Literature Report for an X-omics gut set
Introduction (back to top)

This literature report is generated for a set of concepts that you have a particular interest in. This Start Set is provided by you. The Start Set consists of concepts such as human genes, metabolites, pathways, bacteria, phenotypes and diseases. This report helps in the look-up of the relevant literature for your Start Set: it displays abstracts about each of your concepts and all inter-connections. Next, relations between the concepts of your Start Set and concepts that are part of our BioSets are described. BioSets are expert-curated sets of different biological concepts that describe a certain topic. Examples of BioSets that can optionally be included are: gut health, skin health, brain health, oncology and immunity. Finally, relations between the concepts of your Start Set and the Discovery Set are described. The Discovery Set contains over 200,000 biological concepts that are the basis of our KMAP database. The above is described in the overview picture below:

The report has been divided into several sections, designed to answer specific questions. These are listed below, you can click on the links to directly jump to a specific section.

What is known about the members of my set?
How are the concepts related to each other?
Which facts are known about the members of my set?
How are my concepts related to BioSets?
How is each concept related to new concepts?

What is known about the members of my set? (back to top)
The table below lists the concepts in your Start Set. For each of the concepts, the names and its synonyms (if any) are shown. The name of each concept is hyperlinked to a TenWise literature overview page for this concept. You can use the buttons to export the Start Set to another program. You can also use the search box to search for a concept in your set. When you type in a part of the word in this box, the table is automatically filtered and updated.

Set member Synonyms
butyratebutanate; butanoate; butyric acid; butyric acid;butanoate; propanecarboxylate; propylformate
Anaerococcus lactolyticusPeptostreptococcus lactolyticus
inulin
short-chain-fatty-acidSCFA
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Anaerostipes butyraticus
TLR signalling
Bifidobacterium longum
galactooligosaccharide
inulin metabolism
fructanlevan; polyfructose
SLC22A6OAT1; PAHT; ROAT1
Lactobacillus plantarumLactobacillus arabinosus; Lactobacillus arizonensis; Lactobacillus plantari; Lactobacterium plantarum; Streptobacterium plantarum
FFAR2FFA2R; GPR43
How are the concepts related to each other? (back to top)
The table below shows how each concept is connected with all other concepts in you Start Set. The table works as follows. Each of the concepts from your set is listed in the table in the left panel. The number between parentheses shows the number of other concepts in your set that it has a connection to. Clicking on the ">" link displays the actual members on the right hand side, each with a separate link. Clicking on this link brings you to the TenWise Literature overview page that shows the abstracts in which the relation between the two concepts are described.

Set member

The network below is a visual representation of the data that are shown in the section above. You can use the controller in the top left corner to zoom and shift the network. You can also drag the nodes in the network to alter the position of the nodes. Clicking on a single node opens a new window in which the most relevant abstracts for that node are shown.
Clicking on the lines that connect 2 nodes opens up a window in which the abstracts are shown in which both nodes co-occur.

Which facts are known about the members of my set? (back to top)
This section lists individual sentences that were obtained from all abstracts in which a concept of your Start Set was mentioned together with a BioSet concept. You can use the search box to filter for specific words. The leftmost columns links directly to the PubMed abstract.

PMID FACT
500214The fructan of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176 was shown to have a levan structure by comparing the chromatographic mobilities of the saccharides produced by partial acid hydrolysis of ghe fructan and known levan and inulin.
1270808Homogenous IgAK immunoglobulins ABPC-47 new, EPC-109, UPC-61 (anti-2,1 fructofuranan specificity) and homogeneous IgAK ABPC-48 and IgGK UPC-10 (anti-2,6 fructofuranan specificity) were purified by affinity chromatography by using inulin- and grass levan-Sepharose columns, respectively.
1439545Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)--and especially butyrate--has been shown possibly to impede cell proliferation and regulate cell differentiation of colonocytes.
1453239The amount of potential production of gas and SCFA (B) for glucose was higher than that for pectin and the rate constant of gas and SCFA (k) for pectin was higher than that for glucose.
1521915Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), namely butyrate, acetate and propionate, originate from the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and are the predominant anions present in the large bowel.
1521915Inhibition of growth induced by either propionate or butyrate is not reversed by the addition of putrescine, which reveals that these SCFAs are not acting solely on the ODC/polyamine system.
1522814The enzyme was specific for levan which mainly consists of beta-(2,6)-linked D-fructose and was also able to hydrolyze inulin, sucrose and raffinose at the activities of 13, 9 and 5% of that hydrolyzing levan, respectively.
1522814The pH optima for levan, inulin and sucrose were approximately 5.
1690948Rats received standard TPN, TPN with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate), TPN with an intracecal infusion of SCFAs, or rat food.
1941180The cecal pool of volatile fatty acids tended to reach a plateau in rats fed diets containing more than 10% inulin (up to 600-700 mumol), but volatile fatty acid absorption was a slightly hyperbolic function of the dietary inulin level.
1941180The cecal pool of bile acids was greater in rats fed inulin, and this oligosaccharide displayed a slight hypocholesterolemic effect, even in rats fed the 5% inulin diet.
1941187Absorption of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate, was studied in vivo by measuring their disappearance from the washed cecum of anesthetized rats.
1941187The SCFA seemed to be absorbed predominantly by simple passive diffusion, because there was linear absorption over a wide concentration range, and no evidence of competition or enhancement of absorption when more than one SCFA was present in the lumen.
2190852The addition of luminal SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate did not influence the effect of either toxin in loops of ileum.
2348500Analysis of the SCFA revealed a significantly higher quantity of the volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acid in recovery period faeces in comparison to diarrhoeal faeces, although no significant difference was seen in the quantity of non-volatile fatty acids.
2359413Our studies showed that UPC 61, EPC 109, and a hybrid antibody composed of the heavy chain from UPC 61 and the light chain from EPC 109, UPC 61H:EPC 109L, not only bind to inulin which is a linear fructan of beta (2----1) fructofuranosyl linkages, but also bind to sinistrin, a branched molecule consisting of a beta (2----1) fructofuranosyl backbone with beta (2----6) branch points.
2359413The fine binding specificity of these three antibodies for the beta (2----1) fructofuranosyl linkages found in inulin-BSA can be further studied by their binding to fructan oligosaccharides isolated from asparagus roots.
2359413Finally we report for the first time that a monoclonal antibody specific for beta (2----6) fructans can also bind specifically to inulin-BSA with a lower affinity.
2390024High molecular-weight levans elaborated by 8 separate strains of Actinomyces viscosus were purified: the inteactions of these levans with concanavalin A and anti-fructan myeloma immunoglobulins UPC-10 and J606 were examined by the quantitative precipitin method.
2390024The liberated oligomers were compared with oligomers of known structure released from levans of Aerobacter levanicum and Leuconostoc mesenteriodes B512 as well as with plant inulin.
2473196Two other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), n-butyrate and n-valerate, but not acetate, increased Isc when added to the mucosal bathing solution.
2496241Dietary fiber, which stimulates intestinal mucosal growth, is fermented by anaerobic bacteria in the rat hindgut to the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
2496241This study determined whether chronic colonic infusion of butyrate or a combination of SCFA would stimulate intestinal mucosal growth in an animal deprived of its normal source of SCFA, fiber fermentation in the cecum.
2496241Rats were then assigned to receive either a continuous infusion of butyrate (20 mM, 40 mM, or 150 mM), SCFA (70 mM acetate + 35 mM propionate + 20 mM butyrate), or saline, or to receive no infusion.
2496241Both the 20-mM butyrate and the SCFA groups showed increased colonic mucosal DNA compared to controls.
2645309Thus, the obese subjects had exercise-induced changes in glucose and inulin metabolism consistent with greater postexercise insulin resistance, despite an impaired plasma epinephrine response to intense exercise.
2791802We have shown previously that short-chain fatty acids (mixtures of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids; SCFAs) in the proportions found usually in stool water stimulate fasting ileal motility.
2791802SCFAs were equally effective during fasting and soon after food, but in the late postprandial period, when the meal reached the ileum, SCFAs were much less likely to stimulate motility.
2907427Absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate, and butyrate was studied in simultaneously perfused proximal and distal segments of the colon in anaesthetized guinea pigs.
3027283They were given a 3 ml SCFA mixture (acetate, propionate, and butyrate; 100, 20, and 60 mM, respectively; pH 6.
3209110The major SCFA in all groups were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids.
3209110SCFA and lower ratio of butyrate to total SCFA was found for polyp-colon cancer subjects than for normal subjects.
3630714SCFA concentration) and n-butyric acid (5.
3679542The enzyme specifically hydrolyzed levan, but not sucrose, raffinose, melezitose, inulin, and dextran.
3965399The purified enzyme preparation hydrolyzed levan, inulin, and several 2-beta-linkage-containing oligosaccharides such as sucrose and raffinose, but not melezitose, dextran, and pseudonigeran.
3965399This enzyme acts as an exofructosidase since thin-layer chromatographic analysis revealed that D-fructose was formed from levan or inulin by the action of the enzyme.
4411981An inulin-like fructan produced by Streptococcus mutans, strain JC2.
6193225Regarding the binding specificity, these MAb can be divided into three groups: one that binds only BL, the second that binds BL and displays low cross-reactivity for inulin, and the third that lacks BL- and inulin-binding activity.
6768829The antibody response to the inulin [(In), beta-(2 leads to 1) fructosan] determinant of bacterial levan [(BL), a beta-(2 leads to 6) polyfructosan that contains beta-(2 leads to 1) branch points] requires the presence of the a haplotype of the Igh gene complex.
