssp.
25375764Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated.
25375764The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.
25454699Fructan-exopolysaccharides (fructan-EPS) (inulin and levan) and their oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) have drawn considerable interest in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
25454699EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria have been reported to produce β-fructans (inulin and levan), as well as α-glucans, by the function of sucrase enzymes, i.
25475311Our study reports the first structural characterization of fructan type EPS from Weissella as well as the first Weissella strain producing inulin.
25475691The highest hop cone concentration significantly decreased acetic and butyric acid productions and total SCFA production after 24 h of incubation, but not propionic acid production, resulting in a decreased ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid.
25490566Uptake of the butyrate receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, in lipidic bicontinuous cubic phases suitable for in meso crystallization.
25490566The butyrate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), GPR41 and GPR43, have been implicated in colorectal cancer and leptin production.
25498616Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages.
25536541Co-administration of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 with prebiotic inulin alleviates the intestinal inflammation in rats exposed to N,N-dimethylhydrazine.
25551453The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography.
25551453We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate.
25551453Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic.
25589612We observed that therapy with the three main SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) improved renal dysfunction caused by injury.
25617726Butyrate levels, however, were significantly higher in the stool samples of constipated subjects after lubiprostone treatment, suggesting that lubiprostone treatment had an effect on the net accumulation of SCFAs in the gut.
25628046In addition, the effect of MWE and inulin on short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and numbers of total eubacteria, Lactobacillus spp.
25644638Inulin, a β-2,1 linked fructan polymer, from plants and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) derived from it are recognized and already widely used as prebiotics while β-2,6 linked fructans have received much less attention from scientific community.
25644638In this mini-review, we will address β-2,6 linked fructans: levan and levan-type FOS as novel potential prebiotics and summarize the literature data on levansucrases of Pseudomonas bacteria which are producing these fructans.
25659146C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated.
25659146In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism.
25697451These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes.
25759547RESULTS: We found that African Americans had significantly lower levels of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFAs than all other racial/ethnic groups.
25759547We also identified a correlation between copy number for a butyrate kinase predicted from 16S rRNA gene abundance and levels of butyrate in stool.
25770259Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown to augment SCFA production, with the strongest relative effect on butyrate.
25770259Increased SCFA production in the large intestine was shown by the concentration in the portal vein, whereas the impact on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver.
25781881The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis.
25802859Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus.
25811420Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10) treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treated, DMH treated, AdF10 + DMH treated and LGG + DMH treated.
25841250In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response.
25850624Role of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFAR2) in the Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis.
25850624Free Fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) also known as GPR43 belongs to this group of GPCRs and has been shown to participate in a number of important biological activities.
25850624FFAR2 is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate and butyrate.
25850624FFAR2 and other free fatty acid receptors are considered key components of the body's nutrient sensing mechanism and targeting these receptors is assumed to offer novel therapies for the management of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
25890240Invertase Suc2-mediated inulin catabolism is regulated at the transcript level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
25890240It was also found that the high expression level of SUC2 was beneficial to inulin degradation and ethanol yield.
25892763The fructans, inulin and oligofructose, were known to possess many physiologic properties.
26023106Here we identify GPR43, a receptor for bacterially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as a modulator of microbiota-host interaction.
26023106In vitro treatment of isolated murine islets, human islets, and Min6 cells with (S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-N-(5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)butanamide (PA), a specific agonist of GPR43, increased intracellular inositol triphosphate and Ca(2+) levels, and potentiated insulin secretion in a GPR43-, Gαq-, and phospholipase C-dependent manner.
26056533Since Agave contains high levels of free and polyfructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two-step procedure was developed to depolymerize polyfructose while maintaining its fermentability.
26062118Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium.
26076642Inulin, a fructan-type polysaccharide, consists of (2→1) linked β-d-fructosyl residues (n=2-60), usually with an (1↔2) α-d-glucose end group.
26076642When using inulin, the degree of polymerization and processing history should be taken into account, as they have a large impact on physicochemical behavior of inulin.
26082720BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate.
26092452These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function.
26098097INU supplementation increased the portal SCFA propionate and butyrate, and decreased cancer cell invasion in the liver.
26139928Synbiotic potential of Doogh supplemented with free and encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LS5 and Helianthus tuberosus inulin.
26139928The survival and effect of free and encapsulated probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum LS5 on acidity, exopolysaccharide production, phase separation and influence on the sensory attributes of probiotic and synbiotic Doogh (typical Iranian drink based on fermented milk) supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus inulin were studied over 22 days storage.
26139928Also addition of inulin improved survival of free or encapsulated cells in Doogh during storage, but effect of inulin on acidity, exoploysaccharide content and phase separation of samples containing free or encapsulated cells was not significant (P > 0.
26156796Hepatic Uptake of Rectally Administered Butyrate Prevents an Increase in Systemic Butyrate Concentrations in Humans.
26156796High plasma concentrations are potentially harmful; therefore, information about systemic SCFA clearance is needed before therapeutic use of prebiotics or colonic SCFA administration.
26156796OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rectal butyrate administration on SCFA interorgan exchange.
26156796During surgery, 1 group received a butyrate enema (100 mmol sodium butyrate/L; 60 mL; n = 7), and the other group a placebo (140 mmol 0.
26156796RESULTS: Rectal butyrate administration led to higher portal butyrate concentrations at 5 min compared with placebo (92.
26156796CONCLUSION: After colonic butyrate administration, splanchnic butyrate release was prevented in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.
26157446Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.
26157446Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs.
26188035Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42.
26203099Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin.
26221003Dietary intake of inulin-type fructans in active and inactive Crohn's disease and healthy controls: a case-control study.
26221003BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prebiotic inulin-type fructans are widely consumed in the diet and may have contrasting effects in Crohn's disease by stimulating gut microbiota and/or by generating functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
26243930Considering formula cost in a commercial production and the recommended daily intake (RDI) of inulin in the finished product at end of shelf life (≥3 g/d), an addition of 5 % inulin for tuna in spring water and 7 % inulin for tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream are recommended.
26286349SCFA compared to the control and a shift of molar ratios toward butyrate production.
26303129Fecal SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography in all enrolled subjects.
26333285In this study, the effects of agavins (branched fructans) along with a diet shift on metabolic parameters, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and gastrointestinal hormones in overweight mice were established.
26333285Furthermore, the consumption of agavins or inulin led to higher SCFA concentrations in the gut and modulated hormones such as GLP-1 and leptin involved in food intake regulation (P < 0.
26345092Preventive use of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin to relieve symptoms of acute colitis.
26345092The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis.
26345092Our results indicate that dietary intake of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin suppressed expression observed markers, which play an important role in the inflammatory process, which predisposes their use in prevention or treatment of acute colitis.
26394008Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.
26394664SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy.
26394664Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy.
26394664Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis.
26398897After 24 h of fermentation, probiotics growth and SCFAs production were investigated and the produced SCFAs were extracted.
26398897Inulin and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53013 (LGG) combination released highest concentrations of SCFAs compared to LGG and hi-maize or β-glucan.
26398897In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs, SCFAs particularly butyrate down-regulated tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-12, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and up-regulated IL-4, IL-10, while no significant effect was noted in non-LPS-stimulated PBMCs.
26404012Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively.
26436853Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetate, propionate and butyrate play an important role in the physiological functions of epithelial cells and colonocytes, such as immune response regulation.
26436853In conclusion, SCFAs showed regulatory effect on release of LPS-stimulated IL-8 as well as the expression of mRNA of IL-8; these might explain the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic mechanism of SCFAs.
26445629Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 × 10(9), Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 × 10(8), Bifidobacterium breve 2 × 10(10), Bifidobacterium longum 1 × 10(9) and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 × 10(8) CFU/g.
26458011Lyophilised Vegetal BM 297 ATO-Inulin lipid-based synbiotic microparticles containing Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197: design and characterisation.
26458011This study aimed at the manufacturing and characterisation of Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin-Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microparticles prepared by freeze drying.
26516911Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced during bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the human colon.
26516911In this study, we applied a stable-isotope dilution method to quantify the in vivo colonic production of SCFA in healthy humans after consumption of inulin.
26516911Colonic inulin fermentation was estimated to be 137 ± 75 mmol acetate, 11 ± 9 mmol propionate, and 20 ± 17 mmol butyrate over 12 h, assuming that 40%, 10%, and 5% of colonic derived acetate, propionate, and butyrate enter the systemic circulation.
26516911In conclusion, inulin is mainly fermented into acetate and, to lesser extents, into butyrate and propionate.
26516911Stable isotope technology allows quantifying the production of the three main SCFA in vivo and proved to be a practical tool to investigate the extent and pattern of SCFA production.
26522246Structural characterization and anti-tumor effects of an inulin-type fructan from Atractylodes chinensis.
26522246The fructan was deduced to be an inulin-type fructan containing a linear backbone composed of (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues.
26528295This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis.
26579129Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists.
26583778The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr.
26583778Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation.
26613342Building on this information, we administered a synbiotic containing inulin-type fructans and live Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 to leukaemic mice.
26618586In the present study we introduced a two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to identify proteins that show altered expression as a result of the addition of 2% of water extract of inulin-type fructans to the diet of growing piglets.
26622258Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks.
26713737Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation.
26713737Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.
26778667The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model.
26778667On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin.
26858714To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin.
26858929To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined.
26861055Inulin-type fructan fermentation by bifidobacteria depends on the strain rather than the species and region in the human intestine.
26861055Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known to cause a health-promoting bifidogenic effect, although the ITF degradation capacity of bifidobacteria in different intestinal regions remains unclear.
26862979The overall average SCFA ratio for the six fecal donors was 30 : 45 : 25 (acetate : propionate : butyrate), which is similar to other fermentable fibers analyzed using in vitro systems.
26868600Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health.
26870043GPR41 and GPR43 in Obesity and Inflammation - Protective or Causative?GPR41 and GPR43 are a pair of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in human adipocytes, colon epithelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
26870043These receptors are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate - which are produced during dietary fiber fermentation by resident gut bacteria.
26871494Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore.
26921846Compared with the control group, the densitometric quantification and mean density of GPR43 and ChAT proteins, and expression of GPR43 and CHAT genes, were significantly decreased in the patients with mixed refractory constipation (P < 0.
26921846CONCLUSION: In the patients with mixed refractory constipation, the levels of stool SCFAs, including acetate, propionate and butyrate, as well as the levels of GPR43 and ChAT expressed in the colon, which were all negatively correlated with the Wexner score, were decreased and may be associated with the pathogenesis of mixed refractory constipation.
26925601The results showed that administration of a combination of probiotics including Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and Lactobacillus plantarum A significantly increased the production of CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the spleen (3.
26977303Concomitantly with these changes, increases in all SCFA were observed in cecal contents and in acetate and butyrate content of the stool.
26996537Such homology in inulin degradation products may be beneficial for the functional FOS production.
26998764Alterations in the amount of only one SCFA, butyrate, were observed only in the intestinal tissue.
26998764The reduced butyrate in CD326(+) intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after allo-BMT resulted in decreased histone acetylation, which was restored after local administration of exogenous butyrate.
27018846PBMCs were exposed to varying concentrations of individual SCFAs or of their mixtures of acetate, propionate and butyrate.
27018846Compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells (controls), SCFAs slightly decreased TGF-β1 production and reduced IL-6 production; butyrate was more effective than acetate or propionate.
27018846SCFAs particularly butyrate caused the induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) rather than Th17 cells.
27075877There was no diet effect on total and Cl--competitive absorption (mmol/h and %/h) of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total SCFA (acetate+propionate+butyrate), but eating salivation was less (131 v.
27077959SCFA, pH and total bacterial abundance remained unaltered, but relative abundance was higher for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (P=0.
27086652SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bifidobacterial β-fructofuranosidase activity was evaluated with a wide variety of substrates including noncommercial fructans, such as levan-type and mixed agave fructans.
27121286In the search for the best way to distinguish between subjects with and without IBS, the total amount and the amount of each of the SCFA were measured, and the proportions and differences between the SCFA were calculated.
27151945Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells.
27151945In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition.
27151945We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production.
27178951Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans.
27178951Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin.
27233082Bifidobacterial inulin-type fructan degradation capacity determines cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
27233082Prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITF) display a bifidogenic and butyrogenic effect.
27263293METHODS: Lactobacillus plantarum LP45 (LP45), Lactobacillus acidophilus La28 (La28), Lactobacillus acidophilus 6091 (6091), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were orally administrated to male BALB/C mice, respectively for 28 d.
27272781Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07, Inulin and Melatonin in NMU-induced Rat Model of Breast Cancer.
27272781BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemopreventive activity of a new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 (PRO) and prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (PRE) in rat mammary carcinogenesis induced by procarcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene has been reported before.
27272781CONCLUSION: In mammary carcinogenesis, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities, which are significantly amplified by melatonin co-administration.
27279272The capacity of immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) or Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 (Lp1506) to beneficially modulate IELs response after TLR3 activation was investigated in vivo using a mice model.
27403155We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota.
27428450In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated.
27433115Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters.
27441625The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid.
27446020Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon.
27448578Although the exact mechanisms for the action of SCFA are still not completely clear, most notable among the SCFA targets is the mammalian G protein-coupled receptor pair of GPR41 and GPR43.
27448578In addition to the well-documented inhibition of histone deacetylases activity mainly by butyrate and propionate, which causes anti-inflammatory activities on IEC, macrophages, and dendritic cells, SCFA has recently been implicated in promoting development of Treg cells and possibly other T cells.
27448578In addition to animal models, the beneficial effects have also been reported from the clinical studies that used SCFA therapeutically in controlled trial settings in inflammatory disease, in that application of SCFA improved indices of IBD and therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated in acute radiation proctitis.
27454873Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans.
27510655ABSTRACT: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate and butyrate, are bacterial metabolites that mediate the interaction between the diet, the microbiota and the host.
27510655Known amounts of 13 C-labelled acetate, propionate and butyrate were introduced in the colon of 12 healthy subjects using colon delivery capsules and plasma levels of 13 C-SCFAs 13 C-glucose, 13 C-cholesterol and 13 C-fatty acids were measured.
27510655Conversion of acetate into butyrate (24%) was the most prevalent interconversion by the colonic microbiota and was not related to the butyrate-producing capacity in the faecal samples.
27510655These results will allow future evaluation and quantification of SCFA production from 13 C-labelled fibres in the human colon by measurement of 13 C-labelled SCFA concentrations in blood.
27571098Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites.
27588236Survival of Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microencapsulated in Vegetal or Vegetal-inulin matrix in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and yoghurt.
27588236In this study, Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 was encapsulated in Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin by freeze drying, followed by evaluation of its survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and yoghurt.
27623982Effect of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profile and glucose level: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
27634412Bacterially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, are vital in maintaining the symbiotic relationship that exists between humans and their gastrointestinal microbial populations.
27635781Coadministration of phlorizin significantly prevented metabolic syndrome by decreasing weight gain, energy intake, serum lipopolysaccharides, and insulin resistance, and the fecal level of total SCFAs was dramatically increased, especially butyric acid.
27680592GOAL: To determine the effect of a prebiotic chicory-derived inulin-type fructan on the tolerance of intestinal gas.
27702710Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties.
27724792Two kinds of SCFAs (acetate and propionate with 5 different ratios) and 4 kinds of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate with 10 different ratios) were evaluated.
27748781SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased.
27757592Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model.
27760213The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin.
27761989AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined.
27761989Expression of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 in human islets was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
27773823In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner.
27779809METHODS: The probiotic strains used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, Lactobacillus paracasei ST11, and Bifidobacterium longum BL999.
27800650Cecal acetate and butyrate levels were reduced by OFS in both genotypes suggesting enhanced uptake of SCFAs that may target FFAR2 (upregulated expression) in adipose tissue.
27800650Enhanced uptake of SCFAs may favor interaction with FFAR2/3 on adipose tissue to induce weight loss.
27810444Lactate- and acetate-based cross-feeding interactions between selected strains of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and colon bacteria in the presence of inulin-type fructans.
27810444DSM 14662T or Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 on inulin, the butyrate-producing strains consumed low concentrations of lactate and acetate generated by inulin degradation by the Lactobacillus strain.
27810444DSM 17630, a complete conversion of lactate into butyrate and gases by these butyrate-producing strains occurred.
27810444Therefore, butyrate production by lactate-consuming, butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains incapable of ITF degradation, resulted from cross-feeding of monosaccharides and lactate by an ITF-degrading Lactobacillus strain and acetate produced by a Bifidobacterium strain.
27815279An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling.
27815279While certain lactobacilli can catabolize inulin, this has not yet been described for Lactobacillus plantarum, and an associated putative inulin operon has not been reported in this species.
27826653Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 14 days and at the day 21, 7 days after the wash-out) containing: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri (F_1), or Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
27841429Here, we show that oxalic acid-generated hydrolysates from CAX, which include a large xylooligosaccharide, and free arabinose fractions, increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, which included relatively high levels of both propionate and butyrate, an unusual SCFA combination.
27892486Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon.
27931142The use of inulin-type fructans improves stool consistency in constipated children.
27931142OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a daily supplementation with Orafti® inulin-type fructans in 2-5 year old constipated children.
27931142METHODS: Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel group trial where constipated children received two doses of 2 g Orafti® inulin-type fructans (OF:IN) or placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks.
27931142CONCLUSIONS: Prebiotic inulin-type fructans supplementation improves stool consistency in constipated 2-5-year old children.
27966565BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may protect against obesity and diabetes, but excess production of colonic SCFA has been implicated in the promotion of obesity.
27966565We found no evidence that acute increases in SCFA after IN reduce glycemic responses in humans, and we were unable to detect a significant difference in SCFA responses between OWO vs LN subjects.
27966574BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals.
27966574OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans.
27994611Linking Expression of Fructan Active Enzymes, Cell Wall Invertases and Sucrose Transporters with Fructan Profiles in Growing Taproot of Chicory (Cichorium intybus): Impact of Hormonal and Environmental Cues.
27994611In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve.
28008786This LAB cocktail, designated GI7, includes four strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, two strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, and one strain of Streptococcus thermophilus.
28031748Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) quantities in the cecum and distal colon were higher in mice consuming DFs, and these mice exhibited higher butyrate concentrations in the distal colon during inflammation.
28067041Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei BL23, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCSF1 were confirmed to use the xylooligosaccharides efficiently (83.
28070968Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), predominantly acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, are bacterial metabolites with an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis due to their metabolic and immunomodulatory actions.
28070968These effects were independent of free-fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) activation, the main SCFA receptor expressed on neutrophils, occurring possibly through inhibition of histone deacetylases because similar effects were obtained by using histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as SAHA, MS-275, and RGFP 966.
28109059We used the goat as a model to study the effects of rumen microbial composition and epithelial TLR signaling on maintaining rumen stability during exogenous butyrate interference.
28115029Higher bacterial fermentative activity was observed during lactation (total faecal SCFA, P<0·001) and after weaning (colonic butyrate, P=0·10) in pigs from scFOS-supplemented mothers.
28117694Blood samples were collected at regular time points for 14 h, in order to measure 13C-labeled short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate and butyrate) concentrations.
28117694Fermentation of 13C-inulin resulted in increased plasma SCFA for about 8 h, suggesting that a sustained increase in plasma SCFA can be achieved by administering a moderate dose of carbohydrates, three times per day.
28174773Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied.
28174773In a 40 mM SCFA mixture, the butyrate proportion at 20% and 50% showed both a protective and a reparative effect on the monolayer to disrupting agents (LPS/TNF-α) applied simultaneously or prior to the SCFA mixtures.
28174773Relating this result to dietary fibre selection, slow fermenting fibres that deliver appropriate concentrations of SCFAs to the epithelium with a high proportion of butyrate may improve barrier function.
28213610Prebiotic inulin-type fructans induce specific changes in the human gut microbiota.
28213610RESULTS: While faecal metabolite profiles were not significantly altered by inulin consumption, our analyses did detect a modest effect on global microbiota composition and specific inulin-induced changes in relative abundances of Anaerostipes, Bilophila and Bifidobacterium were identified.
28213610CONCLUSIONS: Ecosystem-wide analysis of the effect of a dietary intervention with prebiotic inulin-type fructans on the colon microbiota revealed that this effect is specifically associated with three genera, one of which (Bilophila) representing a promising novel target for mechanistic research.
28218451Specific inulin-type fructan fibers protect against autoimmune diabetes by modulating gut immunity, barrier function, and microbiota homeostasis.
28218451Here, we aim to compare modulatory effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs), natural soluble dietary fibers with different degrees of fermentability from chicory root, on T1D development in nonobese diabetic mice.
28286570All the LAB strains showed moderate auto-aggregation abilities while the greatest co-aggregation abilities were observed for Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Lactobacillus plantarum W21 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus W71.
28293641Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia.
28293641We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats.
28293641Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia.
28293641There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones.
28293641Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects.
28298683Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase and inulin hydrolase activities relating to inulin and soluble sugars in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linn.
28298683Decreases in 1-FFT activity, high molecular weight inulin, and inulin content were observed in late-harvested tubers.
28298683These changes were associated with inulin depolymerization, causing decreases in inulin content and increases in soluble sugars.
28298683As well, decreasing storage temperatures would retain high inulin content and keep low soluble sugars; and freezing at -18 °C would best retard 1-FFT, InH, and inulin changes.
28343402The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the ingestion of two selected antioxidant probiotics strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT8361 and Bifidobacterium longum CECT7347) on sperm quality parameters in asthenozoospermic males after three and six weeks of administration.
28368269INTERVENTION: Probiotic group (n=52) received a multicomponent probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii once a day at a dose of 1.
28368356The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination.
28368356Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration.
28371380METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were fed a diet of 5% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (average degree of polymerization = 24) (low-fat diet) or of 20% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (high-fat diet) for 28 days.
28396623The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways.
28396623With a growing literature demonstrating that SCFA can cross the blood brain barrier and target key inflammatory and metabolic pathways, this article highlights enriching dietary intake for SCFA as a potential adjunctive therapy for people with schizophrenia.
28448932The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year.
28448932Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation.
28452060In Cichorium intybus, inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan-active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), and fructan 1-exohydrolases 1, 2a and 2b (1-FEH1, -2a and -2b), respectively.
28452060Co-induction of CiMYB17 with 1-SST and 1-FFT (and, less consistently, with 1-FEH1/2) in nitrogen-starved or abscisic acid (ABA)-treated chicory seedlings and in salt-stressed chicory hairy roots supports a role in stress-induced fructan metabolism, including de novo fructan synthesis and trimming of pre-existing fructans, whereas the reduced expression of CiMYB17 in developing taproots excludes a role in fructan accumulation under normal growth conditions.
28482838Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.
28487606Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the healthy gut microbiota composition at phyla and species level: A preliminary study.
28487606AIM: To evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize the intestinal environment of healthy subjects and modify the gut microbiota composition.
28487606The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize human gut microbiota was assessed by means of quantitative real-time PCR, while changes in gut microbiota composition were detected by using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine.
28510826For recycling uses, the aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of two hot-water extracts from GLR (HWP_GLR) and solid-state fermentation GLR inoculated with GL mycelia (HWP_GLRF) on the growths of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum.
28543188Further, data showed a significant change in the abundance of SCFAs, propionic acid, and i-butyric acid in EAE-CD44KO compared to EAE-CD44WT mice.
28548573Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.
28548573Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677T) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953T) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production.
28548573Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains.
28548573DSM 17677T produced butyrate, formate, CO2, and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin.
28548573Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO2, and H2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.
28552897The major SCFAs acetates, propionate and butyrate, have different production ratios and physiological activities.
28552897Several receptors for SCFAs have been identified as the G-protein coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3), GPR43/FFAR2, GPR109A, and olfactory receptor 78, which are present in intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, despite their expression levels differing between tissues and cell types.
28552897This review will focus on SCFAs, especially butyrate, and their effects on various inflammatory mechanisms including atherosclerosis.
28568309SCFA, such as acetate and butyrate, and lactate, and a decrease in indole and skatole in the feces compared to those fed a 5.
28572751Objective: Can changes in faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) explain the observed positive influence of probiotics and their role on nutritional status and diarrhoea risk? Design: Faecal samples were analysed for SCFAs and BCFAs and correlated to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus levels; both at the start and after nine months' consumption of either of the two probiotic strains, or placebo.
28572751SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, were found to correlate with each other.
28576375Ricotta fresca cheese samples were inoculated either with the bioprotective culture Lyofast FPR 2 (including Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus rhamnosus) or Lyofast CNBAL (Carnobacterium spp) or the fermentate MicroGARD 430.
28583137Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.
28602959Butyric acid (BA), one of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), has positive actions on the metabolism, inflammation, etc.
28622455HLA-B27 expression was also associated with altered host expression of messenger RNA for the microbial metabolite receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), FFAR3, and niacin receptor 1.
28630701Furthermore, for total SCFA and gas produced, inter-individual variability was lower than for proportions of butyrate and of branched-chain fatty acids and for the parameters of gas production kinetics.
28638851The patients' fecal samples also showed a substantially lower content of SCFA and especially lower levels of butyrate and acetate.
28650151Interest in SCFAs has increased in part due to the recognized importance of how production of SCFAs by the microbiota may signal to the host.
28650151In the current study, four different methods for SCFA (acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) extraction and quantitation were compared using two independent platforms including gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
28659066Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h.
28659066Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production.
28662676Fecal total SCFAs, propionate and butyrate did not differ between treatment periods.
28683007Four species of bacteria with the most probiotic properties, including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, were characterized and their effects on different human cell lines were taken into consideration.
28692672GPR43), which is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), is known to be most abundantly expressed in white adipose tissue and to modulate metabolic processes.
28692672Although GPR43 is also expressed in a wide variety of immune cells, whether and how GPR43 in adipose tissue immune cells regulates the inflammatory responses and metabolic homeostasis remains unknown.
28692672In this study, we investigated the role of GPR43 in adipose tissue macrophages by using Gpr43-deficient mice and transgenic mice with adipose-tissue-specific overexpression of GPR43.
28692672We found that GPR43 activation by SCFA resulted in induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages within adipose tissue.
28698079However, the yield of SCFAs, particularly butyric acid, in the fermentation system of fecal extract in children was higher than that in adults.
28730743Inulin-type fructans and whey protein both modulate appetite but only fructans alter gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity: A randomized controlled trial.
28730743METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 12 week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: (1) Control; (2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); (3) Whey protein; (4) ITF + Whey protein.
28809557In silico docking simulation demonstrated that the lower binding energy of SCFAs toward HDACs was associated with the longer aliphatic chain length of SCFAs.
28809557The in vitro HDAC inhibition assay revealed that SCFAs more potently inhibit HDAC3 than HDAC7, with butyric acid being the most potent HDAC3 inhibitor among SCFAs (IC50 = 0.
28842539This study was aimed at improving the functional attributes and shelf life of burrata cheese by using protective lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB), fructooligosaccharides, and inulin.
28842539IMPORTANCE This study provides more in-depth knowledge of the microbiome of burrata cheese and the set-up for a novel biotechnology using prebiotic dietary fibers and protective probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB in milk.
28860561Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are important for gastrointestinal health and play a role in gut inflammation and the induction of T regulatory cells, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, propionate and acetate also induce similar protective responses.
28860561These results demonstrate SCFA-AhR ligand interactions in YAMC and Caco-2 cells where SCFAs synergistically enhance basal and ligand-induced expression of AhR-responsive genes.
28861559In addition, SCFAs, particularly propionate, butyrate, and total SCFAs, were increased in the feces, and SCFA receptors were upregulated in the small intestine.
28867685Furthermore, fecal proportions of Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes and Lactobacillus exhibited significant positive correlations with fecal concentrations of total SCFAs and/or propionic acid; fecal Escherichia coli proportions correlated negatively with fecal concentrations of total SCFAs, as well as acetic, propionic and butyric acid.
28893958Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced through anaerobic microbial metabolism represent a major energy source for the host colonic epithelium and enhance epithelial barrier function through unclear mechanisms.
28893958Using human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), we discovered that SCFAs, particularly butyrate, enhanced IEC barrier formation, induced IL-10RA mRNA, IL-10RA protein, and transactivation through activated Stat3 and HDAC inhibition.
28922763In the biennial Cichorium intybus, inulin-type fructans accumulate in the taproot during the first year.
28922763Upon cold or drought exposure, fructans are degraded by fructan exohydrolases, affecting inulin yield and degree of polymerization.
28924143Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Galactooligosaccharide (GOS) Increase Bifidobacterium but Reduce Butyrate Producing Bacteria with Adverse Glycemic Metabolism in healthy young population.
28928068GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro.
28950281In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery.
28980453After 24 h anaerobic fermentation of the preserved microbiota, butyrate and propionate production were maintained when glycerol was used as cryoprotectant, while acetate and butyrate were formed more rapidly with glycerol in combination with inulin.
28980453Our data indicate that butyrate producers, which are key organisms for gut health, can be well preserved with glycerol and inulin during frozen storage.
28992396RESULTS: Alcohol-fed mice exhibited colonic (but not small intestinal) hyperpermeability, steatohepatitis, and decreased butyrate/total SCFA ratio in stool.
29021375Notably, the receptor for butyrate, G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41), is highly expressed in the thymic microenvironment and Aire expression is not increased by stimulation with butyrate in GPR41-deficient mice.
29038988Metabolites generated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes include the three main SCFA related to obesity, namely butyrate, acetate and propionate.
29072072Recently information has been published about the presence of fructans in Aloe vera but there are no publications about acemannan and fructans as prebiotic compounds.
29072072Fructans produced greater amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while the branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) did not increase with these polysaccharides.
29109552Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are products of microbial macronutrients fermentation that distribute systemically and are believed to modulate host immune responses.
29109552Recent data have indicated that certain SCFAs, such as butyrate and propionate, directly modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function.
29111061Examples are carboxymethylated inulin as anti-scalant and carboymlated inulin as emulsifiers.
29111061Various plants synthesize FOS and/or inulin type of fructans.
29163504Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties.
29163504Taken together, we reveal that butyrate is a potent inducer of tolerogenic human DCs, thereby shedding new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which SCFAs can exert their immunomodulatory effects in humans.
29164486All antagonistic strains of lactobacilli have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and assigned to four species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei.
29169948Higher sucrose concentrations immensely contributed to inulin biosynthesis; the inulin yield reached its maximum after 1.
29169948Structural analyses of the polysaccharide produced by the recombinant enzyme from sucrose revealed that it is an inulin-type fructan with a molecular weight of 5.
29173065Neurobehavioural effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG alone and in combination with prebiotics polydextrose and galactooligosaccharide in male rats exposed to early-life stress.
29173065The impact of consuming diet containing prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) alone or in combination with live bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) from weaning onwards in rats subjected to early-life MS was assessed.
29183414In addition, the acetic acid, butyric acid and total SCFA concentrations of enzymolyzed residues of KF diet were higher (P<0.
29186865Finally, vitamin D restored transepithelial barrier function, as evidenced by decreased inulin-FITC leakage in biofunctionalized hollow fiber membranes (HFM) carrying ciPTEC-OAT1.
29190422However, the relative plasma-cholesterol-lowering activity of individual SCFAs and the underlying mechanisms by which SCFAs decrease plasma cholesterol remain largely unknown.
29192904Fermentation produces the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have health-promoting effects for the human host.
29192904The strongest propionigenic effect was found with rhamnose, followed by galactomannans, whereas fructans and several α- and β-glucans led to higher butyrate production.
29192904Interestingly, butyrate formation was influenced not only by the overall % butyrate-producing bacteria in the community but also by the initial pH, consistent with a pH-dependent shift in the stoichiometry of butyrate production.
29211757CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels.
29276171In addition, we found that administration of Bifidobacterium longum was sufficient to restore mucus growth, whereas administration of the fiber inulin prevented increased mucus penetrability in WSD-fed mice.
29276170Microbiota-generated fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and free fatty acid receptors including GPR43 are thought to mediate these effects.
29276170We find that while fermentable (inulin), but not insoluble (cellulose), fiber markedly protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, the effect was not significantly impaired by either inhibiting SCFA production or genetic ablation of GPR43.
29307330Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.
29307330HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic.
29307330This study demonstrates that those with HDF intakes have a greater gut microbiota response and are therefore more likely to benefit from an inulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes.
29307330Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.
29312822Moreover, the SCFAs detected in supplemented mice (caproate, methyl butyrate, propionate, acetate and valerate) exceeded those concentrations detected in obese and lean controls except for butyrate.
29343276Dynamic analysis showed that major SCFAs-producers and key butyrate-producing gene were significantly enriched after treatment for 7-28 days.
29343276Under cultivation in vitro, fullerenols NPs can be degraded by gut flora and exhibited a similar capacity of inulin to promote SCFA-producing genera.