6769806Anti-inulin [beta-(2 leads to 1)-linked polyfructose] and anti-grass levan [beta-(2 leads to 6)-linked polyfructose] antibody response in mice.
6769806Anti-inulin [beta-(2 --> 1) polyfructosan Brucella abortus (InuBA)] and anti-grass levan [beta-(2 --> 6) polyfructosan] antibody responses in BALB/c and C57BL mice and in their F(1) and backcross progeny, as well as in immunoglobulin congenic and Bailey recombinant inbred strains derived from BALB/c and C57BL mice, were examined.
6769806The anti-inulin antibodies could accommodate both beta-(2 --> 1)- and beta-(2 --> 6)-linked polyfructosans, and 97% of the anti-inulin plaque-forming cells (PFC) from BALB/c mice expressed the cross-reactive idiotypes (InuIdX) shared by the BALB/c inulin- and levan-binding myeloma proteins.
6769806Of the C57BL mice, only 25% produced high anti-inulin response, and none exhibited the InuIdX of BALB/c anti-inulin antibodies.
6769806The percentages of InuIdX(+) anti-inulin PFC were also examined in other strains with high anti-inulin response.
7190873The enzyme hydrolyses levan, and inulo-biose, -tetraose, -pentaose, and -hexaose, but has negligible effects on inulin, inulotriose, and inuloheptaose.
7397708The association constants for the interaction of BALB/c (UPC 10, Y5476, W3082, and UPC 61) and NZB (PC 3660) myeloma anti-D-fructans in pure form, or in ascitic fluids, with high-molecular-weight levans (Ka) and with such low-molecular-weight compounds as rye-grass levan, inulin, sucrose, and D-fructo-oligosaccharides (Kia) were determined by affinity electrophoresis, measuring the extent of retardation of the D-fructan-specific band by levan and its restoration by the low-molecular-weight compounds and oligosaccharide haptens.
7397708The retarded, D-fructan-specific bands of W3082 and UPC 61 were restored by inulin, having beta-D-(2 leads to)-linkages, and rye-grass levan, having beta-D-(2 leads to 6)-linkages, and those of PC 3660, UPC 10, and Y5476 by rye-grass levan.
7397708The Kia values of inulin with W3082 and UPC 61 were 10 times those of rye-grass levan.
7547821The ileostomists were given a low-dietary-fibre diet based on white wheat bread and virtually free of inulin, and the same diet with the addition of 10 g and 30 g inulin product respectively, and the recovery and mean transit time (MTT) of inulin were estimated by tracking inulin in ileal effluent.
7555695SCFA were only present in the mucosal solutions at a concentration of 60 mmol/l consisting of 60% acetate, 25% propionate and 15% butyrate at the beginning of each flux rate measurement.
7555695In the presence of 2 cm2 serosal area of the tissues, mucosal SCFA uptake ranged between 53 and 75 mumol with no change of molar SCFA proportions irrespective of hindgut segment.
7555697Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic, propionic and n-butyric acids produced by hindgut bacteria stimulate gut epithelial cell proliferation through afferent neural and efferent non-neural systemic transmissions beside a probable local mechanism.
7555697The effect of butyric acid did not differ between samples of different length of n-butyric acid exposure.
7576995Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: acetate, propionate, n-butyrate) arising in the large bowel during bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre and starch have paradoxical effects on colonic epithelial proliferation.
7576995While the three major SCFAs stimulate proliferation of normal crypt cells, n-butyrate and, to a lesser degree, propionate inhibit growth of colon cancer cell lines.
7612248Lactobacillus plantarum showed the same growth characteristics on selective plates and in liquid media containing inulin, after transformation with either pLPEW1 or pESIEW2.
7636436The SCFAs acetate, propionate or butyrate (5, 20 and 100 mM) did not induce a significant release of GLP-1.
7658194Using propionate as a test SCFA, experiments demonstrate that the acidification and pHi overshoot are explained by transmembrane influx and efflux of nonionized SCFA, respectively.
7781463Treatment with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) seems promising in ulcerative colitis and changes in colonocyte oxidation of butyrate have been suggested to be of importance for the development of this disease.
7781463In contrast to earlier reports, SCFAs (including butyrate) did not correlate with inflammatory activity or localization in either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
7891407The magnitude of the increase in JOHSL induced by SCFA did not significantly vary among these three SCFAs.
8010763PCR protocol- and inulin catabolism-based differentiation of inulinolytic soil bacteria.
8014762Nutrition of colonic epithelial cells (colonocytes) is maintained by luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), chiefly by n-butyrate.
8014762The importance of SCFAs for the maintenance of colonic epithelium has been demonstrated in animal models of colitis produced by rectal instillation of an inhibitor of SCFA oxidation and in patients with diversion colitis in whom a segment of colonic epithelium was deprived of contact with luminal SCFAs.
8014762UC patients with moderate or severe-UC patients yielded major differences in SCFA concentrations with n-butyrate increased in inactive and mild UC well above control values and total SCFA and acetate decreased in moderate and severe UC below control levels.
8014762Raised concentrations of fecal n-butyrate may reflect impaired utilization of this SCFA in the colon of patients with mild UC and Crohn's disease with colonic involvement.
8086719Very few babies had significant levels of n-butyric acid, although this SCFA is believed to be important for the health of the colonic mucosa of adults.
8142333Feeding wheat bran had little effect on caecal pH or total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration but was associated with a marked increase in molar proportion of butyrate and a fall in propionate.
8142333There were substantial changes in caecal total SCFA concentration and in the molar proportions of individual SCFA throughout the day but no evidence of an interaction between diet and time interval after feeding.
8157587The growth of the mutant strain on levan, inulin, and sucrose was not affected.
8174882The impact of acute colitis on SCFA-stimulated Na+ absorption and SCFA absorption was examined.
8174882METHODS: Proximal colon from rabbits infected with Yersinia entercolitica, a pair-fed group, and controls was mounted in Ussing chambers, and Na+ transport, short-circuit current, and tissue conductance were examined during a basal period and after stimulation with the SCFAs, butyrate, or propionate.
8174882CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of SCFA-stimulated Na(+)-H+ exchange and SCFA absorption contribute to the diarrheal fluid loses observed in acute colitis and may reduce colonocyte energy supply.
8205551Because short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are natural effectors of colonic cell differentiation in vivo, we investigated the specificity of three 4-carbon atom SCFAs on potentiating differentiation and apoptosis, and thus accumulation of shed cells in the conditioned media, in these colonic carcinoma cell lines.
8205551Whereas the unbranched SCFA butyrate induced a more differentiated phenotype and enhanced apoptosis, two derivatives of butyrate, branched isobutyric acid and a nonmetabolizable fluorine-substituted analogue, heptafluorobutyric acid, were ineffective in inducing either differentiation or apoptosis.
8257475Inulin and oligofructose are fructans with a degree of polymerization of 2 to 60 and 2 to 20, respectively.
8304299Butyrate appears to be the SCFA that is most avidly metabolized by the colonic mucosa.
8304951In the cecum of the animals fed the starch diet the percent of butyrate, propionic, isovaleric, and valeric over total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was increased, whereas the percent of acetic acid was decreased.
8359643METHODS: These studies determined the uptake of [14C]butyrate (used as a model SCFA) by basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from rat distal colonic mucosa.
8359643Both increasing extravesicular butyrate concentration and intravesicular bicarbonate concentration saturated bicarbonate/pH gradient-stimulated [14C]butyrate uptake with an apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for butyrate of 6.
8359643CONCLUSIONS: Butyrate uptake by basolateral membrane vesicles represents both nonionic diffusion and a carrier-mediated SCFA-bicarbonate exchange process that differs from the SCFA-bicarbonate exchange recently identified in apical membrane vesicles.
8387587Effects of H+ secreting mechanisms on unidirectional passage of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and n-butyrate across isolated guinea-pig caecum, proximal and distal colon were studied under short-circuit current conditions in Ussing chamber isotope flux experiments.
8389311Decreased production of butyric acid by colonic carbohydrate fermentation may predispose to colonic carcinogenesis, with the implicit assumption that the decrease in faecal butyrate found predates the development of the tumour.
8613881The total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in the cecal contents of SBF-fed rats was 100% higher than the concentration in rats fed the fiber-free diet in the EL group, but the administration of low dose and high dose OEL lowered the SCFA concentration in fiber-fed rats to that of rats fed the fiber-free diet.
8633856The pathways of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) formation from glucose were determined for the human fecal microbial communities of two subjects.
8672285In addition to levan, the enzyme also showed substrate specificity towards inulin.
8682162The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCFAs on the induction of GSTpi in the intestine as a possible new anticarcinogenic mechanism of SCFAs.
8689925Total mucosal volume was not correlated with the concentration of total SCFA or butyrate in the colon.
8707089BACKGROUND: The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate provides energy for colonocytes, stimulates colonic fluid and electrolyte absorption and is recognised as an effective treatment for multiple types of colitis.
8707089AIM: To examine the impact of butyrate enema therapy on the clinical course, severity of inflammation, and SCFA stimulated Na+ absorption in a chronic experimental colitis.
8707089In contrast, in the butyrate enema treated TNBS group, diarrhoea ceased, colonic damage score improved, and tissue MPO activity as well as butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption recovered to control values.
8707089CONCLUSION: Butyrate enema therapy stimulated colonic repair, as evidenced by clinical recovery, decreased inflammation, and restoration of SCFA stimulated electrolyte absorption.
8742337Purification and characterization of an oat fructan exohydrolase that preferentially hydrolyzes beta-2,6-fructans.