29362450By monitoring luciferase activity correlated with the clock gene Period2 in vivo, we found that oral administration of mixed SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) and an organic acid (lactate), or single administration of each SCFA or lactate for three days, caused phase changes in the peripheral clocks with stimulation timing dependency.
29362450However, this effect was not detected in cultured fibroblasts or cultured liver slices with SCFA applied to the culture medium, suggesting SCFA-induced indirect modulation of circadian clocks in vivo.
29372119Fermentations with inulin and lactulose showed that inulin leads to a microbiota dominated by obligate anaerobes, with high relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, while the more easily fermented lactulose leads to higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria.
29375478To further study potential mechanisms involved in the antilipolytic properties of SCFA, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of SCFA incubations on intracellular lipolysis and signaling using a human white adipocyte model, the human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells.
29378000SCFA (control), 30 mM of either acetate, propionate or butyrate, or 100 mM acetate.
29378000Protein abundance of Cldn-1 was decreased in all SCFA treatments but 30 mM butyrate; abundance of Cldn -4 and -7 was decreased in all SCFA treatments but 30 mM acetate; and abundance of occludin was decreased in all SCFA treatments but 30 mM propionate (each P < 0.
29378000SCFA elicited REB damage with concentration appearing more critical than SCFA species.
29391397Butyrate (BT) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) principally derived from the enteric microbiome.
29391930The effects of sodium butyrate and inulin supplementation on angiotensin signaling pathway via promotion of Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in type 2 diabetes; A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
29391930The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium butyrate (NaBut) and inulin supplements on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic patients.
29391930The groups received, respectively, 600 mg/d NaBut (group A), 10 g/d inulin powder (group B), both inulin and NaBut (group C), or placebo (group D) for 45 consecutive days.
29411774GPR43 mediates microbiota metabolite SCFA regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in intestinal epithelial cells via activation of mTOR and STAT3.
29411774Furthermore, SCFA induced RegIIIγ and β-defensins in intestinal epithelial enteroids generated from WT but not GPR43-/- mice.
29411774Mechanistically, SCFA activated mTOR and STAT3 in IEC, and knockdown of mTOR and STAT3 impaired SCFA induction of AMP production.
29411774Our studies thus demonstrated that microbiota metabolites SCFA promoted IEC RegIIIγ and β-defensins in a GPR43-dependent manner.
29416529Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota.
29431874OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can induce t-PA in airway epithelial cells via their known receptors GPR41 and GPR43.
29431874METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine whether receptors for SCFAs, known as G protein-coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3) and GPR43/FFAR2, are expressed in nasal tissue.
29431874Gene silencing of GPR41 and GPR43 revealed that induction of t-PA by SCFAs was dependent upon both GPR41 and GPR43.
29462379The SCFAs, particularly butyrate (BT), regulate innate and adaptive immune cell generation, trafficing, and function.
29462896Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed.
29462896Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels.
29462896This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis.
29462896In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis.
29475132The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs) and associated carotid neointima formation.
29488010Total SCFA in faecal fermentation did not differ between groups, except for butyric acid (twofold higher in the older group; p = 0.
29488641Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are produced by fermentation by gut microbiota.
29494208Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L cells.
29494208We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects of the predominant SCFAs formed: acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
29494208FFAR2- and FFAR3-specific agonist [( S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl- N-(5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)butamide (CFMB)/ AR420626 ] had no effect on colonic GLP-1 output, and a FFAR3 antagonist ( AR399519 ) did not decrease the SCFA-induced GLP-1 response.
29494208FFAR2 receptor studies confirmed low-potent partial agonism of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, compared with CFMB, which is a full agonist with ~750-fold higher potency than the SCFAs.
29494208In conclusion, SCFAs may increase colonic GLP-1/PYY secretion, but FFAR2/FFAR3 do not seem to be involved.
29494208NEW & NOTEWORTHY By the use of in situ isolated perfused rat colon we show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) primarily are used as a colonocyte energy source in the rat, subsequently triggering glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion independent of the free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3.
29494208Opposite many previous studies on SCFAs and FFAR2/FFAR3 and GLP-1 secretion, this experimental model allows investigation of the physiological interactions between luminal nutrients and secretion from cells whose function depend critically on their blood supply as well as nerve and paracrine interactions.
29507837Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats.
29507837In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats.
29507837At the family and genus levels, probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria Lachnospiraceae, Phascolarctobacterium, and Bacteroides were found to be significantly more abundant in the inulin-treated diabetic group than in the non-treated diabetic group.
29510254Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture.
29524208Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber.
29524208FFAR2's downstream cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway was enhanced, leading to overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the FFAR2-deficient mice.
29524208In addition, FFAR2 is required for butyrate to suppress HDAC expression and hypermethylation of inflammation suppressors.
29566154We found alterations of numerous operational taxonomic units potentially associated with SCFA-producing bacteria and reductions in the fecal levels of acetate, butyrate and propionate in hyperlipidemic subjects.
29648971In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate.
29690739Cells in SCFA+ LPS group were cultured with DMEM medium, LPS and SCFA (consisting of 0.
29698465Moreover, the secretion of the gut hormones PYY and GLP-1 increased in HBG-fed mice, thereby reducing food intake and improving insulin sensitivity by changing the gut microbiota and increasing SCFAs (especially, butyrate) under conventional condition.
29700505Compared to the GOS/FP diet, the G-GOS/FP diet greatly changed the pattern of SCFA production in the hindgut of rats, by increasing the total SCFA (44%), butyrate (55%) and propionate (1.
29710405SCFAs are produced in high amounts with acetic acid and succinic acid being the major products next to propionic acid and butyric acid.
29713943Butyrate, one of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which act as a favorable source for colonocytes, could protect colonic epithelial cells from tumorigenesis via anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic properties through cell metabolism, microbiota homeostasis, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory and genetic/epigenetic regulation ways.
29730508Then, supplements of Lactobacillus plantarum, inulin or their combination were administered to each group for 8 weeks.
29745350Increasing RS levels, however, did not affect SCFA concentrations in the hindgut, but enhanced the molar proportion of propionate in mid-colon and reduced those of acetate in mid-colon and of butyrate in mid- and distal colon (R 2=0.
29778843In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.
29799027RESULTS: Oral butyrate had no effect on plasma and fecal butyrate levels after treatment, but did alter other SCFAs in both plasma and feces.
29799027CONCLUSIONS: Oral butyrate treatment beneficially affects glucose metabolism in lean but not metabolic syndrome subjects, presumably due to an altered SCFA handling in insulin-resistant subjects.
29803436Paired combinations of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides dorei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli and Clostridium symbiosum were grown in inulin or xylan as carbon source.
29805879Results: Immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic consortium were studied, which consisted of the following strains: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
29848266While colonocytes use the three major SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate and butyrate, as energy sources, transformed CRC cells primarily undergo aerobic glycolysis.
29856120Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, are known to suppress inflammation, and regulate the gut bacterial ecology.
29881616Interestingly, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 induced a significant reduction in genus Ruminococcus, dominated by taxa related to Ruminococcus bromii and Ruminococcus callidus, a significant increase in the SCFAs acetate and butyrate, and a significant reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15.
29884232Huddling or cold resulted in higher concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetic acid and butyric acid when compared to their counterparts.
29931209Plant fructans are hydrolyzed by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs), whose presence in asparagus has not yet been fully characterized.
29931209Native enzymes obtained from asparagus roots and recombinant enzymes produced by Pichia pastoris showed fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity via the hydrolysis of inulin-type fructan.
29953876SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
29953876We aimed to investigate the acute metabolic effects of ingesting inulin compared with digestible carbohydrates and to trace inulin-derived SCFAs using stable isotope tracer methodology.
29953876Inulin was fermented into SCFAs as indicated by higher plasma acetate concentrations after INU compared with PLA (P < 0.
29953876CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of the prebiotic inulin improves fat oxidation and promotes SCFA production in overweight to obese men.
29963455Introduction: We aimed to investigate the effects of intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum (BB536-y) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in preventing colorectal carcinogenesis in healthy subjects, and the preventive effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), whose production was enhanced by the intake of BB536-y and FOS, in human colon cancer cell lines.
29963455Subsequently, human colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1 cells, WirDr cells) were cultured in the presence of SCFA (butyric acid, isobutyric acid, acetic acid) in order to evaluate the cell growth-inhibitory activity of SCFA (WST-8 assay) by calculating the IC50 value from the dose-response curve.
29963455The contents of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and acetic acid, namely, of SCFA, were also decreased.
29963455Analysis of the results of culture of DLD-1 cells and WirDr cells in the presence of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and acetic acid revealed that each of the substances showed significant cell growth-inhibitory activity, with the activity being the highest for butyric acid, followed by that for isobutyric acid and acetic acid.
29970350SCFAs): acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in cecal samples by 45-86%, 127-158%, and 20-211%, respectively, compared to non-treated controls.
29978128Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota.
29983136Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and the concentrations of faecal and plasma acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs in FMT group were higher than those in the control group on day 21.
30004630Rats fed the inulin-enriched sausages have increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the fecal and plasma metabolome and increased fecal levels of Bifidobacterium spp.
30010169Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 mitigate alcoholic steatosis in mice by inhibiting LPS-mediated NF-κB activation through restoration of the disturbed gut microbiota.
30010169In the present study, we investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum LC67, Lactobacillus plantarum LC27, and their mixture (LM) against ethanol-induced steatosis in mice.
30026849They regulate the composition and function of gut microbiota, which have an amazing metabolic capacity and can produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as propionate, acetate, and butyrate.
30026849This review summarizes the recent research progresses in the effect of gut microbiota imbalance and the decrease in intestinal microbial metabolite butyrate caused by unbalanced diet on CRC development, and discusses the mechanisms of butyrate-induced anti-CRC activities, which may guide people to prevent CRC by improving diet structures.
30030441These changes occur in the setting of decreased luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, and the secondary bile acid pool, which affects whole-body bile acid metabolism.
30047510In healthy subjects, adult monkeys had significant higher concentrations of butyrate and total SCFAs than old monkeys (P<0.
30064535Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on blood metabolite and hormone concentrations and faecal microbiota and metabolites in overweight dogs.
30066368In contrast, chronic stress-induced alterations in body weight gain, faecal SCFAs and the gene expression of the SCFA receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 remained unaffected by SCFA supplementation.
30066368Stress-induced increases in body weight gain, faecal SCFAs and the colonic gene expression of the SCFA receptors free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 remained unaffected by SCFA supplementation.
30073134These results revealed that overexpression of the 1-SST, the key gene in inulin biosynthesis in chicory, might serve as a novel approach to develop plants with the long-chain inulin content.
30078818We present a sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid, butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, hydroangelic acid, caproic acid, 4-methylvaleric acid and succinic acid (SA) in feces samples using a ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with simple derivatization of 2-picolylamine.
30081857The METS-Microbiome study will substantially advance the understanding of the role gut microbiota and SCFAs play in the development of obesity and provide novel obesity therapeutic targets targeting SCFAs producing features of the gut microbiota.
30095295We then show that butyrate but not propionate can restore motility and that the butyrate effect likely requires mucosal 5-hydroxytryptamine.
30138914Trichostatin A imitated the inhibiting action of SCFAs on NLRP3 inflammasome, whereas etomoxir blocked the action of SCFAs on protecting intestinal barrier and inhibiting autophagy.
30140374Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate are generated by microbial fermentation of indigestible fiber by gut flora.
30140374SCFAs are ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, that modulate cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.
30140374However, it is unclear if SCFAs enhance the effects of chemotherapy in a GPR41- or GPR43-dependent manner.
30140374The aim of this study was to investigate whether SCFAs, and particularly propionate, activate GPR41 or GPR43, and thereby enhance the antitumor effects of cisplatin in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
30154787Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced primarily by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, has been extensively studied pharmacologically as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and serves as an attractive therapeutic candidate, as butyrate has also been shown to be anti-inflammatory and improve memory in animal models.
30154787Findings indicate that mice fed inulin had an altered gut microbiome and increased butyrate, acetate, and total SCFA production.
30154787Taken together, high fiber supplementation in aging is a non-invasive strategy to increase butyrate levels, and these data suggest that an increase in butyrate through added soluble fiber such as inulin could counterbalance the age-related microbiota dysbiosis, potentially leading to neurological benefits.
30171006Here, we report how individual commercial probiotic strains degrade prebiotic (inulin type) fructans.
30171006The growth of individual probiotic bacteria on short-chain inulin (sc-inulin) (Frutafit CLR), a β-(2-1)-fructan (DP 2 to DP 40), was studied.
30171006GF type (clearly stimulating) versus the FF type (relatively low stimulus), and on fructan chain length, since relatively low-DP β-(2-1)-fructans contain a relatively high content of GF-type molecules, thus resulting in higher concentrations of GF-type DP 2 to DP 3 degradation products.
30171006Cross-feeding strains such as Lactobacillus paracasei W20 may thus act as keystone strains in the degradation of prebiotic inulin in the human gut, and this strain-exo-inulinase combination may be used in commercial Lactobacillus-inulin synbiotics.
30195509Physico-chemical and structural properties of crystalline inulin explain the stability of Lactobacillus plantarum during spray-drying and storage.
30195509The stabilizing capacity of crystalline inulin during spray-drying and storage of Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 was assessed.
30195509Furthermore, no accumulation of insoluble inulin was observed after resuspending the dehydrated microorganisms in crystalline inulin matrices, which appears as a clear technological advantage with regard to the amorphous one.
30201970GPR43 is critical for the protective effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), butyrate and propionate.
30201970The GVHD protective effect of SCFAs requires GPR43-mediated ERK phosphorylation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in non-hematopoietic target tissues of the host.
30203438AIMS: To evaluate the role of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2)/G-protein coupled receptor 43 in mediating the effects of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) sodium acetate (SA) and sodium propionate (SP) on islet function in vitro, and to identify the intracellular signalling pathways used in SCFA-induced potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion.
30214578In the present study, by culturing human colon cancer SW480 cells or mouse colon cancer CT26 cells with butyrate and/or TLR4 ligand LPS in vitro, it was identified that butyrate suppressed the growth and promoted apoptosis of these cancer cells.
30252114Histone H3 acetylation was concentration-dependently increased by SCFAs and likewise the differential regulation of HDAC activity, SCFAs effected differently histone H3 acetylation, where SB increased (P < 0.
30258117Increased IFN-γ and granzyme B expression by CTLs as well as the molecular switch of Tc17 cells towards the CTL phenotype was mediated by butyrate independently of its interaction with specific SCFA-receptors GPR41 and GPR43.
30259127The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and biotin.
30259127What is new: • The results of this observational, prospective, open-label, single-cohort study on 320 children with AD younger than 12 years old suggest that supplementation with multistrain synbiotics (Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and biotin) helps to improve AD symptoms in children.
30263799The beverage base was prepared by fermenting a mix containing oat flour (10%, w/w), sugar (4%, w/w), and inulin (1%, w/w) with a commercial Lactobacillus plantarum (0.
30277149This process can lead to a decreased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the gut microbiota, mainly butyrate, which is an important immunomodulatory molecule in the intestine.
30284066PURPOSE: Intestinal fermentation of inulin-type fructans, including oligofructose, can modulate adiposity, improve energy regulation, and increase mineral absorption.
30284066The fructan diets all lowered caecal pH and raised caecal digesta weight and total SCFA content, in comparison to the Control.
30297834Here, the effects of butyrate supplementation on rumen and hindgut microbiota and fermentation profiles were assessed in 16 Holstein-Friesian bull calves randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (CON) fed conventional milk replacer or Sodium-Butyrate (SB - added to milk replacer) from days 7 to 56 of life.
30370625As lumen or fecal concentration of SCFAs does not reflect their rate of production, these parameters should not be used as measures of SCFA production or absorption.
30395776Inulin-type fructans improve active ulcerative colitis associated with microbiota changes and increased short-chain fatty acids levels.
30395776Our aim was therefore to determine if inulin-type fructans induce clinical benefits in UC, and identify if benefits are linked to compositional and/or functional shifts of the luminal (fecal) and mucosal (biopsy) bacterial communities.
30395776Fructans increased colonic butyrate production in the 15 g/d dose, and fecal butyrate levels were negatively correlated with Mayo score (r = -0.
30402226FOS intake also led to a significant increase in the cecum levels of SCFAs, namely lactate, propionate and n-butyrate (P<0.
30407866HLFs and ASM cells were exposed to SCFAs, acetate (C2:0), propionate (C3:0), and butyrate (C4:0) (0.
30407866Synergistic upregulation of IL-6 and CXCL8 was mediated through the activation of free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)3, but not FFAR2.
30428566Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolic products of oral bacteria, but the effects of exogenous SCFAs on FimA-dependent biofilm formation are poorly understood.
30447394Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from gut fermentation of dietary carbohydrates, such as inulin, exert numerous effects on host energy metabolism and are linked to a reduced risk of diseases.
30455677TNF-α and increased the production of butyrate, despite the supplementation of inulin reversed the decrease of body weight induced by rutin supplementation due to an increased food intake.
30455677Taken together, our data demonstrated that rutin supplementation ameliorated the inflammatory status and ER stress in Paneth cells under a HF-induced obese state, and its co-administration with inulin further mitigated the inflammatory status, indicating the potential to combine polyphenol rutin and the polysaccharide inulin as a dietary strategy to ameliorate gut dysbiosis, to improve inflammatory status and thereby to reduce medical disorders associated with HF-induced obesity.
30459574In this study, we explored the potential antidepressant efficacy of a multi-strain probiotics treatment (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus plantarum R1012, and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in a chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model of depression and determined its probable mechanism of action.
30501018Three Inulin-Type Fructans from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.
30501018Inulin-type fructans are carbohydrates consisting mainly of β (2→1) fructosyl-fructose links in chemical structure and exhibit a range of properties such as prebiotic activity, fat substitutes in low-calorie foods and disease-modifying effects.
30501018The prebiotic effects of inulin-type fructans are hypothesized to improve gastrointestinal function through alterations to gut microbiota composition and metabolism.
30501018In the present study, three inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization (DP = 16, 22, and 31) were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.
30501018The prebiotic activity of these fructans was evaluated by detecting growth stimulation on Bifidobacterium longum.
30501018The data indicated that inulin-type fructans in Radix Codonopsis could be used as potential prebiotics.
30513668BG112, the Mw of HEP was decreased and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetic acid, isovaleric acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid were produced.
30536938In vitro, LPS, low rumen fluid pH, high concentrations of SCFAs (90 mM acetate, 40 mM propionate, and 30 mM butyrate), and high concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, inhibited the expression of MCT1 in rumen epithelial cells.
30536938Taken together, these results indicated that LPS, low ruminal pH, and high concentrations of SCFAs decreased the expression of MCT1, further aggravating the accumulation of SCFAs in the rumen by decreasing the absorption of SCFAs.
30540706Stress exposure and C rodentium, however, significantly increased SCFA levels and changed the expression of SCFA receptors.
30540706The levels of SCFAs did not correlate with the severity of colonic inflammation, but the colonic expression of the SCFA receptor GPR41 was positively associated with inflammatory cytokines and colonic histopathology scores.
30553334Levan is a fructan composed of β -(2, 6) linkages in its main chain.
30553334Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to characterize the LOS produced and to show the differences between inulin and levan.
30580556Nondigestible carbohydrates, butyrate, and butyrate-producing bacteria.
30580556Nonstarch polysaccharides, such as pectin, guar gum, alginate, arabinoxylan, and inulin fructans, and nondigestible oligosaccharides and their derivatives, can also be fermented by beneficial bacteria in the large intestine.
30580556In this review, several representative NDCs are introduced, and their chemical components, structures, and physiological functions, including promotion of the proliferation of butyrate-producing bacteria and enhancement of butyrate production, are discussed.
30583409Inulin enrichment of gluten free breads: Interaction between inulin and yeast.
30583409Fructan hydrolysis occurred during leavening of Y1-GF breads, reaching losses up to 40% after baking, depending on the diverse DP of the inulin-forming fructans.
30591685Studies are conflicting as to whether SCFAs are beneficial or detrimental to cardiometabolic health, and how gut microbiota associated with SCFAs is unclear.
30591685Studies assessing both fecal and circulating SCFAs are needed to test the hypothesis that the association of higher fecal SCFAs with obesity and cardiometabolic dysregulation is due to less efficient SCFA absorption.
30619212Among the 91 OTUs whose relative abundance was altered in ASD patients, we observed a striking depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, one of the dominant bacteria in infant GM and, conversely, an increase of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a late colonizer of healthy human gut and a major butyrate producer.
30619249Therefore, we investigated the impact of individual cultivable commensal bacteria on IDO-1 transcriptional expression and found that the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate was the main metabolite controlling IDO-1 expression in human primary IECs and IEC cell-lines.
30619249This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a and of the transcription factors SP1, AP1, and PPARγ for which binding sites were reported in the IDO-1 promoter.
30619249In conclusion, our results showed that IDO-1 expression is down-regulated by butyrate via a dual mechanism: the reduction of STAT1 level and the HDAC inhibitor property of SCFAs.
30660420We found that the oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suppressed allergic response, attenuating serum IgE and relieving anaphylaxis symptoms.
30675119The effects of Queso Blanco cheese containing Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 was studied on the intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in healthy companion dogs.
30690292Lactic acid bacteria assigned to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei species grew well in both the pea and pea:milk emulsions.
30696735Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, in the gut microbiome is required for optimal health but is frequently limited by the lack of fermentable fiber in the diet.
30696735We attempted to increase butyrate production by supplementing the diets of 174 healthy young adults for 2 weeks with resistant starch from potatoes (RPS), resistant starch from maize (RMS), inulin from chicory root, or an accessible corn starch control.
30696735RPS resulted in the greatest increase in total SCFAs, including butyrate.
30696735Although the majority of microbiomes responded to RPS with increases in the relative abundance of bifidobacteria, those that responded with an increase in Ruminococcus bromii or Clostridium chartatabidum were more likely to yield higher butyrate concentrations, especially when their microbiota were replete with populations of the butyrate-producing species Eubacterium rectale RMS and inulin induced different changes in fecal communities, but they did not generate significant increases in fecal butyrate levels.
30721817Lactobacillus plantarum (L694) and a commercial inoculant stain of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) were used as additives.
30728281The high dose of acarbose in the PP diet resulted in a distinct community structure with increased representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) measured from stool samples were increased, especially butyrate, as a result of acarbose treatment in both diets.
30762787In IBS-C patients, propionate and butyrate were reduced, whereas butyrate was increased in IBS-D patients in comparison to HCs.
30800003Fermentation of FOS by intestinal bacteria leads to production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) including butyrate.
30800003Treg-mediated BMMC suppression was enhanced after in vivo butyrate and FOS exposure in combination with OIT but with a more pronounced effect for butyrate.
30823420In this study, we tested the potential of commercially available inulin-type fructans to limit disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea in lettuce.
30823420We have demonstrated for the first time that commercially available inulin-type fructans and OGs can improve the defensive capacity of lettuce, an economically important species.
30831458Feeding of both of novel prebiotics as well as inulin increases SCFAs levels in the mouse gut.
30842764Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Use Different Mechanisms to Prevent Salmonella Infection in vivo.
30889210Herb-induced microbial communities are predicted to alter the relative abundance of taxa encoding SCFA (butyrate and propionate) pathways.
30889794Each oligosaccharide was capable of increasing the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyric acid, and altering the microbiota composition.
30918945METHODS: CBir1, an immunodominant microbiota antigen, transgenic T cells were treated with butyrate under various T-cell polarization conditions to investigate butyrate regulation of T-cell differentiation and the mechanism involved.
30918945Furthermore, butyrate induced T-cell B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) expression, and deficiency of Blimp1 in T cells impaired the butyrate upregulation of IL-10 production, indicating that butyrate promotes T-cell IL-10 production at least partially through Blimp1.
30918945Rag1-/- mice transferred with butyrate-treated T cells demonstrated less severe colitis, compared with transfer of untreated T cells, and administration of anti-IL-10R antibody exacerbated colitis development in Rag-/- mice that had received butyrate-treated T cells.
30918945Mechanistically, the effects of butyrate on the development of Th1 cells was through inhibition of histone deacetylase but was independent of GPR43.
30918945CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that butyrate controls the capacity of T cells in the induction of colitis by differentially regulating Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and promoting IL-10 production, providing insights into butyrate as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
30919578Stool samples from cirrhotic patients showed lower SCFAs content and reduced capacity to produce SCFAs in batch fermentations, with butyrate production being the most abnormal.
30919578CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic dysbiosis is associated with a decreased capacity to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates into SCFAs, especially into butyrate.
30982555Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 simultaneously alleviate high-fat diet-induced colitis, endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and obesity in mice.
30982555Herein, we examined whether Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and/or Bifidobacterium longum LC, which significantly suppressed NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide- or fecal lysate-stimulated Caco-2 cells, could simultaneously alleviate liver steatosis and colitis in mice with HFD-induced obesity.
30991070To investigate the fractions responsible for anti-osteoporosis activity, one novel inulin-type fructan, MOW90-1, was isolated from MOP90.
31030117Their microbial degradation to SCFA already begins in the stomach potentially resulting in increased gastric concentrations of SCFA such as butyric acid.
31030117Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of butyric acid exposure on the functional integrity and morphology of the equine nonglandular and glandular gastric mucosa using butyric acid concentrations equivalent to the ones found in horses subjected to prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides feeding.
31086553Effect of inulin-type fructans in patients undergoing cancer treatments: A systematic review.
31086553Nonetheless, possible inulin positive effects including improved stool consistency after abdomen radiotherapy and increased stool butyrate content which is involved in controlling tumor cells proliferation and apoptosis should not be denied.
31089311Aim: The research was conducted to determine the effect of temperature and storage duration on the physicochemical, lipolytic, microbiological, and proteolytic characteristics of goat cheese made using Lactobacillus plantarum TW14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus TW2 bacteria.
31089436Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, propionate, and acetate are microbial metabolites in the gut that are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the host.
31094471Reduction of Butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA transferase gene relative representation in CD patients, decrease of absolute content of SCFA total number as well as particular SCFAs and main SCFAs ratio in IBD patients may indicate inhibition of functional activity and number of anaerobic microflora and/or an change in SCFA utilization by colonocytes.
31100533In this study, we investigated the influence of the SCFA/FFAR2 axis on alveolar bone.
31100533WT and FFAR2-/- animals received a high-fiber diet (HFD) reported to increase circulating levels of SCFAs.
31100533Additionally, we analyzed the effects of SCFAs and a synthetic FFAR2 agonist, phenylacetamide-1 (CTMB), on bone cell differentiation.
31100533The effects of SCFAs on osteoclasts are dependent on FFAR2 activation and are independent of the inhibition of HDACs.
31105654Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae/mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Bifidobacterium longum, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bordetella spp.
31108759These results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation enhanced the anti-diabetic property of MC juice by favoring the regulation of gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs.
31117848Abbreviations: TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; HDACi: histone deacetylase inhibitor; SB: sodium Butyrate; CRC: colorectal cancer; SCFA: short-chain fatty acid; hrs: hours.
31137970Supplementation of IN increased the content of putrescine, d- and l-lactate, total SCFA, acetate, propionate, n-butyrate (p ≤ 0.
31152455RESULTS: Chicory root, in contrast to chicory pulp, exhibited an extensive and rapid fermentation similar to inulin and oligofructose, although butyrate levels of root and pulp did not reach those of the purified fractions.
31165837In terms of effects on the gut microbiota, sinapine induced a decrease in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and increased the abundance of probiotics, such as Lactobacillaceae, Akkermansiaceae and Blautia, along with metabolite short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-mediated upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) to inhibit expression of inflammatory factors.
31170664Candesartan treatment also increased the amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in SHRs.
31185060The concentrations of acetate and n-butyrate in cecal digesta were significantly higher in the BM and BG groups than in the control group, whereas the concentration of total SCFAs in cecal digesta was significantly higher only in the BM group than in the control group.
31189087Prebiotic effects of Agave salmiana fructans at five different doses were evaluated by the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium strains and SCFA production in the cecum and proximal colon of healthy Wistar rats.
31189087High concentration of butyric acid and total SCFA were contained in the 12.
31196534While fructan-producing (fructanogenic) Eubacteria are abundant in hypersaline environments, fructan production by Archaea has never been reported before.
31208043Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria.
31211831BACKGROUND: Butyrate-producing gut bacteria are reduced in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), supporting the hypothesis that butyrate supplementation may be beneficial in this setting.
31211831Colonic biopsies and ex vivo differentiated epithelial organoids (d-EpOCs) treated with butyrate and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were used for analyzing the expression of transporters MCT1 and ABCG2, metabolic enzyme ACADS, and butyrate receptor GPR43, and for butyrate metabolism and consumption assays.
31211831RESULTS: We observed that lower stool content of butyrate-producing bacteria in active IBD patients did not correlate with decreased butyrate concentrations.
31211831TNFα significantly altered SLC16A1, ABCG2, and GPR43 transcription in d-EpOCs, mimicking the expression profile observed in biopsies from active IBD patients and resulting in reduced butyrate consumption.
31218724SCFAs) concentration (including propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate) when compared with the allergic group.
31218724SCFAs receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors 41 (GPR41) and 43 (GPR43), in the spleen and colon of the allergic mice.
31222050Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have protective effects on experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) responses but the detailed roles of SCFAs and their receptors in regulating autoimmune CNS inflammation have been unclear.
31222050In line with the overall protective effect, blood levels of major SCFAs, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, are significantly decreased in long-term active progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
31222050In contrast to the moderate protective effect of SCFAs, mice deficient in GPR41 or GPR43 are more resistant to EAE pathogenesis.
31222050Thus, despite the overall protective function of SCFAs, SCFAs and their receptors have the potential to regulate autoimmune CNS inflammation both positively and negatively.
31237597The composition of the gut microbiota and relative concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), short-chain fatty acid receptor proteins (GPR41, GPR43 and GPR109A), tight junction components (ZO-1 and occludin) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-22 and IFN-γ) were determined.
31255276Transcriptomic responses of Caco-2 cells to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus plantarum J26 against oxidative stress.
31257531Short‑chain fatty acids (SCFAs; butyrate, propionate and acetate) are metabolites derived from the gut microbiota via dietary fiber fermentation.
31257531In colon cancer, treatment with SCFAs, mainly butyrate and propionate, suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
31258347Groups 1 and 2 were given 1 cc physiological saline solution by oral gavage twice a day; group 3 was given a probiotic solution that included Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium longum microorganisms by oral gavage twice a day.
31295342Gut microbial analysis exhibited that butyrate intervention increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria and decreased pathogenic bacteria, such as endotoxin-secreting bacteria.
31295342Our result also demonstrated that butyrate intervention enhanced fecal SCFAs concentrations, and inhibited endotoxin levels in feces and serum.
31295342Apart from inhibiting expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, butyrate exerted anti-inflammation effect through selectively modulating gut microbiota, such as increasing SCFAs-producing bacteria and decreasing endotoxin-secreting bacteria, as well as via regulating levels of microbiota-dependent metabolites and components, such as SCFAs and endotoxin.
31311843Lactobacillus plantarum Conversely, bioreactors without these species did not show butyrate production.
31312663The fecal SCFAs' contents (acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate) were noticeably declined after burn injury (p < 0.
31338086Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Its ccpA-Knockout Mutant Under Galactooligosaccharides and Glucose Conditions.
31345057SCFAs (mainly butyric acid) inversely correlated with the model for end-stage liver disease score and were further reduced in patients with history of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
31356781Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate are generated by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber.
31365980Probiotics was composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis, while synbiotics was composed of the aforementioned probiotics, inulin and galactooligosaccharide.
31368153Proteome changes in renal cortex and medulla induced by dietary supplementation with inulin-type fructans in growing pigs.
31368153Both forms of chicory inulin-type fructans effectively affected the expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, heat shock proteins and other chaperones, cytoskeletal and cytoskeleton-related proteins, as well as other proteins.
31368153Nevertheless, further studies are needed for better understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans and their fermentation end products on the kidneys of growing pigs.
31368529Concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline decreased with molasses, declined over time, and were negatively correlated with lactic, propionic, and butyric acid, or with lactic and butyric acid in case of seneciphylline.
31382562In conclusion, in zebrafish, prolonged ingestion of a mixture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT8361 and Bifidobacterium longum CECT7347 has positive effects on growth, sperm quality, and progeny survival.
31382684Zm-6&1-FEH1 revealed substrate specificities of levan and inulin, and also displayed partially invertase activity.
31395200The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.
31461505Here, we show that inulin increases beneficial microbiota and decreases harmful microbiota in the feces of young, asymptomatic APOE4 transgenic (E4FAD) mice and enhances metabolism in the cecum, periphery and brain, as demonstrated by increases in the levels of SCFAs, tryptophan-derived metabolites, bile acids, glycolytic metabolites and scyllo-inositol.