8757320Our previous studies of 102 mAb from mice injected with bacterial levan (BL), a beta(2-->6) linked polyfructosan with beta(2-->1) branch points (inulin determinant, In) showed that BALB/c and CBA/Ca mAb differed in VH and VL gene family usage and fine specificity.
8789895Percentages of the predominant SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) were not affected by adaptation, nor were production and concentration of lactate.
8789895CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial production of SCFAs is low in non-adapted pouches, resulting in low concentrations of SCFAs comparable to concentrations found in conventional ileostomies.
8843764Intravesicular butyrate resulted in trans-stimulation of n-[1-14C]butyrate uptake.
8843764Butyrate uptake was inhibited approximately 25-40% by C2-C5 SCFAs and approximately 40% by niflumic acid.
8843764Butyrate uptake was not affected by extravesicular Na+, and 22Na uptake was unaltered by extravesicular butyrate.
8843764Butyrate uptake was independent of extra- or intravesicular CI-, and butyrate loading produced no changes in 36Cl uptake.
8843764We conclude that the predominant mechanism of n-butyrate transport across the human colonic luminal membrane appears to be via a HCO3-/SCFA antiport system independent of Cl-/HCO3- exchange and Na+ transport.
8865074Direct acidification of apical perfusates increased the magnitude of SCFA-induced luminal alkalinization, roughly in the same proportion to the increased concentration of non-ionized SCFA in the crypt lumen.
8865074An avidly metabolized SCFA (N-butyrate) augments crypt luminal alkalinization only slightly (0.
8890079The fecal SCFA profile of patients with DP-IBS is characterized by lower concentrations of total SCFA, acetate, and propionate and a higher concentration and percentage of n-butyrate.
8984026RESULTS: In the control period, transit time was inversely related to faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria counts, concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic and butyric acids, and H2 excreted in breath after lactulose ingestion.
8984026Cisapride reduced transit time was associated with (a) a significant rise in faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria, concentrations of total SCFAs, and propionic and butyric acids and breath H2 as well as (b) a significant fall in faecal pH and breath CH4 excretion, and (c) a non-significant decrease in the counts of methanogenic bacteria.
8997185The relative inhibitory potency at 25 mM of other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) paralleled their degree of cellular metabolism: butyrate > acetate = propionate > isobutyrate.
9009230Fructan synthesis in transgenic tobacco and chicory plants expressing barley sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase.
9009230We have recently cloned a cDNA encoding sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT), a key enzyme of fructan synthesis forming the beta-2,6 linkages typical of the grass fructans, graminans and phleins [Sprenger et al.
9009230Transformants of chicory, a plant naturally producing only unbranched fructans of the inulin type (beta-2,1 linkages), synthesized in addition branched fructans of the graminan type, particularly the tetrasaccharide bifurcose which is also a main fructan in barley leaves.
9058627DESIGN: A detailed histological evaluation of colonic biopsy specimens was performed in patients with active distal ulcerative colitis who were treated with rectal enemas containing a mixture of SCFAs, n-butyrate alone or saline placebo.
9058627Both butyrate and the SCFA mixture reduced significantly the number of proliferating cells in the upper 40% of crypts.
9058627Tissue factor XIII activity in active ulcerative colitis was significantly lower than in mucosa from normal colons; however, it was not affected by SCFA or butyrate irrigation.
9058627CONCLUSION: SCFAs and butyrate have a more marked effect on crypt cell proliferation than on parameters of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis.
9103263Short chain fatty acids (propionate and butyrate) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) are able to induce apoptosis in HT-29 colonic tumor cell line, but DCA induces a much higher level of apoptosis than butyrate and propionate.
9129468SCFAs), pH, and the activities of beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase, Groups of 15 and 10 patients received lactose and inulin, respectively, for a period of 19 d.
9129468SCFAs showed a slight trend toward higher molar ratios of acetate to butyrate in response to the intake of lactose or inulin.
9135267These cultures produced less SCFA than those from adult faeces and produced very little SCFA from complex carbohydrate.
9145448The rationale for using SCFA enemas is based on Roediger's (1980) observation that butyrate is the preferred fuel of colonocytes and that SCFA deficiency could lead, in the short term, to mucosal hypoplasia and, in the long term, to colitis.
9145448Pilot studies using either the SCFA mixture or butyrate monotherapy have yielded promising results.
9145448In summary, SCFA topical therapy seems to be a promising option in distinct forms of inflammatory bowel disease; however, the routine use of SCFAs cannot be recommended until their efficacy has been confirmed in larger trials.
9200153In this study we have confirmed that deoxycholic acid (DCA) and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) butyrate and propionate induce a time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in two human colon tumor cell lines: HT-29 and CaCO2.
9225836To see how time of day and glucose tolerance status influenced serum SCFA concentrations, we determined serum SCFA throughout the day in 22 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 10 young and eight middle-aged normal controls.
9301506One short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate, is the colon's main energy source and inhibits malignant transformation in vitro.
9301506Faecal SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, increased with senna and fell with loperamide.
9361838Butyrate, a SCFA generated by microbial fermentation of dietary substrates, is produced in the colon of humans and may influence colonic disease.
9361838Butyrate and other SCFA are important for the absorption of electrolytes by the large intestine and may play a role in preventing certain types of diarrhea.
9361838The mechanism by which butyrate and other SCFA exerts control over fluid and electrolyte fluxes in the colon is not well delineated though it may occur through an energy generated fuel effect, the up-regulation of various electrolyte transport systems, as well as possible effects on neuroendocrine factors.
9497188It is concluded that 15 g/d inulin, fructooligosaccharide, or galactooligosaccharide did not have a negative effect on iron and calcium absorption in young healthy men.
9568475Among the SCFAs, n-butyrate was more effective in stimulating Jm-sMg than acetate, propionate or iso-butyrate.
9568475Eliminating HCO3(-)-CO2 from SCFA-containing solutions did not affect Mg2+ fluxes, whereas the same replacement in SCFA-free solutions led to a further reduction in Jm-sMg.
9672714It is therefore necessary to measure portal appearance as well as portal drained viscera metabolism to assess the quantitative as well as the qualitative contribution of SCFA and SCFA metabolites to whole animal metabolism.
9689727Most of the anions in hindgut contents are SCFA, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate.
9689727The obscure differences between the effects of SCFA on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of colonocytes in vivo and in vitro indicate that besides direct effects of SCFA systemic effects such as neural and humoral factors are of crucial importance.
9820119Butyric acid, a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), is a natural component of the animal metabolism.
9853541On the resistant starch phases, the mean fecal butyrate:SCFA ratio, which has been suggested to have positive implications for colonic health, was significantly above the low-fiber control by 31+/-14% (p=0.
9878023After 24 h, rabbits were given 6-h colonic infusions of SCFA (acetate, propionate, n-butyrate; 60:30:40 mM) or SCFA-free solution (control); groups of rabbits were killed in batches of 2 or 3 animals at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after treatment, for histologic and bacteriologic assessment.
9917526GBF improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate.
9924288Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon.
9924288The results of this study demonstrate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the colon suggesting the potential colon tumour inhibitory properties of chicory fructans.
10361678Di-D-fructose-2,6':6,2'-dianhydride (DFA IV) is a disaccharide consisting of two fructose residues that can be prepared from levan by levan fructotransferase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans GS-9, and it can be expected to have novel physiological functions from its unique structure.
10395606The food components to be discussed as potential "functional food ingredients" are the inulin-type fructans, i.
10395610In the latter part of 1995, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agreed to consider fructans as DF if an AOAC-accepted analytical method could be successfully developed for fructans.
10395625Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon.
10395625The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans.
10454254Analysis of the cecal contents revealed a significantly higher moisture content and significantly higher concentrations of SCFA, butyrate in particular, in the MFW and WB diet groups.
10455897Cells were treated with 5 mmol/L SCFAs (propionic, butyric, valeric, or caproic acids as propionate, butyrate, valerate, or caproate, respectively), with and without 10 nmol/L T3.
10499478Net absorption of Na or Cl did not increase further in the presence of 25 mM butyrate, indicating the absence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-linked NaCl absorption in Shiga toxin-treated colon.
10539788However, butyrate and total SCFA concentrations in rats fed the HAS diet decreased along the length of the colon and fecal butyrate concentration was reduced to one-third of that in the cecum.
10548364An impaired oxidation of butyrate has been suggested as a causative factor of ulcerative colitis and, moreover, agents present in colonic luminal contents impair butyrate oxidation in both rat and human colonocytes.
10548364To evaluate the overall effect of feces on the production of CO2 and ketone bodies from butyrate oxidation in rat colonocytes, fecal homogenates from 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with quiescent and 10 patients with active ulcerative colitis were sterile filtrated and added to rat colonocytes incubated with 2, 4, and 10 mmol/liter of stock butyrate, respectively.
10548364Addition of fecal filtrate from healthy subjects and patients with quiescent and active ulcerative colitis to colonocytes incubated with 2, 4, and 10 mmol/liter of stock butyrate, respectively, tended to decrease the production of CO2 from butyrate oxidation, whereas ketogenesis was unaffected.
10619166Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references.
10632723Analysis by HPLC showed that the commercial inulin preparations used in our study contained no low molecular mass sugars that could be responsible for the observed stabilizing effect of the fructans.
10645630The dry matter content was approximately 10%, while the total SCFA concentration was maintained at physiological concentrations with similar molar ratios for acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid as measured in vivo.