31467135The present study aims to evaluate the levels of SCFAs in healthy and CKD patients, and to test the hypothesis that SCFAs play a critical role in delaying CKD progression.
31467135Our results showed that SCFA levels were reduced in CKD patients and that butyrate supplementation might delay CKD progression.
31467327Therefore, circulating SCFA are more directly linked to metabolic health, which indicates the need to measure circulating SCFA in human prebiotic/probiotic intervention studies as a biomarker/mediator of effects on host metabolism.
31469342However, it has been reported that receptors for SCFAs, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and FFAR3 are expressed not only on gut endocrine cells secreting GLP-1 and PYY, but also on pancreatic islet cells.
31469342None of the SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, influenced glucagon secretion, whereas they had weak inhibitory effects on somatostatin and insulin secretion.
31469342In conclusion, the small effects of acetate, propionate and butyrate we observed here may not be physiologically relevant, but the effects of CFMB and Compound 4 on somatostatin secretion suggest that it may be possible to manipulate pancreatic secretion pharmacologically with agonists of the FFAR2 and 3 receptors, a finding which deserves further investigation.
31487233In particular, FFAR1 (GPR40) and FFAR4 (GPR120) are activated by long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, while FFAR3 (GPR41) and FFAR2 (GPR43) are activated by SCFAs, mainly acetate, butyrate, and propionate.
31491513Interestingly, MDG-1, as an inulin-type fructan, is poorly absorbed and its possible mechanism against lipid disturbance remained unclear.
31504729Fecal SCFAs-acetic, propionic, and butyric acid-were also measured.
31521614Correlation analysis identified seven bacterial species positively correlated with n-butyrate levels; the major n-butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was particularly underrepresented in CD patients, but not in UC patients.
31521614In UC patients, there were inverse correlations between mucin O-glycan levels and the production of SCFAs, such as n-butyrate, suggesting that mucin O-glycans serve as an endogenous fermentation substrate for n-butyrate production.
31556210METHODS AND RESULTS: Constipation causes a significantly reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and a higher level of iso-butyrate.
31556210Desulfovibrionaceae is identified to be an important endotoxin producer in constipated patients, and a butyrate-enriched SCFAs profile achieved by dietary fiber supplement accelerates gastrointestinal transit and increases the thickness of the mucosal layer, possibly through triggering the secretion of colonic hormones and enhancing the expression of tight junction proteins for maintaining intestinal barrier integrity.
31556210More importantly, an interacting regulatory mechanism among SCFAs, in particular butyrate and propionate, may be involved in signaling between the microbiome and host cells in the colon.
31562378The agents tested were: alpha-lactoalbumin (ALAC), a whey protein rich in tryptophan, effective in some animal models of epilepsy and on colon/intestine inflammation, valproic acid (VPA), an effective antiepileptic drug in this seizure model, mesalazine (MSZ) an effective aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory treatment against ulcerative colitis and sodium butyrate (NaB), a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) normally produced in the intestine by gut microbiota, important in maintaining gut health and reducing gut inflammation and oxidative stress.
31569909METHODS: A single factor experiment was used to investigate the effects of prebiotics (inulin, stachyose, isomaltooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides), inorganic salts (Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, CH3COONa and C6H14N2O7) and amino acids (arginine, leucine, serine, lysine, alanine and glutamic acid) on the activity of cell envelope proteinases (CEPs), specific activity, protein content, OD600 value and pH in MRS broth fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69.
31581791On d 14, caecal acetic acid, iso-butyric acid, iso-valeric acid, n-valeric acid and total SCFA concentrations were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.
31616028Inulin-rich foods exert a prebiotic effect, as this polysaccharide is able to enhance beneficial colon microbiota populations, giving rise to the in situ production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionic and butyric acids.
31616396The broilers were subjected to dietary treatments of combined probiotics (Animal bifidobacterium: 4 × 108 cfu/kg; Lactobacillus plantarum: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Enterococcus faecalis: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Clostridium butyrate: 2 × 108 cfu/kg, PB) and guar gum (1 g/kg, GG), respectively.
31616396In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) up-regulated the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, mainly via the phospho - extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and phospho-p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways.
31622728APOE and CPF influenced cerebral SCFAs, with APOE3 genotype showing the highest levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids and CPF exposure inducing the highest levels of isovaleric and 4-methylvaleric acids.
31623122One such group of compounds includes the inulin-type fructans (ITFs), which may also act as signaling molecules and antioxidants.
31642067CONCLUSION: The reduced relative abundance of butyrate-producing Clostridia as well as decreased intestinal butyrate concentration in children with IF support further investigation in therapeutic options that target butyrate-producing bacterial communities or butyrate supplementation.
31659687In this study, we investigated the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which are metabolites fermented by gut microbiota, on the growth of Enterococci.
31678187Furthermore, the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut were also increased (P<0.
31685604Here we identified acetoacetate as an endogenous agonist for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptor GPR43 by ligand screening in a heterologous expression system.
31686768Fecal SCFAs concentrations did not differ between groups, while the relative abundance of Roseburia hominis, a major butyrate producer, was significantly increased in the prebiotic group (P = 0.
31699173Nowadays, inulin-type fructans are used as prebiotics in the feed of piglets to manipulate gut ecology for health purposes.
31699173The fermentation kinetics, SCFA and microbiota profiles in the fermentation broth were assessed as indicators of prebiotic activity and compared with the ones of inulin.
31699173Chicory root displayed a rapid and extensive fermentation and induced the second highest butyrate ratio after inulin.
31700622Results of metabolic analysis reveal that HS lowers the concentrations of propionate, butyrate, total SCFA, succinate, fumarate, malate, lactate, aspartate, ethanolamine, β-alanine and niacin, whereas that of fructose and azelaic acid are higher in HS group.
31724526The gut microbiota can be influenced by the intake of dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, such as inulin-type fructans.
31724526The fermentation of cellulose and inulin hydrolysates of six different inulin-rich and inulin-poor vegetables of both groups was analysed in vitro on faecal inocula.
31724526The results showed that the microbiota from obese patients who received a fructan-rich diet for 3 weeks produces more gas and total SCFA compared with the microbiota taken from the same individuals before the treatment.
31724526Obese individuals fed with a low-fructan diet produce less gas and less SCFA compared with the treated group.
31728443Enhanced Production of Galactooligosaccharides Enriched Skim Milk and Applied to Potentially Synbiotic Fermented Milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15.
31734274Adipose-specific LSD1 knockout mice (LSD1 aKO) were generated by crossing LSD1-lox/lox with adiponectin-cre mice and sodium butyrate and dietary fiber inulin was administrated through oral-gavage.
31734274Notably, our results showed that butyrate directly increased the expression of LSD1 and UCP1 as well as butyrate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and catabolic enzyme acyl-CoA medium-chain synthetase 3 (ACSM3) in ex vivo cultured adipocytes.
31734274Moreover, after gavaging HFD-fed mice with the dietary fiber inulin, a substrate of microbial fermentation that rapidly produces butyrate, thermogenesis in both BAT and scWAT was increased, and DIO was decreased; however, these beneficial metabolic effects were blocked in LSD1 aKO mice.
31735976CONCLUSION: Fiber is fermented by colonic bacteria into SCFAs such as butyrate/acetate, which may play a vital role in normal homeostasis by promoting turnover of the colonic epithelium.
31779730Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and SCFA that are derived from gut bacteria, for example, propionate and butyrate.
31799467In vitro inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 alone or in combination against bacterial and Candida reference strains and clinical isolates.
31799467Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 are two strains frequently used as probiotic components in food supplements.
31809283On the other hand, SCFAs, such as acetate and butyrate, have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on myeloid and intestinal epithelial cells.
31830621Inulin alleviates inflammation of alcoholic liver disease via SCFAs-inducing suppression of M1 and facilitation of M2 macrophages in mice.
31830621CONCLUSION: In ALD, inulin ameliorates the inflammation via SCFAs-inducing suppression of M1 and facilitation of M2 Mψ, which may potentially contribute to the control of the disease.
31845185The SCFA butyrate was significantly reduced at baseline in the middle-aged OVX+E females, while circulating endotoxin LPS were elevated in this group after stroke, suggesting that gut metabolites were differently affected by estrogen treatment in the two age groups.
31894986This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism.
31905970For example, dietary fiber is fermented by intestinal bacteria, thereby producing the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which affect each component of the kidney-gut-muscle axis.
31915895AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been linked to altered gut microbiota and more specifically to a shortage of intestinal production of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, which may play key roles in maintaining intestinal epithelial integrity and in human and gut microbial metabolism.
31915895Faecal butyrate and propionate levels were significantly affected by oral butyrate supplementation and butyrate treatment was safe.
31917685Microbiota depletion lowered butyrate levels, a metabolite responsible for gut-bone communication, while reestablishment of physiologic levels of butyrate restored PTH-induced anabolism.
31917685The permissive activity of butyrate was mediated by GPR43 signaling in dendritic cells and by GPR43-independent signaling in T cells.
31932631The gut microbiota participates in the control of energy homeostasis partly through fermentation of dietary fibers hence producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which in turn promote the secretion of the incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) by binding to the SCFA receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 on enteroendocrine L-cells.
31932631In vitro FXR activation inhibited GLP-1 secretion in response to SCFAs and FFAR2 synthetic ligands, mainly by decreasing FFAR2 expression and downstream Gαq-signaling.
31932631FXR KO mice displayed elevated colonic FFAR2 mRNA levels and increased plasma GLP-1 levels upon local supply of SCFAs with prebiotic supplementation.
31932631Our results demonstrate that FXR activation decreases L-cell GLP-1 secretion in response to inulin-derived SCFA by reducing FFAR2 expression and signaling.
31942927Inulin-type fructan intervention restricts the increase in gut microbiome-generated indole in patients with peritoneal dialysis: a randomized crossover study.
31942927OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether inulin-type fructans (ITFs) reduce the production of indole and p-cresol by altering their producing bacteria in patients with peritoneal dialysis.
31985122SCFAs might function not only as nutrients but also as signalling molecules by activating free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in the ruminal epithelium and thus influence pHi regulation.
31985122We hypothesize that modulation of cAMP levels by butyrate is accomplished by FFAR2 activation, regulating NHE activity for pHi homoeostasis at least in part.
32019174Cultures were supplemented with different inulin-type fructans (1-kestose, Actilight, P95, Synergy1 and Inulin) and a galactooligosaccharide.
32038241Furthermore, results showed that EHLJ7 could enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production especially butyric acid, suggesting that EHLJ7 could improve the metabolic disorder of intestinal flora to a certain extent.
32053988Concentrations of propionate, butyrate and other SCFAs did not change throughout the study.
32054171AID of gross energy (GE), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude protein, SDF and hemicellulose, the hindgut disappearance and ATTD of dietary fiber components, the lactate and propionate concentrations in ileal digesta and the butyrate, valerate and total SCFA concentrations in feces.
32055194SCFA, acetic acid, and butyric acid) compared to the other groups.
32066357The SCFAs most abundantly generated by gastrointestinal microbiota are acetate, butyrate and propionate, which are reported to have physiological effects on the health of the host.
32067021Overall, these results suggested that SCFAs could reduce lipogenesis, and enhance lipolysis in different tissues of pigs via regulating related hormones and genes, which would further illustrate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SCFAs on appetite and body weight control.
32073295Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota.
32073295Molecular studies confirmed the selective bifidogenic effect of fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in human intervention studies.
32098253In this work, we identified the lactic acid bacteria present in these cheeses using MALDI-TOF MS and pheS gene analyses, which showed they belong to the species Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
32109839Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus lactis, which was accompanied by increased fecal butyric acid production.
32114169The prebiotic properties of MP induced a higher growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 than inulin and increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid more than inulin in vitro.
32114228The bacterial composition was modified dramatically in LBW group in association with an increase in propionate, butyrate and Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the ileal digesta.
32114228LBW impaired intestine results in damaged Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP2) and Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions, and the inhibition of Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) expressions, causing inefficient SCFAs absorption.
32121422The G-protein coupled receptor-43 (GPR43/ FFAR2) agonist but not the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, mimicked the butyrate effects.
32131652After 48-h fermentation, SCFA molar ratio was 77:11:12 for acetic, propionic and butyric acid.
32139755These results suggested that increases in SCFA levels in response to GCL2505 enhance host energy expenditure, which decreases fat accumulation via activated GPR43.
32148669Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum IS 10506 supplementation increase SCFA of women with functional constipation.
32153548Moreover, the levels of six SCFAs in feces, as well as the intestinal expression of SCFA receptors including G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41), G-protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), and G-protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A), and the expression of Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) displayed a significant increase following DJB-sa compared with the Sham group.
32153609Key enzymes involved in inulin biosynthesis are well known.
32153609We quantified inulin and starch levels, and qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of critical genes accounting for inulin biosynthesis.
32153609The expression of ESTs for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), the two critical genes for fructans polymerization, resulted to be temporarily synchronized and mirror the progress of inulin accumulation and stretching.
32198169Two different doses of inulin-type fructans (Synergy1) were later added (equivalent to 10 g per day in vivo and 15 g per day) to assess whether this influenced protein fermentation.
32202158Non-digestible carbohydrate (NDC) is a fiber that can be fermented into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in gut, represented by resistant starch (RS) and inulin.
32202158The meta-analysis showed the total SCFAs and butyrate concentrations (P = 0.
32208465Quantification of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels before and after infection revealed increased concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate in mice with delayed colonization.
32208465In vivo supplementation of susceptible, antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice with butyrate led to the same level of protection, notably only when cecal butyrate concentration reached a concentration higher than 50 nmol/mg indicating a critical threshold for protection.
32208575The treatment with Ca-restricted diets also contained one of the sources of fructan (Jerusalem artichoke, yacon, Beneo Orafti Synergy1), in the amount providing 8% of fructans.
32208575This study shows that a diet containing inulin-type fructan (especially as a component of strawberry product) improved bone quality (i.
32208927XOS showed a similar SCFA production per gram of substrate as the control medium, including butyrate, which is considered to be important for gut health.
32209026Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are important modulators of the inflammatory state in diseases such as asthma.
32209026We questioned whether the Gi-coupled FFAR2 or FFAR3 is expressed in human ASM, whether they modulate cAMP and [Ca2+]i, and whether SCFAs modulate human ASM tone.
32247451The restoration of total SCFAs, especially propionate and butyrate might be an important strategy for mitigating HFD induced metabolic disorders.
32258492Fermentation was performed using lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 and inulin as a source of soluble fiber.
32296608Background: Dietary fiber, including inulin, promotes health via fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from the fiber by gut microbiota.
32296608Most of the commercial inulin is extracted from plant sources such as chicory roots, but it can also be enzymatically synthesized from sucrose using inulin producing enzymes.
32296608Studies conducted on rodents fed with a cafeteria diet have suggested that while increasing plasma propionic acid, synthetic inulin modulates glucose and lipid metabolism in the same manner as natural inulin.
32296608Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a synthetic inulin, Fuji FF, on energy metabolism, fecal SCFA production, and microbiota profiles in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.
32302970This study aimed to assess the effects of three major SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on NASH phenotype in mice.
32306803This study aimed at comparing how a low- and high-dose of a multi-strain probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, Lactobacillus casei R0215, Pediococcus acidilactici R1001, Bifidobacterium breve R0070, Bifidobacterium longum ssp.
32315958Effects of oral butyrate and inulin supplementation on inflammation-induced pyroptosis pathway in type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
32315958Participants received 600 mg/d of NaBut (group A), 10 g/d of HP inulin (group B), 600 mg/d of NaBut + 10 g/d of HP inulin (group C) or placebo (group D) for 45 consecutive days.
32315958Furthermore, butyrate and concomitant use of butyrate and inulin caused a significant increase in the fold change of miR-146a and miR-9 compared with the placebo group (p < 0.
32320024Effect of chicory inulin-type fructan-containing snack bars on the human gut microbiota in low dietary fiber consumers in a randomized crossover trial.
32320024OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches.
32329478Study of the alleviation effects of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and inulin on mice with colitis.
32331660The highest butyric acid production was on AF and OF, while the molar ratio of SCFAS on Hb was 63:18:18 for acetic, propionic and butyric acid, respectively.
32334419In general, inulin-type fructans and fructooligosaccharides were the most resistant to the enzymatic digestion.
32344758The major end-products of dietary fiber fermentation by gut microbiota are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which have been shown to modulate host metabolism via effects on metabolic pathways at different tissue sites.
32345388In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation.
32356856Mice treated with MP exhibited increased levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, especially Lachnospiraceae, compared to normal mice, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes and SCFA-producing bacteria, especially Ruminococcaceae, compared to the CP-treated mice.
32372967Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, reduce endothelial activation induced by proinflammatory mediators, at least in part, by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs): GPR41 and GPR43.
32372967The beneficial effects of butyrate were inhibited by the GPR41 receptor antagonist, β-hydroxybutyrate, and by the GPR43 receptor antagonist, GLPG0794.
32372967Butyrate inhibited the down-regulation of GPR41 and GPR43 induced by AngII, being without effect acetate and propionate.
32416305In this way, the Lactobacillus plantarum, cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and inulin incorporated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based probiotic nanocomposite film was prepared.
32430495We found lower circulating concentrations of the microbe-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate in day 100 plasma samples from patients who developed cGVHD, compared with those who remained free of this complication, in the initial case-control cohort of transplant patients and in a further cross-sectional cohort from an independent transplant center.
32431262Nutrition of the epithelium itself is achieved by catabolism of the SCFA, especially butyrate.
32431262Catabolism of SCFA also helps to maintain a concentration gradient across the epithelium to ensure efficient SCFA uptake and stability of the epithelial osmolarity.
32432239Conversely, the SCFAs decreased by ethanol treatment, particularly the acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, were obviously enhanced in the faeces, colon and cecum of the mice supplemented with strain CGMCC 3917 cells.
32435716Results showed that prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT8361 and Bifidobacterium longum CECT7347 significantly alters the swimming pattern and mean swimming speed in the zebrafish model.
32440730Prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans on faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
32440730The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans on the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
32440730METHODS: The study was a placebo controlled crossover study, where 25 patients (15 men) aged 41-71 years consumed 16 g of inulin-type fructans (a mixture of oligofructose and inulin) and 16-g placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks in randomised order.
32440730RESULTS: Treatment with inulin-type fructans induced moderate changes in the faecal microbiota composition (1.
32440730CONCLUSION: Six weeks supplementation with inulin-type fructans had a significant bifidogenic effect and induced increased concentrations of faecal SCFA, without changing faecal microbial diversity.
32440730Our findings suggest a moderate potential of inulin-type fructans to improve gut microbiota composition and to increase microbial fermentation in type 2 diabetes.
32450182Among the six species assessed, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were generally insensitive to induction.
32455193Effects of Agave Fructans, Inulin, and Starch on Metabolic Syndrome Aspects in Healthy Wistar Rats.
32466908BB-12 enumeration by quantitative PCR assay in microcapsules with full-fat goat milk and inulin-type fructans.
32466908BB-12 quantification in microcapsules matrix with full-fat goat milk and inulin-type fructans.
32475525Prebiotics, like inulin and polyphenols, are selectively utilized by GM, releasing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other metabolites which may reduce the intestinal lumen pH, inhibit growth of pathogens, and enhance mineral and vitamin bioavailability.
32475556Conformational properties of inulin, levan and arabinan studied by molecular dynamics simulations.
32475556Inulin, levan and arabinan are the polysaccharides that consist of exclusively furanose units.
32475601Chemical structure elucidation of an inulin-type fructan isolated from Lobelia chinensis lour with anti-obesity activity on diet-induced mice.
32475601Data indicated that LCPS was an inulin-type fructan with α-D-Glcp-(1→[1)-β-D-Fruf-(2]15 linkage.
32481649LAB isolates were grouped in seven different clusters which were assigned to Lactobacillus casei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella paramesenteroides, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactococcus garvieae.
32502642Meanwhile SCFAs-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a were also significantly upregulated.
32509596Although significant differences in SCFA levels were not detected between NDD patients and the Control group, a positive correlation was noted between number of rDNA amplicons obtained with universal primers and level of propionic acid, as well as a trend for levels of total SCFAs and butyric acid in the Control group.
32537469MFXD treatment also increased SCFA content, including that of acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
32554841The DAI scores of mice were significantly reduced following usage of four Lactobacillus strains included: Lactobacillus plantarum 03 and 06, Lactobacillus brevis 02 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 01.
32564366Further tests revealed that the enrichment of SCFA producers was associated with a decrease in the oxidative stress of cecum content caused by black tea, and related to increased luminal butyric acid levels and enhanced intestinal barrier function.
32580157Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolites produced from the fermentation of dietary fibre by intestinal microbiota.
32582042We aimed to explore the effects of PDCoV infection on chick gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production, and inflammatory cytokine expression in chicks, and also to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and SCFAs or inflammatory cytokine expression of the PDCoV-infected chicks.
32582042The production of SCFAs in the cecum of PDCoV HNZK-02-infected chicks, including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, decreased in all cases.
32610452Then, a recently developed short-term (48 h) colonic incubation strategy was applied and revealed that cRG-I fermentation increased levels of health-promoting short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; mainly acetate and propionate) and lactate comparable but not identical to the reference prebiotic inulin.
32632657Correction to: Prebiotic effect of inulin‑type fructans on faecal microbiota and short‑chain fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
32663059In this study, we used Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 (Lp082) as a model probiotic to examine the impact of the continuous or pulsed supplementation of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the gut microbiome stability in mice using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.
32663709Furthermore, the expression of SCFA receptors including GPR41, GPR43 and GPR109a was verified by qRT-PCR and the concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and peptide tyrosinetyrosine (PYY) was measured by Elisa.
32663709CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that CCPP could alleviate type 2 diabetic symptoms by increasing the SCFA-producing bacteria, promoting the production of SCFAs and upregulating SCFA-GLP1/PYY associated sensory mediators.
32668320Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two inulin-type fructans from MO50, MOW50-1 and MOP50-2, with potential anti-osteoporotic activities.
32677055The addition of banana powder increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, with the production of acetate being higher than that of propionate and butyrate.
32679183CONCLUSION: These results provide solid evidence that fibre in the maternal diet regulates neurocognitive functions in offspring through altering SCFA levels and supports the use of SCFA-dependent perinatal intervention for improving offspring health in the clinic.
32689425FEH expression analysis in petals correlates well with 1-FEH activity and inulin degradation patterns in vivo, suggesting that this enzyme fulfils an important role during flower opening.
32694821We discuss the effects of three primary SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, and we consider the potential mechanisms involved.
32696223Moreover, in the cell culture models, butyrate treatment significantly increased autophagy in HT29 cells under normal conditions, whereas butyrate had little effect on autophagy after HIF-1α ablation.
32707281Interestingly, the productions of SCFAs (mainly acetate and butyrate) in the cecal and colonic contents were significantly promoted.
32724489GPR43 and its downstream protein beta-arrestin2 was increased on butyrate administration and that activation of Akt was inhibited, while the AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling pathway and expression of p-GSK3 were enhanced.
32724489In conclusion, we found in the present study that butyrate could significantly promote biogenesis and function of mitochondria under high insulin circumstances, and the GPR43-β-arrestin2-AMPK-PGC1-alpha signaling pathway contributed to these effects.
32727210Effect of inulin-type fructans and galactooligosaccharides on cultures of Lactobacillus strains isolated in Algeria from camel's milk and human colostrum.
32727210We also tested the capacity of growth and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively, when these bacteria were incubated anaerobically in the presence of inulin, fructooligosaccharides, or galactooligosaccharides as the main carbon sources.
32727210The strains were able to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and to grow in inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides.
32730994We examined the evolution of certain genes associated with the biosynthesis of allicin and inulin neoseries-type fructans, and provided new insights into the biosynthesis of these two compounds.
32741066This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with wheat bran fibre, inulin and their combination on growth performance, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in caecum and colon and liver lipid metabolism in growing pigs.
32741066The pigs were fed a control diet (CON), a diet containing 2% wheat bran fibre (WB), a diet containing 2% inulin (IN), and a diet containing both of 1% wheat bran fibre and 1% inulin (MIX), respectively.
32741066In this study, these data indicated that the combined supplementation of wheat bran fibre and inulin decreased the SCFAs concentrations in the colon, enhanced the genes FAS and HNF-4α mRNA expression in liver and induced liver lipid accumulation in growing pigs.
32741262Feeding fermentable fibers, guar gum (GG) and partially hydrolyzed GG (PHGG) increased SOCS1 expression in the colon and the cecal pool of some SCFAs including acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
32741262In Caco-2 cells, butyrate, but not other SCFAs, increased SOCS1 expression.
32747248Inulin (IN), a fructan-type plant polysaccharide, is widely found in nature.
32752178Also, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) of the LG were significantly higher than the PG, which might be a result of a modulation of the associated microbiota.
32755263Bifidobacterium longum DS0956 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DS0508 culture-supernatant ameliorate obesity by inducing thermogenesis in obese-mice.
32755263According to our data, we can propose that two LAB strains, Bifidobacterium longum DS0956 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DS0508, may be good candidates for a dietary supplement against obesity and metabolic diseases; however, further research is required for the development as dietary supplements or drugs.
32756446EH-1, our results highlight the possible therapy targeting the butyric acid-activated Ffar2 pathway to reduce abdominal fats.
32756447However, the administration of GLPG0974-the inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), which is the receptor of SCFAs-abolished exercise-mediated alleviation in IR in vivo and acetate-mediated reduction of skeletal muscle IR (SMIR) in vitro.
32756447Conclusions: Exercise-mediated SCFAs-upregulation may ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) through increasing autophagy of skeletal muscle cells by binding to GPR43.
32793131First Evidence of Acyl-Hydrolase/Lipase Activity From Human Probiotic Bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium longum NCC 2705.
32793131Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum NCC 2705 are among the most studied probiotics.
32813896Effects of the prebiotic inulin-type fructans on post-antibiotic reconstitution of the gut microbiome.
32813896AIMS: Interventions using prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are widely prescribed to modulate the gut microbiota composition and activity to promote health.
32816830This diet reduces the intake of fermentable fibres, leading to changes of the gut microbiota and insufficient fermentation in the large bowel, resulting in reduced production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, which has unfavourable implications for gut health, sleep and mental health.
32831998We found that exogenous SCFAs, especially butyrate, improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; prevented the formation of proteinuria and an increase in serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and cystatin C; inhibited mesangial matrix accumulation and renal fibrosis; and blocked NF-κB activation in mice.
32831998Specifically, the beneficial effects of SCFAs were significantly facilitated by the overexpression GPR43 or imitated by a GPR43 agonist but were inhibited by siRNA-GPR43 in GMCs.
32856645An increase in total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic acid and butyric acid, was also observed by FOS supplementation.
32878017Nutritional Quality, Sensory Analysis and Shelf Life Stability of Yogurts Containing Inulin-Type Fructans and Winery Byproducts for Sustainable Health.
32878017The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of winery byproduct extracts (grape pomace, seed and skin) and a mixture of inulin-type fructans (inulin and FOS) as suitable ingredients for the development of yogurts with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.
32878017The addition of inulin-type fructans did not significantly (p > 0.
32882794We found that inulin from chicory roots and levan oligosaccharides from the exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis primed the NADPH-oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst in response to the elicitors flg22, derived from the bacterial flagellum, and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the host cell wall.
32882794This study shows that levan-type fructans, specifically from bacterial origin, can prime plant defenses and that both inulin and levan oligosaccharide-mediated priming is associated with changes in ROS dynamics and sugar metabolism.
32887215Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are mainly produced by anaerobic fermentation of gut microbes.
32887215In recent years, many studies have shown that SCFAs demonstrate physiologically beneficial effects, and the signalling pathways related to SCFA production, absorption, metabolism, and intestinal effects have been discovered.
32900799While prebiotic selection has strongly focused on maximizing the production of SCFAs, less attention has been paid to gases, a by-product of SCFA production that also has physiological effects on the human body.
32900799Microbial community composition also impacted results: methane production was dependent on the presence of Methanobacteria, while interindividual differences in H2 production during inulin degradation were driven by a Lachnospiraceae taxon.
32901642Polysaccharides from fermented Asparagus officinalis with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 alleviated liver injury via modulation of glutathione homeostasis, bile acid metabolism, and SCFA production.
32901642Modulation of disordered homeostasis of bile acids by FAOP can be attributed to the upregulation of hepatic short chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptors GPR41 and GPR109A as well as intestinal SCFA production.
32973728CECT 7210 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Combined or Not With Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin, on Weaned Pigs Orally Challenged With Salmonella Typhimurium.
32973728Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, combined or not with a prebiotic containing oligofructose-enriched inulin, against Salmonella Typhimurium.
32978757ATCC 55544, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DSMZ 20174, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
32988256Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Bifidobacterium longum spp.
32991312This study was designed to determine the effect of daily treatment with synbiotic (Syngut) containing inulin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Lactobacillus plantarum W21 and Lactococcus lactis applied i.
32996169Is it a safe alternative for our immune system?Fructose is a constituent of sucrose and other polymers referred to as inulin or fructans.
33008824However, the ability of specific members of the bovine neonate microbiota to respond to inulin remains to be determined, particularly among indigenous lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, beneficial genera commonly enriched by inulin.
33008824Inulin catabolism by YZ050 also generates extracellular fructose which can serve as a growth substrate to cross feed other non-inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from the same bovine feces.
33008824Inulin is a common prebiotic routinely added to animal feeds, however, the mechanism of inulin consumption by specific beneficial taxa in livestock is ill defined.
33008824In this study we examined Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium isolates from calves fed inulin-containing milk replacer and characterized specific strains that robustly consume long chain inulin.
33008824In particular, a novel Ligilactobacillus agilis strain YZ050 consumed inulin via an extracellular fructosidase resulting in complete consumption of all long chain inulin.
33008824Inulin catabolism resulted in temporal release of extracellular fructose that can promote growth of other non-inulin consuming LAB strains.
33022991We speculate that the role of a-LCD in improving depression in patients with T2DM may be associated with it stimulating the growth of SCFAs-producing bacteria, increasing SCFAs production and GPR43 activation, and further maintaining GLP-1 secretion.
33022991In future studies, the SCFAs and GPR43 activation should be further examined.
33028442Proportions of specific SCFA varied: fermentation of carrot fibre, XOS and acetylated RS2 favoured acetate, while fructans favoured butyrate.
33034040BACKGROUND: Exoinulinase catalyzes the successive removal of individual fructose moiety from the non-reducing end of the inulin molecule, which is useful for biotechnological applications like producing fructan-based non-grain biomass energy and high-fructose syrup.
33072794Agarans are poorly fermentable but agarose-oligosaccharides exhibit an interesting prebiotic potential, increasing butyrate-producing bacteria and SCFAs.
33092056Dietary fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into the major short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
33104864The effect of inulin to combat hyperuricemia was determined by assessing the changes in serum UA (uric acid) levels, inflammatory parameters, epithelial barrier integrity, fecal microbiota alterations, and SCFA (short-chain fatty acid) concentrations in KO mice.
33104864Further investigation unveiled that inulin supplementation enhanced microbial diversity and raised the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, involving SCFAs-producing bacteria (e.
33104864Additionally, inulin treatment increased the production of gut microbiota-derived SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations) in KO mice, which was positively correlated with the effectiveness of hyperuricemia relief.
33119011Finally, although butyrate cumulative production was comparable among substrates, the highest short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and the lowest branched chain fatty acid (BCFA) cumulative production was observed in POS experiments.
33126646In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of three lactic acid bacteria species, Lactobacillus plantarum GREEN CROSS Wellbeing (GCWB)1001, Pediococcus acidilactici GCWB1085, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCWB1156, in preventing DEPM-exacerbated asthma in mice.
33144310Furthermore, SCFAs and GPR43 increase macrophage bacterial clearance by upregulating LAMTOR2, which is further identified as an antibacterial effector and elucidated to facilitate phagosome-lysosome fusion and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation.
33152359The highest prebiotic effect (growth promation) was exerted by the central MS XOS on Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (125 and 135.
33173277To determine the role of SCFAs in gut dysmotility, the rats of the WAS+SCFAS and SCFAs group were administrated with oral SCFAs.
33173277After repeated stress, the fecal SCFAs decreased significantly and the proportion of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid had changed from Control 2.
33173277In addition, oral SCFAs partly inhibited the colonic spontaneous motility both for SCFAs and WAS+SCFAs group in vivo.
33173277Butyrate inhibited the contractile amplitude of CM strips in a dose-dependent manner (1-30 mM), but for LM, it exhibited a stimulating effect at low concentrations of butyrate 1 mM-10 mM and was suppressed at high concentrations of 30 mM butyrate.