10655953These data support findings from animal studies that fructans influence the formation and/or degradation of TAG-rich lipoprotein particles, and the insulin data are also consistent with recent studies showing attenuation of insulin levels in fructan-treated rats.
10673915Accordingly, the ratio butyrate:- total SCFA increased over time throughout the caecocolonic tract (12.
10681709However, the kit was found to be reliable for identification of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus salivarius.
10725158Cecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content and fecal SCFA were significantly higher in the 20% and 40% groups than in the control and 5% groups.
10772173An AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measuring oligofructans and fructan polysaccharide (inulins) in mixed materials and food products.
10773725RESULTS: Clindamycin resulted in significant decreases in production rates of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which were associated with substantial changes in molar SCFA proportions at the expense of butyrate.
10806226Fructan localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in phloem parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements.
10840229RESULTS: A SCFA mixture (75 mM acetate, 35 mM propionate and 20 mM butyrate) or individual SCFAs (130 mM) increased the mucus release into the colon in a similar manner.
10917904An HPLC method was used to measure the SCFA, acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, butyrate, valerate and isocaproate.
10917912The pattern of SCFA production in the cecum was altered; AX fiber was a good source for acetate while GG and WB favored propionate and butyrate production, respectively.
10918994Previous studies by several groups, including our own, using isolated membrane vesicles have demonstrated that the uptake of butyrate is at least in part mediated by a non-electrogenic SCFA-/HCO3- antiporter.
10918994The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) whether Caco-2 cells could serve as an experimental model to assess the mechanisms of SCFA transport, and (2) whether monocarboxlate transporters could play a role in SCFA transport in these cells.
10945246GS-9 were selected as the best producers of inulase II, which produced DFA III from inulin and LFTase, which produced DFA IV from levan.
10958806Cecal acetic acid, butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the BF group were significantly higher than those in the other groups.
10995132Other common oligosaccharides, such as malto-, isomalto-, and galactooligosaccharides, and levan do not interfere, making the method specific and reliable.
11006829In cultures from 3-month-old rabbits, fermentation of pectin and xylan produced similar SCFA profiles, different from SCFA molar composition in cultures with starch.
11025362RESULTS: SCFA transport was significantly reduced in the presence of branched and unbranched SCFAs and several bromo, chloro and mercapto analogues as well as nicotinic acid and L-lactate.
11025362CONCLUSIONS: The data not only confirm earlier results that absorption of SCFAs in apical membranes of the rat distal colon is mediated by a relatively low affinity/high capacity SCFA(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchange mechanism, but also indicate that although this anion transporter shares some functional similarities, is not identical with the recently cloned MCT isoforms.
11029587Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers in the colon lumen which severely affects the proliferation of colon cancer cells in in vitro experiments.
11029587Although butyrate is able to interfere with numerous cellular targets including cell cycle regulator expression, little is known about butyrate metabolism and its possible involvement in its effect upon colon carcinoma cell growth.
11029587Interestingly, when HT-29 cells were cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate, their capacity to incorporate 14C-labelled sodium butyrate into triacylglycerols and phospholipids was increased more than twofold.
11077326Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, propionate, and acetate produced during fiber fermentation promote colonic differentiation and can reverse or suppress neoplastic progression.
11077326We sought to identify candidate genes responsible for SCFA activity on colonocytes and to compare the relative activities of independent SCFAs.
11157345Species such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus salivarius are common in the human mucosa, from the mouth to the rectum.
11177182Our hypothesis was that these three RS were not equivalent butyrate providers for the colonic mucosa and that butyrate uptake would therefore be different after in vivo fermentation of each starch.
11177182The starches induced different patterns of appearance of SCFA in the portal blood; raw potato starch was the only RS source to show a significant appearance of butyrate in the portal blood.
11177182This finding suggests that butyrate uptake does not only depend on the flow of butyrate appearing in the lumen.
11177182Indeed, for unexplained reasons, utilization of butyrate by the colonic mucosa appeared to be less efficient when the butyrate was produced from fermentation of potato starch than when it was produced from fermentation of the other RS sources.
11209840Total SCFA Short Chain Fatty Acids decreased in HIE+yog and HIE+VSL#3 at 6h and in all cultures at 24h; butyric acid decreased in HIE+Bif and HIE+VSL#3.
11216498In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.
11246608With respect to SCFAs, DSS administration significantly decreased the concentrations of acetic acid and n-butyric acid.
11327473Fermentation of cellulose produced the lowest concentrations of total SCFA without detection of butyrate or lactate.
11374687OBJECTIVES: Inulin stimulates intracolonic generation of butyrate and growth of lactic acid bacteria.
11374687However, inulin or butyrate enemas had no effect.
11385066SCFA molar ratio reflected propionic/butyric acid-rich fermentations, especially in those fed TC: The portal SCFA concentrations reflected the rise of the acetic and propionic acid pools in the cecum, whereas portal butyric acid remained relatively low, probably reflecting extensive metabolism by the cecal wall.
11385066These results indicate that whole wheat flours can strikingly affect cecal SCFA, especially butyrate, and are effective plasma cholesterol-lowering agents.
11407931No changes in total SCFA were observed; only butyrate was significantly higher at the intermediate and high-dose levels.
11427691Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
11497328Inulin and oligofructose are fructans extracted on a commercial basis from the chicory root.
11522747BACKGROUND & AIMS: Because short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and heat shock proteins (hsps) confer protection to intestinal epithelia cells (IECs), we studied whether SCFAs modulate IEC hsp expression.
11549186Inulin metabolism was associated with 10-fold stimulation of lactobacillus populations, together with smaller increases in bifidobacterial cell counts in V1.
11686781There were no significant differences between 3% inulin and oligofructose, although oligofructose seemed to be more easily fermentable, because of a trend to a higher concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the faeces of the oligofructose group.
11694645Because short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate are produced in the colonic lumen by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starches, we hypothesized that SCFA may inhibit the development of invasive human colon cancers.
11694645Although each of the SCFA tested significantly reduced primary cell invasion, butyrate was the most potent, inhibiting primary invasive human colon cancer invasion by 54% (P < 0.
11712644Few pharmaceutical studies, with the exception of those on rectal solutions, are described on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) formulations-especially for sodium butyrate, which is a colonocyte preferential substrate.
11729976Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in particular butyrate are regarded as an energy source acting in beneficial, protective manner on the colonic mucosa.
11749147Inulin, the polydisperse reserve polyfructose from plants such as Cichorium intybus (chicory), has been chemically modified in several ways to obtain industrially important biodegradable compounds.
11751291Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) that bypasses the LCFA transporters of mitochondria.
11751291Addition of butyrate elevated this ratio; V(TCA)/V(PAL) = 12:1 due to an SCFA-induced increase in V(TCA) of 43% (p < 0.
11763027Butyric acid was not detected and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were mainly acetic and propionic acids.
11829749The enzyme hydrolysed the beta-(2-->1)-fructan (inulin) and beta-(2-->6)-fructan (levan) via exo-cleavage, releasing fructose.
11897627Current studies were undertaken to characterize the mechanism of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transport in isolated human proximal colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) utilizing a rapid-filtration n-[(14)C]butyrate uptake technique.
11897627Our results, consistent with the existence of a HCO(3)(-)/SCFA exchanger in these membranes, are summarized as follows: 1) n-[(14)C]butyrate influx was significantly stimulated into the vesicles in the presence of an outwardly directed HCO(3)(-) and an inwardly directed pH gradient; 2) n-[(14)C]butyrate uptake was markedly inhibited (approximately 40%) by anion exchange inhibitor niflumic acid (1 mM), but SITS and DIDS (5 mM) had no effect; 3) structural analogs e.
11897627HCO(3)(-) and pH-gradient-driven n-[(14)C]butyrate; 4) n-[(14)C]butyrate uptake was saturable with a K(m) for butyrate of 17.
11983830The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced via anaerobic bacterial fermentation within the colon and is thought to be protective in regard to colon carcinogenesis.
11983830Although butyrate (C4) is considered the most potent of the SCFA, a variety of other SCFA also exist in the colonic lumen.
11983830SCFA-induced transactivation of the differentiation marker gene, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), was blocked by histone deacetylase (HDAC), further supporting the critical link between SCFA and histones.
11983830Butyrate also significantly increased apoptosis, whereas the other SCFA studied did not.
11984152SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) were quantified individually in caecal, proximal and distal contents.
12016142While it did significantly increase bulk, SCFA and butyrate levels and lower pH, the magnitude of these effects was not as great as with wheat bran.
12069263Differences were found in the total amount of SCFAs, proportions of the acetic, propionic and butyric acids, conversion of bilirubin to urobilinogens, degradation of faecal tryptic activity and degradation of mucin.
12086179The purified enzyme had the highest activity for levan (a beta(2-->6)-linked fructan), but also hydrolysed garlic extract, (a beta(2-->1)-linked fructan with beta(2-->6)-linked fructosyl sidechains), 1,1,1-kestose, 1,1-kestose, 1-kestose, inulin (beta(2-->1)-linked fructans) and sucrose at 60, 45, 39, 12, 9 and 3%, respectively, of the activity observed for levan.
12088510The functional food components that are discussed in the proceedings of the 3rd ORAFTI Research Conference are the inulin-type fructans, natural food components found in miscellaneous edible plants.
12088514Concerning short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) most studies have been using oligofructose and points at an increased butyric acid formation in the caecum of rats.
12088514As inulin has a higher molecular weight than oligofructose it might be speculated if this could be a reason to the different SCFA-profile formed.
12088514No effects on faecal concentrations of SCFA in humans have been revealed with inulin and oligofructose, which neither is expected as most of the SCFA formed during the fermentation already has been absorbed or utilized by the colonic mucosa.