33173975To test this hypothesis, the responses of three‑dimensional‑cultured organoids, derived from CRC patients, to radiotherapy, as well as the effects of combined radiotherapy with the SCFAs butyrate, propionate and acetate as candidate radiosensitizers, were evaluated via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and organoid viability assay.
33173975Of the three SCFAs tested, only butyrate suppressed the proliferation of the organoids.
33177795Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Prevotella, Clostridium and Akkermansia and increased propionic acid and butyric acid production by modifying SCFA-producing bacteria.
33178165EPS8339 fermentation led to an increment of propionate and butyrate, while fermentation of EPS83124 increased butyrate levels.
33178165Both EPS led to a profile of SCFA different from the ones obtained with inulin or glucose fermentation.
33183606Friend or foe? The roles of inulin-type fructans.
33183606Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) as functional fructans and soluble dietary fiber are a mixture of inulin, oligofructose and fructooligosaccharide with β configuration.
33183623Moreover, it is important to explore the properties of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) inulin esters because they are less studied.
33183623This comprehensive review is discussed the possible limitations regarding SCFAs inulin esters, real food dispersion formulations, and HMI drugs.
33183623The results revealed that SCFAs inulin esters can regulate the human gut microbiota and increase the biological half-life of SCFAs in the human body.
33189480Malts from barley and wheat (naturally high in fructans), lentils and chickpeas (high in galactooligosaccharides), oat and buckwheat (low in FODMAPs) were produced.
33205812During the second 21-days period, GF piglets (n = 6) were orally infused with 25 mL/kg sterile saline per day, SCFA piglets (n = 6) were orally infused with 25 mL/kg SCFAs mixture (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, 45, 15, and 11 mM, respectively) per day.
33205812We observed the concentrations of SCFAs in serum and intestine, and the mRNA abundance of GPR43 in ileum was increased (P < 0.
33220669Furthermore, CCFM1143 significantly increased butyric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and isobutyric acid, while FGDLZ1M5 only increased butyric acid.
33220669In summary, Lactobacillus plantarum alleviated ETEC-induced diarrhea by regulating the inflammatory cytokines, rebalancing the gut microbiota and modulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generation, which could provide the foundation and support for subsequent clinical trials and probiotic products.
33233058SCFA production was observed when FVBP flour was used as carbon source, including butyrate, which supports the prebiotic potential of this flour.
How are my concepts related to BioSets? (back to top)

The concepts in your Start Set can also be connected to predefined sets of terms of your interest (BioSets) that describe a certain disease, state or process. These BioSet typically consists of around 50 terms. BioSets can be added upon your request. The link in the table brings you to the page on the TenWise Literature overview page that shows the abstracts in which the relation between the two concepts are described.

Your set BioSet member Hits Score
SLC22A6 inflammatory bowel disease 1 5
SLC22A6 colorectal cancer 1 2
FFAR2 crohn's disease 1 2
FFAR2 inflammatory bowel disease 8 15
FFAR2 colitis 10 12
FFAR2 diarrhea 1 1
FFAR2 constipation 1 4
FFAR2 gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 4
FFAR2 ulcerative colitis 1 2
FFAR2 colorectal cancer 6 5
FFAR2 allergy 1 1
Bifidobacterium longum serotonin metabolism 1 11
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus serotonin metabolism 1 6
short-chain-fatty-acid serotonin metabolism 2 8
TLR signalling crohn's disease 15 3
TLR signalling inflammatory bowel disease 45 8
TLR signalling colitis 59 7
TLR signalling colorectal carcinoma 1 1
TLR signalling celiac disease 2 1
TLR signalling diarrhea 10 1
TLR signalling gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
TLR signalling ulcerative colitis 10 2
TLR signalling colorectal cancer 17 1
TLR signalling irritable bowel syndrome 1 1
TLR signalling vomiting 1 0
TLR signalling allergy 18 2
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum crohn's disease 11 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum inflammatory bowel disease 57 5
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum colitis 96 6
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum colorectal carcinoma 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum lactose intolerance 1 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum celiac disease 5 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum diarrhea 75 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum constipation 17 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum wheat allergy 1 11
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ulcerative colitis 24 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum colorectal cancer 13 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum irritable bowel syndrome 33 11
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum vomiting 6 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum nausea 6 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum abdominal pain 16 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 2 6
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum allergy 24 2
Bifidobacterium longum crohn's disease 5 2
Bifidobacterium longum inflammatory bowel disease 28 10
Bifidobacterium longum colitis 65 14
Bifidobacterium longum lactose intolerance 3 30
Bifidobacterium longum celiac disease 17 16
Bifidobacterium longum diarrhea 52 9
Bifidobacterium longum constipation 20 14
Bifidobacterium longum wheat allergy 1 39
Bifidobacterium longum ulcerative colitis 23 10
Bifidobacterium longum colorectal cancer 8 1
Bifidobacterium longum irritable bowel syndrome 24 30
Bifidobacterium longum vomiting 9 2
Bifidobacterium longum nausea 5 1
Bifidobacterium longum abdominal pain 14 4
Bifidobacterium longum recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 5 59
Bifidobacterium longum allergy 31 8
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus crohn's disease 16 3
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus inflammatory bowel disease 48 9
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus colitis 124 15
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ileitis 1 4
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus colorectal carcinoma 1 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus lactose intolerance 6 34
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus celiac disease 4 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus diarrhea 193 18
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus constipation 30 11
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus gastroesophageal reflux disease 2 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ulcerative colitis 18 4
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus colorectal cancer 15 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus irritable bowel syndrome 36 25
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus vomiting 19 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus nausea 10 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus abdominal pain 27 4
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 12 79
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus allergy 72 10
butyrate crohn's disease 102 2
fructan crohn's disease 8 2
inulin crohn's disease 20 1
short-chain-fatty-acid crohn's disease 45 6
butyrate inflammatory bowel disease 242 5
fructan inflammatory bowel disease 14 3
inulin inflammatory bowel disease 41 3
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 135 17
galactooligosaccharide inflammatory bowel disease 3 3
butyrate gastrointestinal carcinoma 2 3
butyrate colitis 456 6
fructan colitis 16 2
inulin colitis 58 2
short-chain-fatty-acid colitis 217 17
galactooligosaccharide colitis 8 5
butyrate ileitis 4 2
inulin ileitis 1 1
short-chain-fatty-acid ileitis 3 8
butyrate colorectal carcinoma 52 3
short-chain-fatty-acid colorectal carcinoma 1 0
butyrate lactose intolerance 1 1
fructan lactose intolerance 1 7
inulin lactose intolerance 5 9
short-chain-fatty-acid lactose intolerance 4 15
galactooligosaccharide lactose intolerance 2 60
butyrate celiac disease 22 1
fructan celiac disease 16 10
inulin celiac disease 13 2
short-chain-fatty-acid celiac disease 14 5
butyrate diarrhea 202 2
fructan diarrhea 24 3
inulin diarrhea 62 2
short-chain-fatty-acid diarrhea 127 8
galactooligosaccharide diarrhea 13 6
butyrate constipation 39 2
fructan constipation 13 6
inulin constipation 44 5
short-chain-fatty-acid constipation 38 10
galactooligosaccharide constipation 6 12
fructan wheat allergy 6 161
butyrate gastroesophageal reflux disease 5 0
fructan gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
inulin gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid gastroesophageal reflux disease 3 1
butyrate ulcerative colitis 258 7
fructan ulcerative colitis 7 2
inulin ulcerative colitis 25 2
short-chain-fatty-acid ulcerative colitis 94 15
galactooligosaccharide ulcerative colitis 1 1
butyrate colorectal cancer 372 4
fructan colorectal cancer 8 1
inulin colorectal cancer 30 1
short-chain-fatty-acid colorectal cancer 115 7
butyrate irritable bowel syndrome 59 5
fructan irritable bowel syndrome 42 36
inulin irritable bowel syndrome 24 5
short-chain-fatty-acid irritable bowel syndrome 38 17
galactooligosaccharide irritable bowel syndrome 6 22
butyrate bowel dysfunction 2 1
short-chain-fatty-acid bowel dysfunction 1 4
butyrate vomiting 22 0
fructan vomiting 2 0
inulin vomiting 7 0
short-chain-fatty-acid vomiting 3 0
galactooligosaccharide vomiting 3 2
butyrate nausea 19 0
fructan nausea 2 0
inulin nausea 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid nausea 2 0
butyrate abdominal pain 20 0
fructan abdominal pain 14 3
inulin abdominal pain 12 1
short-chain-fatty-acid abdominal pain 9 1
galactooligosaccharide abdominal pain 3 2
butyrate recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 2 2
fructan recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 1 8
inulin recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 6
galactooligosaccharide recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 105
butyrate allergy 64 1
fructan allergy 8 1
inulin allergy 14 1
short-chain-fatty-acid allergy 19 2
galactooligosaccharide allergy 8 6
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
SLC22A6 hypertension 2 1
SLC22A6 hypercholesterolemia 1 7
SLC22A6 glucose 9 4
SLC22A6 cholesterol 2 2
FFAR2 carbohydrate metabolism 2 13
FFAR2 obesity 53 20
FFAR2 glucose intolerance 3 24
FFAR2 prediabetes syndrome 4 23
FFAR2 congestive heart failure 1 0
FFAR2 insulin resistance 21 24
FFAR2 type II diabetes mellitus 27 17
FFAR2 type I diabetes mellitus 1 2
FFAR2 glucose 57 11
FFAR2 cholesterol 11 4
FFAR2 triglyceride 10 7
FFAR2 hemoglobin 1 1
inulin metabolism carbohydrate metabolism 1 59
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum carbohydrate metabolism 30 10
Bifidobacterium longum carbohydrate metabolism 12 14
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus carbohydrate metabolism 6 4
butyrate carbohydrate metabolism 76 6
fructan carbohydrate metabolism 45 37
inulin carbohydrate metabolism 13 3
short-chain-fatty-acid carbohydrate metabolism 27 12
galactooligosaccharide carbohydrate metabolism 3 11
inulin metabolism obesity 2 7
inulin metabolism insulin resistance 1 10
inulin metabolism glucose 3 5
inulin metabolism cholesterol 1 3
TLR signalling obesity 30 1
TLR signalling hypertension 8 0
TLR signalling prediabetes syndrome 3 2
TLR signalling congestive heart failure 8 0
TLR signalling insulin resistance 18 2
TLR signalling stroke 19 1
TLR signalling hypercholesterolemia 3 1
TLR signalling type II diabetes mellitus 17 1
TLR signalling type I diabetes mellitus 14 2
TLR signalling glucose 25 0
TLR signalling cholesterol 14 1
TLR signalling triglyceride 3 0
TLR signalling hemoglobin 4 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum obesity 90 2
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum glucose intolerance 5 2
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum hypertension 19 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum insulin resistance 19 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum stroke 3 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum hypercholesterolemia 40 6
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum type II diabetes mellitus 25 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum type I diabetes mellitus 2 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum glucose 434 4
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum cholesterol 177 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum triglyceride 97 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum hemoglobin 9 0
Bifidobacterium longum obesity 31 2
Bifidobacterium longum hypertension 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum insulin resistance 6 1
Bifidobacterium longum stroke 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum hypercholesterolemia 6 3
Bifidobacterium longum type II diabetes mellitus 4 0
Bifidobacterium longum type I diabetes mellitus 3 1
Bifidobacterium longum glucose 100 3
Bifidobacterium longum cholesterol 30 2
Bifidobacterium longum triglyceride 17 2
Bifidobacterium longum hemoglobin 3 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus obesity 44 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus glucose intolerance 4 3
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus hypertension 3 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus prediabetes syndrome 3 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus congestive heart failure 3 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus insulin resistance 14 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus hypercholesterolemia 7 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus type II diabetes mellitus 13 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus type I diabetes mellitus 5 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus glucose 147 3
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus cholesterol 59 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus triglyceride 31 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus hemoglobin 7 1
butyrate obesity 348 2
fructan obesity 49 2
inulin obesity 133 2
short-chain-fatty-acid obesity 317 8
galactooligosaccharide obesity 3 1
butyrate glucose intolerance 17 2
fructan glucose intolerance 2 2
inulin glucose intolerance 8 2
short-chain-fatty-acid glucose intolerance 14 8
galactooligosaccharide glucose intolerance 2 9
butyrate hypertension 87 0
fructan hypertension 2 0
inulin hypertension 280 2
short-chain-fatty-acid hypertension 42 1
butyrate prediabetes syndrome 16 1
fructan prediabetes syndrome 1 1
inulin prediabetes syndrome 14 3
short-chain-fatty-acid prediabetes syndrome 6 2
butyrate congestive heart failure 18 0
inulin congestive heart failure 37 1
short-chain-fatty-acid congestive heart failure 7 0
butyrate insulin resistance 145 2
fructan insulin resistance 18 3
inulin insulin resistance 53 2
short-chain-fatty-acid insulin resistance 105 8
galactooligosaccharide insulin resistance 1 1
butyrate stroke 55 0
fructan stroke 1 0
inulin stroke 18 0
short-chain-fatty-acid stroke 9 0
butyrate hypercholesterolemia 17 1
fructan hypercholesterolemia 3 1
inulin hypercholesterolemia 30 3
short-chain-fatty-acid hypercholesterolemia 20 4
galactooligosaccharide hypercholesterolemia 1 2
butyrate type II diabetes mellitus 162 1
fructan type II diabetes mellitus 20 2
inulin type II diabetes mellitus 94 2
short-chain-fatty-acid type II diabetes mellitus 119 5
galactooligosaccharide type II diabetes mellitus 1 0
butyrate type I diabetes mellitus 59 1
fructan type I diabetes mellitus 2 0
inulin type I diabetes mellitus 58 3
short-chain-fatty-acid type I diabetes mellitus 22 2
galactooligosaccharide type I diabetes mellitus 1 1
butyrate glucose 1972 4
fructan glucose 363 9
inulin glucose 865 5
short-chain-fatty-acid glucose 446 6
galactooligosaccharide glucose 71 7
butyrate cholesterol 370 2
fructan cholesterol 49 2
inulin cholesterol 235 3
short-chain-fatty-acid cholesterol 183 5
galactooligosaccharide cholesterol 17 3
butyrate triglyceride 389 3
fructan triglyceride 44 4
inulin triglyceride 119 3
short-chain-fatty-acid triglyceride 127 6
galactooligosaccharide triglyceride 3 1
butyrate hemoglobin 244 2
fructan hemoglobin 5 0
inulin hemoglobin 62 1
short-chain-fatty-acid hemoglobin 10 0
galactooligosaccharide hemoglobin 1 0
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
TLR signalling parkinson's disease 4 0
TLR signalling epilepsy 7 1
TLR signalling anxiety 4 0
TLR signalling bipolar disorder 1 0
TLR signalling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5 2
TLR signalling mood disorder 1 1
TLR signalling schizophrenia 1 0
TLR signalling neurodegeneration 21 2
TLR signalling senile plaques 1 2
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum autism spectrum disorder 2 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum dementia 2 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum parkinson's disease 3 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum personality disorder 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum anxiety 19 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum vascular dementia 1 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum neurodegeneration 7 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum transient ischemic attack 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum autism spectrum disorder 2 1
Bifidobacterium longum anxiety 15 1
Bifidobacterium longum bipolar disorder 1 1
Bifidobacterium longum mood disorder 1 1
Bifidobacterium longum schizophrenia 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum neurodegeneration 3 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus autism spectrum disorder 1 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus dementia 2 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus parkinson's disease 2 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus anxiety 20 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus mood disorder 2 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus schizophrenia 2 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus acute stress disorder 1 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus neurodegeneration 3 0
butyrate autism spectrum disorder 30 1
short-chain-fatty-acid autism spectrum disorder 18 5
galactooligosaccharide autism spectrum disorder 3 6