12207348We investigated the effect of SCFA (butyrate, propionate, acetate) on expression of IL-18 in IEC in vitro and in vivo.
12207348As proof of principle butyrate effects were confirmed in vivo by demonstration of increased IL-18 protein expression in IEC from butyrate-treated mice.
12393583Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of 2 to 6 carbons in length induce gamma globin expression in animal models, and butyrate, phenylbutyrate, and valproate induce gamma globin in human patients.
12408447Among these, a positive effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium longum and Enterococcus faecium SF68 has been reported.
12419846Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.
12419846Therefore, we studied whether the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose (Raftilose-Synergy1, briefly, Synergy1, 10% of the diet), probiotics [Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb12) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG), each at 5x10(8) c.
12435462BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) (especially butyrate) enemas are widely used to reduce symptoms associated with human inflammatory bowel disease.
12435462CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of SCFA (especially butyrate) enemas on hypersensitivity and inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease is questionable and needs to be thoroughly investigated in humans.
12444625Chemical syntheses of inulin and levan structures.
12453229Two other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), propionate and butyrate, present in high concentrations in the caecum and colon, had effects opposite to those of acetate: neither restored invasion gene expression in the barA mutant, and both, in fact, reduced expression in the wild-type strain.
12468594Chicory inulin is a natural linear fructan that is not digested in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract but is fermented in the cecocolon.
12570825For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation.
12584218We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat established colitis in SPF TG rats and prevent recurrent disease after antibiotics were stopped.
12638030Effects of inulin-type fructans of different chain length and type of branching on intestinal absorption and balance of calcium and magnesium in rats.
12638030BACKGROUND: Inulin-type fructans or chains with mainly beta[2-1] linked fructose molecules escape the ingestion procedure in the small intestine and are fermented by the microflora, and are known to increase colonic absorption of minerals in animals.
12638030AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was twofold: a) to compare different types of fructans that differ in the sugar chain length and in chain branching; b) to determine the potential synergistic effect of a combination of inulin-type fructans with different chain lengths.
12638030The rats were distributed into 5 groups and fed for 28 days a fiber-free basal purified diet or diet containing 10 % oligofructose (OF) (DP(av) 4), or 10 % HP-inulin (DP(av) 25), a blend of 50 % OF and 50 % HP-inulin, or a branched-chain inulin.
12684041Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids.
12684041Acetate, propionate, and butyrate represent the most capable SCFA, inducing calcium mobilization which subsequently regulates leukocyte function in the immune system.
12684041We have cloned the previously described putative orphan G-protein coupled receptor, GPR43, and have functionally identified SCFA as the activating ligands.
12749837These IS elements were not observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, or Lactobacillus plantarum.
12769445Butyrate is derived from colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, and our aim was to study whether UC patients could safely increase the fecal butyrate level by dietary means.
12769445Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, disease activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded every 4 weeks.
12770882The location of the interaction with the lipid headgroup is different for the inulin-type fructan compared to the levan-type fructan, since inulin shows interaction with the lipid phosphate group, whereas levan does not.
12805911Recent progress has now succeeded in elucidating the biochemistry and molecular biology of fructan biodegradation in chicory, an economically important species used for commercial inulin extraction.
12805911Unlike fructan biosynthetic genes that originated from vacuolar-type invertase, fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) seem to have evolved from a cell-wall invertase ancestor gene that later obtained a low iso-electric point and a vacuolar targeting signal.
12806168FFT (fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase, EC 2.
12806168Defoliation did not result in a prompt fructan breakdown and increase in 1-FEH activity, but after 10 days fructan breakdown and 1-FEH activities became higher in the defoliated plants.
12807738SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, were significantly elevated by HAS with higher levels being observed in the cecum than in the feces.
12852326Prebiotics, such as inulin-type fructans, are the trophic substrate of probiotics and potential intestinal microflora selectors.
12926783Fecal concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and butyrate tended to be higher in OF-supplemented dogs (P < 0.
14512034In vitro studies were also performed to test the interaction between two SCFA (butyrate and propionate) as inhibitors of cytokine production in THP-1 cells.
14512034The intestinal contents from fiber-treated colitic rats showed a significant higher production of SCFA, butyrate and propionate, than non-treated colitic animals.
14552381The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary galactooligosaccharide (Gal OS) addition on swine nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial populations, and ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and to determine their impact on ileal fermentative characteristics in vitro.
14581206Fructans, a family of oligo- and polyfructoses, are implicated to play a drought-protecting role in plants.
14581206Inulin-type fructan is able to preserve the membrane barrier during dehydration.
14581206Using a vesicle leakage assay, it was found that both levan- and inulin-type fructans protected the membrane barrier.
14581206Using x-ray diffraction, it was found that in the presence of both inulin- and levan-type fructans the lamellar repeat distance increased considerably.
14582967The effects of different oligosaccharides [fructooligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and isomaltooligosaccharide (MOS)] and inulin on heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation and overall mutagenicity in fried ground patties were evaluated.
14608068Large bowel SCFA concentrations and pools were significantly higher in rats fed the three acylated starches and were disproportionately greater in the SCFA that had been esterified to the starch.
14608102Among the produced SCFA, butyrate appears to be responsible for increasing plasma GLP-2 concentration, in addition to the enterotrophic effects.
14641965Butyrate, a major SCFA, is potentially chemoprotective by suppressing the growth of tumour cells and enhancing their differentiation.
14641965To investigate such interactions, a variety of dietary fibre sources was fermented with human faecal slurries in vitro, analysed for SCFA, and corresponding SCFA mixtures were prepared.
14641965Fermentation products inhibited cell growth more than the corresponding SCFA mixtures, and the SCFA mixtures were more active than butyrate, probably due to phytoprotectants and to propionate, respectively, which also inhibit cell growth.
14641965Only butyrate induced GST, whereas chemoresistance was caused by selected SCFA mixtures, but not by all corresponding fermentation samples.
14641965It can be concluded that fermented dietary fibre sources are more potent inhibitors of tumour cell growth than butyrate alone, and also contain ingredients which counteract the undesired positive selection pressures that higher concentrations of butyrate induce in tumour cells.
14677862OF) and inulin, were tested against a 0% supplemental fructan control.
14686922The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intestinal flora can affect gene expression through short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and butyrate production.
14739357Nine biologically relevant SCFAs and butyrate derivatives were tested in an in vitro model (PC12, rat pheochromocytoma cells) for their ability to regulate neurotransmitter-related gene expression.
14739357Our results revealed that among all the studied SCFAs, only propionate and butyrate increased tyrosine hydroxylase and proenkephalin mRNA levels.
14739357Thus, the biologic impact of SCFAs on catecholaminergic and opioid systems depend on the activation of SCFA-specific, dose-specific, and gene-specific molecular mechanisms.
14962641Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced mainly in the colon by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates.
14962641Although luminal production of modest quantities of SCFAs is essential for normal colonic mucosal function, excessive production/accumulation of SCFAs may arise in premature infants due to increased luminal carbohydrates malabsorption and poor gastrointestinal motility, and may have deleterious effects on mucosal integrity.
14993311Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 employs a fructosyltransferase (FTF) to synthesize a fructose polymer [a fructan of the levan type, with beta(2-->6) linkages] from sucrose or raffinose.
15051827Similar effects were observed in SCFA possessing different carbon lengths (C3-C7), but not in branched isobutyric acid, indicating that the stimulatory properties of SCFA were related to fatty acid structure.
15078519GG was subsequently spray-dried in the presence of the prebiotic inulin in the feed media, composed of RSM (10% w/v) and inulin (10% w/v), and survival following spray-drying was of the order 7.
15085967When 4% inulin was added to the diet a significant increase of butyrate concentration in the caecum was observed.
15109727IBM bound specifically to polyfructans such as inulin and levan but it did not interact with any of the glycan polymers tested in this study including cellulose, xylan, and starch.
15195908The pH and the digestibility of pectins, the concentration of total SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, bicarbonate and chloride increased.
15225596FOS)-based prebiotics Inulin, Raftiline, Raftilose and Actilight were the most effective in increasing the cellular resistance to faecal water genotoxicity, whereas fermentations with Elixor (a galactooligosaccharide) and Fibersol (a maltodextrin) were less effective.
15287679To generalize from these studies, RS softens stools and increases stool bulk, decreases pH, increases short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, reduces products of protein fermentation, and decreases bile salts in fecal water.
15287681Accordingly, a fermentation strategy of RS favoring SCFA production should be established to elucidate the potentially beneficial effects of SCFAs on large bowel physiology.
15446478Results showed that the major SCFA produced were acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
15446478The inclusion of soluble dietary fiber (diet SBP) caused the highest concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA, whereas the increase in the production of propionate resulting from the addition of insoluble dietary fiber (diet WB) only occurred at the initial stages during 48 h in vitro fermentation.
15469657Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats.
15469657After 3 weeks of treatment with a standard diet (control) or the same diet enriched with 100 g fructans varying in their degrees of polymerization (oligofructose (OFS), Synergy 1 (Syn) or long chain inulin)/kg, male Wistar rats were deprived of food for 8 h before sample collection.
15469657These results are in accordance with the modifications of dietary intake and fat-mass development in short-chain fructans-treated rats and demonstrate the potential modulation of GLP-1 (7-36) amide and ghrelin by fermentable fibres such as fructans, which are rapidly and extensively fermented in the proximal part of the colon.
15553141To explore the prebiotic effect of FOS and inulin, related to of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation in faecal cultures due to fermentative metabolism of intestinal microflora, analysis of SCFAs, acetic and lactic acid was achieved by co-electroosmotic capillary electrophoresis, where the electrophoretic mobility of the anionic analytes and electroosmotic flow (EOF) were similarly directed.
15596397Unlike C+IN, the dietary combination of CMC- and inulin-enhanced fermentation in the caecum of rats, however the proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate was less beneficial.
15596397Compared to CMC, inulin gave a higher concentration of SCFA, especially of butyrate and propionate.
15604656The onion fructosyltransferase fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) synthesizes fructans of the inulin neo-series using 1-kestose as a substrate.
15613255Intestinal immunity of rats with colon cancer is modulated by oligofructose-enriched inulin combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis.
15613255Therefore, the effects of PRO (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12), PRE (inulin-based enriched with oligofructose, 100 g/kg) and SYN (combination of PRO and PRE) on the immune system of rats were investigated in the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer model.
15808363The model was tested by comparing survival of bacteria isolated from humans (Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) animals (Bifidobacterium animalis, 2 strains), and fermented dairy products (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus kefirgranum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides) with their survival as determined by conventional methods.
15841496Several studies have reported that IBD is associated with impairment in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
15864601The concentration of SCFA required to inhibit growth of primary cells by 50% (IC50) was 20 mM of butyrate, 120 mM of propionate, and 240 mM of acetate after incubation for 1 h.
15864601Growth inhibition is not an immediate cytotoxic effect, and urothelial cells show a degree of adaptation to butyrate and growth recovery after incubation with butyrate.
15877883Methodological considerations in measuring human calcium absorption: relevance to study the effects of inulin-type fructans.
15877884Inulin-type fructans and bone health: state of the art and perspectives in the management of osteoporosis.
15877884In this light, inulin-type fructans are very interesting, even if we need to gather more data targeting bone metabolism before health professionals can actively advocate their consumption to prevent senile osteoporosis.
15877884Besides targeting the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, inulin-type fructans still remain a source for putative innovative dietary health intervention.
15877885Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food.
15877885The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets.
15877885This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals.
15877885Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed.
15877885Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by affecting nutrient digestion, gut microflora and gut morphology, although results vary depending on composition of the basal diet, inclusion level, type of fructan, adaptation period and experimental hygienic conditions.
15877886Introducing inulin-type fructans.
15877886Inulin is a generic term to cover all beta(2-->1) linear fructans.
15877886Chicory inulin is a linear beta(2-->1) fructan (degree of polymerisation (DP) 2 to 60; DPav=12), its partial enzymatic hydrolysis product is oligofructose (DP 2 to 8; DPav=4), and by applying specific separation technologies a long-chain inulin known as inulin HP (DP 10 to 60; DPav=25) can be produced.
15877886Finally, a specific product known as oligofructose-enriched inulin is obtained by combining chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose.
15877886Because of the beta-configuration of the anomeric C2 in their fructose monomers, inulin-type fructans resist hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, they classify as 'non-digestible' carbohydrates, and they are dietary fibres.
15877886In the colon, they are rapidly fermented to produce SCFA that are good candidates to explain some of the systemic effects of inulin-type fructans.
15877886Fermentation of inulin-type fructans in the large bowel is a selective process; bifidobacteria (and possibly a few other genera) are preferentially stimulated to grow, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora by increasing the number of potentially health-promoting bacteria and reducing the number of potentially harmful species.
15877886From a nutrition labelling perspective, inulin-type fructans are not only prebiotic dietary fibres; they are also low-calorie carbohydrates [6.
15877886Supported by the results of a large number of animal studies and human nutrition intervention trials, the claim 'inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption' is scientifically substantiated, but different inulin-type fructans have probably a different efficacy (in terms of effective daily dose), the most active product being the oligofructose-enriched inulin.
15877894Animal and clinical studies have shown that inulin-type fructans will stimulate an increase in probiotics (commensal bacteria) and these bacteria have been shown to modulate the development and persistence of appropriate mucosal immune responses.
15877895The mechanisms of the reported effects of IN/OF on the immune system are currently investigated and include: (i) direct effects of lactic acid-producing bacteria or bacterial constituents on immune cells; (ii) the production of SCFA and binding to SCFA receptors on leucocytes.
15877896So far, the bifidogenic effect of oligofructose and inulin has been demonstrated in animals and in adults, of oligofructose in infants and toddlers and of a long-chain inulin (10 %) and galactooligosaccharide (90 %) mixture in term and preterm infants.
15877896Studies published post marketing show that infants fed a long-chain inulin/galactooligosaccharide mixture (0.
15877897Inulin-type fructans have been shown to improve the metabolic functions of the commensal flora.
15877897Both inulin and oligofructose stimulate colonic production of SCFA and favour the growth of indigenous lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria.
15877898Bifidobacterium longum) isolated from healthy rectal mucosa combined with a prebiotic (oligofructose-enriched inulin - Synergy 1) was developed.
15877900Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data.
15877900Research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties.
15877900Higher beneficial effects were achieved by synbiotics (mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics), long-chain inulin-type fructans compared to short-chain derivatives, and feeding high-fat Western style diets.
15877900In conclusion, evidence has been accumulated that shows that inulin-type fructans and corresponding fermentation products reduced the risks for colon cancer.
15893395The strains belonged to 11 main RAPD-PCR fingerprinting library units identified as Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis.
15902467Single strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus brevis were resistant to erythromycin and/or clindamycin.
15950952The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate (BA) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can rapidly induce cell cycle arrest and differentation of colon cancer cell lines.
15950952To gain insight into the relationship between butyrate-induced differentiation and NF-(kappa)B regulation, we determined the impact of butyrate on proteasome activity and subunit expression.
15975167Inulin and Brussels sprouts increased the butyrate and acetate proportion, respectively, while the fermented milk did not modify the caecal biochemistry.
15979820The objective of the present study was to monitor possible changes in faecal microbiota of seven healthy adult dogs related to the administration of two fructans, oligofructose and inulin.
16034592Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of graminan oligomers in hardened wheat.
16034592We detected fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; EC 2.
16034592Wft3m transferred beta-(2,1)-linked fructosyl units to phlein, an extension of sucrose through beta-(2,6)-linked fructosyl units, as well as to inulin, an extension of sucrose through beta-(2,1)-linked fructosyl units, but could not efficiently synthesize long inulin oligomers.
16034592Incubation of a mixture of Wft3m and another recombinant protein of wheat, sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT), with sucrose and 1-kestotriose produced fructans similar to those that accumulated in hardened wheat tissues.
16042586Butyrate, a short-chain-fatty-acid end product of carbohydrate fermentation in the colon, shares a number of anti-neoplastic properties with aspirin, including inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of CRC cells.
16076940METHODS: Calcium absorption was measured as part of an evaluation of the effects of prebiotics (inulin-type fructans) using a stable isotope method in 93 young adolescents, 12.
16078948Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including propionate, butyrate and acetate, are fermentation products of carbohydrates in the colon.
16085808Survival on table olives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (three strains), Lactobacillus paracasei (two strains), Bifidobacterium bifidum (one strain), and Bifidobacterium longum (one strain) at room temperature was investigated.
16087995OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effects on calcium absorption and bone mineral accretion after 8 wk and 1 y of supplementation with an inulin-type fructan.
16087995CONCLUSION: Daily consumption of a combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans significantly increases calcium absorption and enhances bone mineralization during pubertal growth.
16126464Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats.
16126464Inulin-type fructans (inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) in the diet do increase intestinal calcium absorption in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified.
16126464We therefore assessed the effects of fermentation of inulin-type fructans on transepithelial calcium transport in rat large intestine.
16126464Thus, inulin-type fructans increase the large intestinal calcium absorption by different mechanisms including enhanced pools of soluble and ionized calcium, an increase in the absorptive surface predominantly in caecum, the increased concentrations of SCFAs, and by direct interaction with the intestinal tissue.
16204533During batch fermentation on inulin, the short fructans disappeared first, and then the longer ones were gradually consumed.
16204533Four strains were tested for extracellular hydrolytic activity against fructans, and only the two strains which ferment inulin showed this activity.
16253403RESULTS: After the multi fibre EN, there was a significant median increase in total faecal SCFAs (+84%), butyrate (+20%) and acetate (+147%) compared with baseline.
16254517OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of butyrate-induced colonic injury on ITF gene expression in vivo and to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of ITF gene expression in vitro.
16254517To further define ITF gene regulation by butyrate, transient transfection assays were performed on a 930 bp human ITF promoter-luciferase reporter gene plasmid in LS174T cells with or without the presence of butyrate.
16254517Furthermore, butyrate reduced ITF promoter report gene activity in transfected LS174T cell, suggesting that butyric acid regulation of ITF gene is by way of a specific ITF promoter.
16269678Ten strains of lactobacilli were assessed for their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans, which are well-known prebiotics.
16269678Significant amounts of acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol were produced when long-chain inulin or oligofructose-enriched inulin was used as the sole energy source.
16300933The genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis IL1403, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 and Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 were used to design four sets of primers.
16329863Inulin addition selected for a higher short chain fatty acid production with shifts towards propionic and butyric acid.
16330524Functionality tests of the cDNA performed after heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris showed--as did the native enzyme from wheat--a very high activity of the produced protein against bacterial levan, 6-kestose, and phlein whilst sucrose and inulin were not used as substrates.
16365060Because lactulose feeding decreases cecal cell proliferation, an effect attenuated by prefeeding inulin, we hypothesized that lactulose feeding would decrease colonic luminal synthesis of butyrate, and that prefeeding and cofeeding inulin would prevent this effect.