butyrate lewy body dementia 1 0
butyrate huntington's disease 17 1
butyrate dementia 32 0
inulin dementia 8 0
short-chain-fatty-acid dementia 4 0
butyrate parkinson's disease 64 1
inulin parkinson's disease 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid parkinson's disease 11 1
butyrate personality disorder 2 0
butyrate epilepsy 138 1
inulin epilepsy 2 0
short-chain-fatty-acid epilepsy 1 0
butyrate anxiety 118 1
fructan anxiety 2 0
inulin anxiety 4 0
short-chain-fatty-acid anxiety 16 1
galactooligosaccharide anxiety 6 2
butyrate psychotic disorder 1 0
butyrate bipolar disorder 46 2
inulin bipolar disorder 1 0
butyrate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 14 1
inulin amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
galactooligosaccharide amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 2
butyrate mood disorder 25 2
galactooligosaccharide mood disorder 1 3
butyrate schizophrenia 62 1
short-chain-fatty-acid schizophrenia 6 0
butyrate acute stress disorder 27 1
inulin acute stress disorder 1 0
butyrate eating disorder 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid eating disorder 2 1
butyrate vascular dementia 7 1
inulin vascular dementia 1 0
butyrate neurodegeneration 88 1
inulin neurodegeneration 4 0
short-chain-fatty-acid neurodegeneration 16 1
galactooligosaccharide neurodegeneration 1 1
butyrate neurofibrillary tangles 4 1
butyrate transient ischemic attack 4 0
butyrate alzheimer disease 2 0
inulin alzheimer disease 1 0
butyrate addictive behavior 2 1
butyrate senile plaques 1 0
butyrate lewy bodies 2 0
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
SLC22A6 inflammatory bowel disease 1 5
SLC22A6 rheumatoid arthritis 2 3
FFAR2 psoriasis 1 2
FFAR2 crohn's disease 1 2
FFAR2 inflammatory bowel disease 8 15
FFAR2 autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 1 1
FFAR2 rheumatoid arthritis 2 1
FFAR2 ulcerative colitis 1 2
TLR signalling psoriasis 11 2
TLR signalling immune mediated 14 6
TLR signalling AIDS 9 1
TLR signalling crohn's disease 15 3
TLR signalling systemic lupus erythematosus 54 9
TLR signalling inflammatory bowel disease 45 8
TLR signalling celiac disease 2 1
TLR signalling B cell deficiency 2 78
TLR signalling multiple sclerosis 20 2
TLR signalling autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 133 20
TLR signalling primary immunodeficiency disease 1 1
TLR signalling encephalomyelitis 21 10
TLR signalling rheumatoid arthritis 60 3
TLR signalling ulcerative colitis 10 2
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum psoriasis 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum immune mediated 2 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AIDS 6 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum crohn's disease 11 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum inflammatory bowel disease 57 5
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum celiac disease 5 1
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum multiple sclerosis 2 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum wheat allergy 1 11
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 4 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum encephalomyelitis 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum rheumatoid arthritis 6 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ulcerative colitis 24 3
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 0
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum hypoglycemia 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum immune mediated 3 2
Bifidobacterium longum crohn's disease 5 2
Bifidobacterium longum inflammatory bowel disease 28 10
Bifidobacterium longum celiac disease 17 16
Bifidobacterium longum wheat allergy 1 39
Bifidobacterium longum autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 6 2
Bifidobacterium longum rheumatoid arthritis 5 0
Bifidobacterium longum ulcerative colitis 23 10
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus psoriasis 1 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus immune mediated 4 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus AIDS 7 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus crohn's disease 16 3
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus systemic lupus erythematosus 4 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus inflammatory bowel disease 48 9
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus celiac disease 4 2
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 7 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus primary immunodeficiency disease 1 1
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus rheumatoid arthritis 8 0
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus ulcerative colitis 18 4
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus hypoglycemia 1 0
butyrate psoriasis 34 1
inulin psoriasis 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid psoriasis 2 0
butyrate immune mediated 8 0
fructan immune mediated 3 2
inulin immune mediated 10 1
short-chain-fatty-acid immune mediated 14 4
galactooligosaccharide immune mediated 1 2
butyrate AIDS 24 0
fructan AIDS 1 0
inulin AIDS 5 0
short-chain-fatty-acid AIDS 3 0
butyrate crohn's disease 102 2
fructan crohn's disease 8 2
inulin crohn's disease 20 1
short-chain-fatty-acid crohn's disease 45 6
butyrate systemic lupus erythematosus 8 0
fructan systemic lupus erythematosus 2 0
inulin systemic lupus erythematosus 7 0
short-chain-fatty-acid systemic lupus erythematosus 1 0
galactooligosaccharide systemic lupus erythematosus 1 1
butyrate inflammatory bowel disease 242 5
fructan inflammatory bowel disease 14 3
inulin inflammatory bowel disease 41 3
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 135 17
galactooligosaccharide inflammatory bowel disease 3 3
butyrate celiac disease 22 1
fructan celiac disease 16 10
inulin celiac disease 13 2
short-chain-fatty-acid celiac disease 14 5
inulin goiter 1 0
butyrate graves' disease 1 0
inulin graves' disease 3 1
short-chain-fatty-acid graves' disease 1 0
butyrate multiple sclerosis 25 0
inulin multiple sclerosis 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid multiple sclerosis 15 1
fructan wheat allergy 6 161
butyrate autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 34 1
fructan autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 1 0
inulin autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 6 0
short-chain-fatty-acid autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 24 2
galactooligosaccharide autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 1 1
butyrate primary immunodeficiency disease 7 0
inulin primary immunodeficiency disease 1 0
butyrate encephalomyelitis 8 0
fructan encephalomyelitis 1 1
inulin encephalomyelitis 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid encephalomyelitis 4 1
butyrate rheumatoid arthritis 207 1
fructan rheumatoid arthritis 2 0
inulin rheumatoid arthritis 37 1
short-chain-fatty-acid rheumatoid arthritis 19 1
galactooligosaccharide rheumatoid arthritis 1 0
butyrate ulcerative colitis 258 7
fructan ulcerative colitis 7 2
inulin ulcerative colitis 25 2
short-chain-fatty-acid ulcerative colitis 94 15
galactooligosaccharide ulcerative colitis 1 1
butyrate type 1 diabetes mellitus 20 1
fructan type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 0
inulin type 1 diabetes mellitus 29 3
short-chain-fatty-acid type 1 diabetes mellitus 2 0
butyrate hypoglycemia 34 1
fructan hypoglycemia 1 0
inulin hypoglycemia 12 1
short-chain-fatty-acid hypoglycemia 4 1
How is each concept related to new concepts? (back to top)
The table below shows the link between the concepts in your set and other concepts. For each term, the 25 most significant links are shown for each concept category. The hits are the number of abstracts in which both concepts co-occur. Clicking on this link opens a new window in which the abstracts are shown in which both concepts co-occur. You can use the search button in the top right corner to filter the results for your concept of interest.

Your setRelationHitsScore
fructan fructan metabolism 121 1380610
butyrate butyrate metabolism 124 136772
inulin inulin metabolism 30 89460
TLR signalling TLR4 signalling 157 80384
fructan inulin metabolism 13 64272
inulin metabolism fructan metabolism 3 61983
TLR signalling MyD88 signalling 75 57525
TLR signalling TLR2 signalling 55 43780
TLR signalling TRIF signalling 30 37650
inulin fructan metabolism 37 33744
short-chain-fatty-acid short-chain fatty acid transport 8 26408
TLR signalling TLR3 signalling 33 26136
galactooligosaccharide verbascose metabolism 1 24802
Anaerococcus lactolyticus CXCR2 signalling 1 22163
TLR signalling TLR7 signalling 17 14824
inulin metabolism sucrose transport 2 10450
FFAR2 medium-chain fatty acid metabolism 1 10212
short-chain-fatty-acid short-chain fatty acid metabolism 8 9904
SLC22A6 organic anion transport 5 9585
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum bacteriocin metabolism 7 7364
fructan exopolysaccharide metabolism 10 4180
inulin metabolism oligosaccharide metabolism 1 4105
fructan sucrose metabolism 18 3672
butyrate apoptosis 1138 3414
SLC22A6 urate transport 2 3284
butyrate propionate metabolism 30 3210
inulin metabolism pectin metabolism 1 2904
butyrate short-chain fatty acid metabolism 10 2760
inulin paracellular pathway 30 2730
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum teichoic acid transport 1 2255
galactooligosaccharide oligosaccharide metabolism 3 2199
butyrate beta-oxidation 95 2185
SLC22A6 anion transport 5 2120
short-chain-fatty-acid lipid metabolism 122 2074
butyrate Ljungdahl pathway 20 1940
short-chain-fatty-acid butyrate metabolism 6 1794
fructan carbohydrate metabolism 45 1665
short-chain-fatty-acid bile acid metabolism 22 1496
inulin sodium transport 41 1394
inulin organic anion transport 17 1394
fructan raffinose metabolism 2 1384
inulin transcellular transport 20 1340
galactooligosaccharide short-chain fatty acid metabolism 1 1240
Bifidobacterium longum dTDP-rhamnose metabolism 1 1194
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum D-xylose transport 3 1161
galactooligosaccharide AMPK-NRF2 signalling 1 1127
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid metabolism 2 1062
FFAR2 glucolipid metabolism 1 999
SLC22A6 toxin transport 1 976
galactooligosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine metabolism 1 973
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus exopolysaccharide metabolism 5 855
short-chain-fatty-acid inulin metabolism 2 826
FFAR2 butyrate metabolism 1 741
Bifidobacterium longum oligosaccharide metabolism 3 741
SLC22A6 transepithelial transport 2 724
Bifidobacterium longum fucose metabolism 2 682
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum citrulline metabolism 3 645
SLC22A6 glycolipid metabolism 1 644
Bifidobacterium longum tetrahydrofolate metabolism 1 619
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ferrichrome metabolism 1 564
Bifidobacterium longum inulin metabolism 1 557
Bifidobacterium longum fructan metabolism 2 552
inulin metabolism starch metabolism 1 487
FFAR2 S6K signalling 1 407
FFAR2 AMPK signalling 3 321
galactooligosaccharide glycan metabolism 2 314
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus L-fucose metabolism 1 302
FFAR2 anion transport 3 294
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus necrosis 98 294
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus sphingosine metabolism 1 223
inulin metabolism RNA metabolism 1 162
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus oxalate metabolism 2 158
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus TLR2 signalling 3 135
Your setRelationHitsScore
inulin inulin 8383 24998106
butyrate short-chain-fatty-acid 1568 671104
short-chain-fatty-acid butyrate 1568 671104
butyrate propionate 3913 622167
butyrate indole-3-butyric acid 526 580178
fructan inulin 611 508352
fructan inulin 611 508352
inulin fructan 611 508352
short-chain-fatty-acid fatty acid 3539 357439
FFAR2 short-chain-fatty-acid 120 327720
short-chain-fatty-acid propionate 1185 319950
butyrate ethyl butyrate 211 232733
butyrate acetate 5830 198220
butyrate valerate 841 185861
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum lactate 2058 142002
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum bacteriocin 356 100392
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum bacteriocin 356 100392
inulin metabolism inulin 30 89460
inulin metabolism inulin 30 89460
fructan sucrose 689 79924
fructan fructose 457 76776
inulin metabolism fructan 13 64272
galactooligosaccharide oligosaccharide 191 53480
short-chain-fatty-acid acetate 1168 45552
short-chain-fatty-acid valerate 156 35880
galactooligosaccharide lactose 123 34686
galactooligosaccharide stachyose 21 33285
short-chain-fatty-acid isovalerate 74 32190
inulin short-chain-fatty-acid 207 31671
TLR signalling LPS 676 29068
inulin raffinose 155 28055
FFAR2 butyrate 82 27224
fructan raffinose 76 25840
FFAR2 propionate 85 24395
FFAR2 fatty acid 237 23700
inulin creatinine 922 22128
galactooligosaccharide raffinose 33 21153
inulin sucrose 685 20550
fructan oligosaccharide 246 20418
galactooligosaccharide lactulose 37 18833
galactooligosaccharide inulin 55 17875
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus lactate 475 15675
Bifidobacterium longum oligosaccharide 172 14620
Bifidobacterium longum galactooligosaccharide 20 13280
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum bile-acid 254 8890
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 3-phenyllactic acid 10 6440
Bifidobacterium longum inulin 55 6050
Bifidobacterium longum inulin 55 6050
Bifidobacterium longum short-chain-fatty-acid 35 5075
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus galactooligosaccharide 16 4752
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum nisin 49 4655
SLC22A6 uric acid 24 4032
FFAR2 acetate 89 3916
Bifidobacterium longum lactate 164 3280
FFAR2 glucagon 36 3096
inulin metabolism fructose 10 2690
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus bacteriocin 40 2640
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus bacteriocin 40 2640
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus inulin 46 2346
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus inulin 46 2346
Anaerostipes butyraticus short-chain-fatty-acid 1 2063
SLC22A6 xanthine 11 1672
inulin metabolism sucrose 11 1485
Anaerostipes butyraticus butyrate 2 1470
SLC22A6 carnitine 8 1000
SLC22A6 allopurinol 5 860
inulin metabolism short-chain-fatty-acid 2 826
SLC22A6 estrone 5 670
SLC22A6 stevioside 1 475
TLR signalling tyrosine 91 455
TLR signalling 10-hydroxydecanoic acid 1 432
TLR signalling phosphatidylinositol 51 408
TLR signalling phosphoinositide 29 348
Anaerostipes butyraticus oligosaccharide 1 246
Anaerococcus lactolyticus trimethoprim 1 183
TLR signalling lipid 84 168
Anaerococcus lactolyticus butyrate 1 138
Anaerostipes butyraticus lactate 1 62
Anaerostipes butyraticus acetate 1 44
Anaerostipes butyraticus fatty acid 1 38
Your setRelationHitsScore
inulin increased glomerular filtration rate 46 11362
short-chain-fatty-acid diversion colitis 14 7728
SLC22A6 hyperuricemia 15 6435
inulin decreased glomerular filtration rate 50 5950
butyrate corn 424 5512
inulin renal insufficiency 453 5436
butyrate colon cancer 481 5291
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus bacterial vaginosis 47 5264
inulin kidney failure 390 4680
short-chain-fatty-acid colitis 217 3689
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus cow milk allergy 25 3650
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus milk allergy 25 3650
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus diarrhea 193 3474
TLR signalling autoimmunity 190 3230
inulin acute kidney injury 212 2968
inulin nephropathy 364 2912
fructan hereditary spastic paraplegia 24 1 2853
butyrate colitis 456 2736
TLR signalling autoimmune hypersensitivity disease 133 2660
short-chain-fatty-acid obesity 317 2536
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 135 2295
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammation of the large intestine 135 2295
butyrate diversion colitis 18 2268
butyrate corticosteroid allergy 10 1900
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus colitis 124 1860
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus atopic dermatitis 84 1848
butyrate colon carcinoma 153 1836
fructan gluten intolerance 13 1768
SLC22A6 hypouricemia 2 1758
short-chain-fatty-acid colon cancer 114 1596
fructan irritable bowel syndrome 42 1512
SLC22A6 hereditary spastic paraplegia 7 1 1434
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum corn 96 1152
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum functional gastric disease 1 1128
TLR signalling sepsis 112 1120
FFAR2 obesity 53 1060
TLR signalling x linked agammaglobulinemia 10 1040
fructan wheat allergy 6 966
TLR signalling viral infectious disease 136 952
TLR signalling triggered by 73 949
Bifidobacterium longum colitis 65 910
fructan familial adult myoclonic epilepsy 11 803
FFAR2 type 2 diabetes mellitus 42 798
fructan irritability 42 798
SLC22A6 renal fibrosis 4 768
SLC22A6 refractory drug response 16 768
Bifidobacterium longum irritable bowel syndrome 24 720
galactooligosaccharide allergic urticaria 1 709
FFAR2 bone osteosarcoma 1 707
Anaerococcus lactolyticus biliary atresia 1 697
SLC22A6 oculocerebrorenal syndrome 1 617
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum colitis 96 576
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum increased body weight 88 528
FFAR2 insulin resistance 21 504
Bifidobacterium longum diarrhea 52 468
Bifidobacterium longum irritability 26 468
FFAR2 type II diabetes mellitus 27 459
Bifidobacterium longum gastrointestinal inflammation 4 444
galactooligosaccharide autosomal recessive hyaline body myopathy 1 443
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum increased reactive oxygen species production 135 405
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum reduced C reactive protein level 1 376
Bifidobacterium longum perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 12 348
FFAR2 disease of metabolism 9 342
galactooligosaccharide increased circulating total ige level 1 342
galactooligosaccharide recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 315
galactooligosaccharide gastrointestinal system disease 9 243
Anaerococcus lactolyticus cholestasis 1 210
galactooligosaccharide recurrent upper respiratory tract infections 3 147
inulin metabolism phenotypic variability 1 92
Anaerococcus lactolyticus jaundice 1 91
Anaerococcus lactolyticus urinary tract infection 1 76
Anaerococcus lactolyticus acute cystitis 1 76
Anaerococcus lactolyticus recurrent urinary tract infections 1 69
inulin metabolism obesity 2 14
inulin metabolism insulin resistance 1 10
inulin metabolism type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 4
inulin metabolism distal 1 4