16365060At 6 and 7 d postsurgery, the rate of cecal synthesis of butyrate, cecal cell proliferation and apoptosis, and cecal and distal colon butyrate concentration were measured.
16365060The increased supply of butyrate to the cecum was associated with decreased cell proliferation, but cecal butyrate concentration did not reflect synthesis.
16411890Thermotoga maritima invertase (beta-fructosidase), a member of the glycoside hydrolase family GH-32, readily releases beta-D-fructose from sucrose, raffinose and fructan polymers such as inulin.
16449376Cloning and functional analysis of a high DP fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase from Echinops ritro (Asteraceae): comparison of the native and recombinant enzymes.
16449376Inulin-type fructans are the simplest and most studied fructans and have become increasingly popular as prebiotic health-improving compounds.
16449376The higher DP in some species can be explained by the presence of special fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferases (high DP 1-FFTs), different from the classical low DP 1-FFTs.
16449376FFT expression analysis correlates well with high DP fructan accumulation in vivo, suggesting that the enzyme is responsible for high DP fructan formation in planta.
16453106Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the major anions in the large intestinal lumen.
16453106In the present study, we investigated the expression of the SCFA receptor, GPR43, in the rat distal ileum and colon.
16453106We raised a rabbit antiserum against a synthesized fragment of rat GPR43; this was specific for rat GPR43.
16453106By immunohistochemistry, GPR43 immunoreactivity was localized to enteroendocrine cells expressing peptide YY (PYY), whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive (IR) enteroendocrine cells were not immunoreactive for GPR43.
16453106The results of the present study suggest that the PYY-containing enteroendocrine cells and 5-HT-containing mucosal mast cells sense SCFAs via the GPR43 receptor.
16461642This suggests a different mechanism for oligofructose breakdown between the strain of Bifidobacterium and both strains of Bacteroides, which helps to explain the bifidogenic nature of inulin-type fructans.
16469826Although short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-induced heat shock protein 25 (Hsp25) is associated with increased cellular resistance to injury, withdrawal of lumenal butyrate in vivo is associated with intestinal epithelial injury and apoptosis.
16469826Recognizing that SCFA-dependent posttranslational modification of Hsp25 may involve altered Hsp25 phosphorylation, we hypothesized that butyrate regulates Hsp25 phosphorylation and secondarily affects cellular responses to apoptosis-inducing agents.
16490333BR11, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 and Lactococcus lactis MG1363.
16534666HAMS-containing diets resulted in lower colonic pH and higher total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), but not for butyrate with fish oil.
16597930For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5' nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
16614404Pigs (n = 64) were assigned to 2 types of basal diets [wheat and barley (WB) or corn and wheat gluten (CG)] with or without 3% inulin (WBI or CGI) for 3 and 6 wk (n = 8/group) to test whether naturally occurring dietary fibers influence the inulin effect.
16614404Inulin did not stimulate lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers irrespective of the basal diet, although 20-50% of inulin was degraded in the jejunum.
16614404Total colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were lower in both inulin-fed groups due to reduced acetate (P < 0.
16614404Proportions of colonic butyrate were higher in pigs fed inulin-supplemented diets (P < 0.
16614404In conclusion, inulin affected intestinal SCFA and the number of pigs harboring bifidobacteria; this effect was independent of the basal diet.
16652946Purification and Characterization of Wheat beta(2-->1) Fructan:Fructan Fructosyl Transferase Activity.
16652946Fructan:fructan fructosyl transferase (FFT) catalyzes fructosyl transfer between fructan molecules to elongate the fructan chain.
16667347The degree of polymerization and response on a differential refractometer, based on peak area and height, was compared to fructan collected from a lead-based HPLC column and to commercially available inulin.
16688378For O/W emulsions, a hydrophobically modified inulin (HMI), obtained by grafting several alkyl groups on the backbone of the inulin (polyfructose) chain, is the most suitable.
16688378The reason for this high stability is described in terms of the multipoint anchoring of the polymeric surfactant (by several alkyl groups), the strong hydration of the inulin (polyfructose) chains, and the high concentration of inulin in the adsorbed layer.
16788843However, few studies analyze the effects of butyrate, and other SCFA, on normal epithelial cells and on epithelial regeneration during disease recovery.
16788843Thus, in nondifferentiated, high proliferative adenocarcinoma cells, butyrate significantly inhibited proliferation while increased differentiation and apoptosis, whereas other SCFA studied did not.
16788843However, in normal cells or in differentiated cultures as well as in in vivo studies, the normal proliferation and regeneration of damaged epithelium is not affected by butyrate or SCFA exposure.
16887671The commercial prebiotics investigated were fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and lactulose.
16905479Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.
16924934In this study, we have assessed the effect of EPSs produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium longum NB667, and Bifidobacterium animalis IPLA-R1 on the adhesion of probiotic and enteropathogen strains to human intestinal mucus.
16971578Total in vitro production of SCFA/kg of feed DM was dependent on the amount of ileal substrate available for fermentation; that is, increased concentrations of NSP in the diet led to an increase in the SCFA that may be available to the animal (P < 0.
16982832The adherence of EPEC strain E2348/69 on HEp-2 and Caco-2 cells, in the presence of fructooligosaccharides, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactulose, and raffinose was determined by cultural enumeration and microscopy.
16987177The fruA gene of Streptococcus mutans encodes for a secreted fructan hydrolase (fructanase), an established virulence determinant required for releasing D-fructose from levan- and inulin-type fructans.
16987177Thus, a 'four-component signal transduction system' activates fructan catabolism and the expression of an Enzyme II complex that functions in a feedback loop to sense the accumulation of the end-product of fructan degradation.
17036745Different effects of difructose anhydride III and inulin-type fructans on caecal microbiota in rats.
17036745The effects of different kinds of inulin-type fructans on caecal microbiota were evaluated in rats.
17036745In the DFAIII group, caecal propionate, butyrate, counts of bifidobacteria, and total anaerobes were lower than in the inulin group, while caecal propionate, succinate, counts of bifidobacteria, and total anaerobes were lower than in the FOS group.
17056678Cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria during growth on oligofructose.
17056678In vitro coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and two acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria, Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 and Roseburia intestinalis DSM 14610, with oligofructose as the sole energy source, were performed to study interspecies interactions.
17056678These and similar cross-feeding mechanisms could play a role in the colon ecosystem and contribute to the combined bifidogenic/butyrogenic effect observed after addition of inulin-type fructans to the diet.
17092367Next to butyrate, propionate and acetate are also major products of gut fermentation and together they may exert different potencies of cellular effects than butyrate alone.
17092367Since virtually nothing is known on combination effects by SCFA mixtures, here we had the aim to assess how physiological relevant concentrations and mixtures of SCFA modulate histone acetylation in human colon cells.
17092367Mixtures of these SCFA also modulated histone acetylation, mainly due to additive effects of butyrate and propionate, but not due to acetate.
17110960Culturing of faecal material using chicory inulin as the sole carbohydrate source revealed the presence of a greater diversity of inulin-utilizing bacterial species in FOS-fed rats as compared with the control rats, although both contained species which effectively utilized inulin.
17110960The majority of cultivable inulin-utilizing species fell within the Clostridium coccoides group and Clostridium leptum subgroup, some of which were related to previously cultured butyrate-producing bacteria from the intestines of various animals.
17137493In the inulin and oligofructose groups, higher levels of butyrate and propionate, respectively, were measured.
17166881In conclusion, RS altered the colonic luminal environment by increasing the concentration of SCFAs including butyrate and lowering production of potentially toxic protein fermentation products.
17191477Inulin production from chicory is hampered by the enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) that degrades inulin and limits its yield.
17191477We are generating a transgenic chicory plants with suppressed FEH (exohydrolas) genes using RNAi resulting in supressed inulin degradation.
17192265Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 91, catalyzes depolymerization of beta-2,1-fructans inulin by successively removing the terminal difructosaccharide units as cyclic anhydrides via intramolecular fructosyl transfer.
17205292Levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate increased in one patient, and SCFA/total OA levels increased in three patients.
17206006The study describes the effects of 10-wk dietary supplementation with fructans (inulin and oligofructose, 5% and 10%, respectively) as well as the biomimetic Cr(III) propionate complex (0.
17211138Butyrate at a low concentration (2 mM) promotes intestinal barrier function as measured by a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and a significant decrease in inulin permeability.
17211138Butyrate at a high concentration (8 mM) reduces TER and increases inulin permeability significantly.
17211138Intestinal barrier function impairment induced by high concentrations of butyrate is most likely related to butyrate-induced cytotoxicity due to apoptosis.
17241351Inulin-type fructans of longer degree of polymerization exert more pronounced in vitro prebiotic effects.
17241351METHODS AND RESULTS: Two short chain fructans - oligofructose (DP 2-20) and inulin (DP 3-60) - were administered to the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) at 2.
17241351Both fructans exerted prebiotic effects with significantly higher butyrate and propionate production and stimulation of lactic acid-producing bacteria.
17263839Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705, Bifidobacterium longum 46, Bifidobacterium lactis 420 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 were shown to be the most effective in toxin removal among 11 tested strains.
17311984These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride.
17313716Caecal total SCFA and butyrate pools were higher in rats fed RS compared with digestible starch.
17316019Enzymatic production of galactooligosaccharides by beta-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 15708.
17316019The production of galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) by transgalactosylation using beta-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 15708 was studied.
17349080Consumption of prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis has minor effects on selected immune parameters in polypectomised and colon cancer patients.
17349080Subjects of the SYN group daily received encapsulated bacteria (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and 1 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12)) and 10 g of inulin enriched with oligofructose.
17359386CONCLUSION: We conclude that LKM512 yogurt consumption may be effective against intractable adult-type AD and this effect depends on the recovery of the intestinal mucosal barrier function and the induction of the Th1-type cytokine by polyamines and SCFA, particularly, butyrate, produced by the altered intestinal microbiota.
17374654In this study, piglets (n = 24) were fed sow's milk replacement formula and randomized into 4 equal groups: 1) control; 2) cecal butyrate infusion at a rate equal to that produced in the colon; 3) inulin supplementation at a concentration previously found to lower cecal cell proliferation; and 4) butyrate infusion plus inulin supplementation.
17374654Butyrate or inulin did not affect GLP-2, weight gain, apoptosis, intestinal injury scores, cecal or colon crypt depth, and jejunal or ileal villus height.
17374654For cell proliferation, there was a significant interaction between inulin, butyrate, and tissue (P = 0.
17374654Inulin modified the effect of butyrate (butyrate x inulin interaction in cecum, P = 0.
17374654In the absence of inulin, butyrate caused a 78- 119% increase in cell proliferation in the ileum, distal colon, jejunum, and cecum (P < or = 0.
17374654Thus, at an entry rate into the colon within the physiological range, butyrate caused increased intestinal cell proliferation, but inulin tended to block this effect.
17381985Inulin-type fructans are fermented by gut bacteria to yield SCFA, including butyrate which is trophic for colonocytes and induces glutathione S-transferases (GST) that detoxify carcinogens.
17381985SCFA were quantified and a SCFA mixture was prepared accordingly.
17386092Concentrated oat beta-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum.
17435012It was clear that SCFA production was largely dependent upon HFFS, because cecal inoculum alone yielded little or no detectable SCFA production.
17445348Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms.
17463144Feeding lactulose increases cecal luminal synthesis of butyrate, with inulin having an intermediate effect.
17463144Because clostridia may be a major source of colonic butyrate production, we hypothesized that feeding piglets lactulose or inulin would increase cecal densities of clostridia.
17463144METHODS: Piglets were assigned to 3 formula study groups for 6 days: (1) control, fed only sow milk replacer (n = 12); (2) inulin, inulin supplement (3 g/L; n = 11); and (3) lactulose, lactulose supplement (66.
17488118All supplemented cultures showed significant rises in total SCFA production, with a particularly high proportion of butyric acid being produced from AX fermentation.
17644636Expression of fosE in a non-FOS-fermenting strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, enabled the recombinant strain to metabolize FOS, inulin, sucrose, and levan.
17704024Lactobacillus rhamnosus LMG P-22799 (probiotic: 5 x 10(8) CFU/100mL), inulin (prebiotic: 0.
17711612Recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production in the colon.
17711612As previously shown for RAF, the supplementation with agave fructans (TEQ and DAS) induced a higher concentration of GLP-1 and its precursor, proglucagon mRNA, in the different colonic segments, thus suggesting that fermentable fructans from different botanical origin and chemical structure are able to promote the production of satietogenic/incretin peptides in the lower part of the gut, with promising effects on glucose metabolism, body weight and fat mass development.
17725499This review aims to provide an overview of the published immune-modulatory effects in vitro and in vivo induced by NDC such as fructans, galactooligosaccharides, beta-glucans, pectins, and resistant starch.
17725817ATP content and increase in respiration was previously demonstrated when livers were perfused with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, or octanoate.
17761014Chicory roots are rich in inulin that is degraded into SCFA in the caecum and colon.
17761014In conclusion, by setting up a multi-tracer approach to simultaneously assess the turnovers of acetate, propionate and butyrate it was demonstrated that a chronic chicory-rich diet significantly increases peripheral acetate turnover but not that of propionate or butyrate in rats.
17764964Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans.
17852880RESULTS: There was a significantly lower level of acetic acid and total SCFAs as well as a significantly increased level of i-butyric acid and FTA in relatives compared to healthy controls.
17868492Inulin, a linear beta fructan, is present in a variety of plants including chicory root and wheat.
17899402Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 2-4 carbon monocarboxylates including acetate, propionate and butyrate, are known to have a variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects on the intestine.
17899402Previously, we reported that the SCFA receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), is expressed by enteroendocrine and mucosal mast cells in the rat intestine.
17916911HAMS induced increases in large bowel SCFA, including butyrate, and significantly lowered concentrations of phenols and cresols.
17951496Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton.
17951496Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control.
17951497Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults.
17951497In humans, there is increasing evidence that the colon can absorb nutritionally significant amounts of calcium, and this process may be susceptible to dietary manipulation by fermentable substrates, especially inulin-type fructans.
17951497Inulin-type fructans can modulate calcium absorption because they are resistant to hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and are fermented in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids, which in turn reduce luminal pH and modify calcium speciation, and hence solubility, or exert a direct effect on the mucosal transport pathway.
17951497Quite a few intervention studies showed an improvement of calcium absorption in adolescents or young adults by inulin-type fructans.
17951500Inulin-type fructans have been tested for their capacity to modulate lipid and glucose metabolism in several animal models.
17951500These findings highlight the potential interest of enhancing endogenous GLP-1 secretion by inulin-type fructans for the prevention/treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
17951501Convincing evidence indicates that the intake of inulin-type fructans, inulin and oligofructose, has beneficial effects on blood lipid changes in animals, although data in humans have been considered contradictory.
17951501We conducted a meta-analysis of available literature to quantify the effects in humans of dietary inulin-type fructans on serum triacylglycerols.
17951501The intake of inulin-type fructans was associated with significant decreases in serum triacylglycerols by 0.
17951501In conclusion, dietary inulin-type fructans significantly reduced serum triacylglycerols.
17951504Studies with inulin-type fructans on intestinal infections, permeability, and inflammation.
17951504Inulin-type fructans have been shown to improve the microbial balance of the intestinal ecosystem by stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
17951504Inulin-type fructans induce changes of the intestinal mucosa characterized by higher villi, deeper crypts, increased number of goblet cells, and a thicker mucus layer on the colonic epithelium.
17951507Overview of experimental data on reduction of colorectal cancer risk by inulin-type fructans.
17951507Inulin-type fructans may counteract the effects via their gut flora-mediated fermentation products in vitro and in vivo.
17951507Important products formed by fermentation of inulin-type fructans with human gut flora are short-chain fatty acids.
17951507In animal models inulin-type fructans prevent and retard colorectal carcinogenesis.
17951507Several studies reported the reduction of chemically induced preneoplastic lesions or tumors in the colon of rodents treated with inulin-type fructans.
17951507The human intervention study (SYNCAN project) sought to provide the experimental evidence for risk reduction by inulin-type fructans in humans.
17951508Inulin-type fructans have been used in infants and children because of their prebiotic potential to modulate the intestinal flora and influence the innate and adaptive immune response favorably.
17995737Polydextrose increased the concentrations of all SCFA, especially acetate and propionate, and xylitol especially the concentration of butyrate.
18050954Among these LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum are frequently used for probiotic products.
18050954We designed four species-specific primer pairs for multiplex PCR from the 16S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and 23S rRNA genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
18076897Viscoelastic properties of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) dispersions sterically stabilized by hydrophobically modified inulin (polyfructose) polymeric surfactant.
18076897Recently, steric repulsive forces induced by a new graft copolymer surfactant, which is based in inulin (polyfructose), have been described.
18081334We have synthesized a new amphiphilic block oligomer by the enzymatic linking of a fatty acid (lauric acid) to a fructan oligomer (inulin) and tested the functionality of this carbohydrate derivative in foam stabilization.
18092431The gene expression was also found to be higher in the SCFAs adapted--acid (pH 3) challenged as compared to the unadapated acid challenged organisms suggesting that SCFAs adaptation may induce organic acid tolerance by modulating the hilA response.
18205991Fermentation products, SCFA, particularly butyrate, are considered a sign of 'good' bowel health but the influence of bacterial population composition and diet on inter-individual difference in metabolites and colonic health is poorly understood.
18205991Two individuals with butyrate concentrations below 10 mmol/kg were considered to be 'low butyrate types' and may represent an at-risk population for bowel health.
18205991The exact relationship of these SCFA values to the overall bacterial profiles and SCFA-producer bacterial groups was not direct nor linear.
18235187Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the HK, H91 and H92 groups were significantly higher than in the BD group, and the molar ratio of butyrate to total SCFA in the HK, H91 and H92 groups was greatly increased compared with the BD group.
18331664In conclusion, root crops and legumes are good sources of dietary fibre and produced SCFA after fibre fermentation, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate.
18340001Inulin can stimulate the growth of the intestinal bacteria as well as alter the ratio among various short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced.
18340001In the present study, we analyzed the effect of dietary inulin on the intestinal bacterial community as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of universal 16S rDNA after amplication with PCR and SCFA profile.
18340001Inulin did not affect the total concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta.
18358572METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups and the animals received for 4 weeks either a semi-purified starch or fructose-based diet, or diets in which fructose was partially substituted with various fructans: 10 g/100 g of long-chain inulin or oligofructose, or an oligofructose-enriched inulin.
18358572Long-chain inulin and oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation prevented fructose induced elevated blood pressure, susceptibility to heart peroxidation and renal damages.
18358572All inulin-type fructans containing diets prevented fructose induced hypertriglyceridemia.
18358572CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that supplementation with inulin-type fructans is efficient against fructose induced hypertension and that effects are most pronounced for long-chain inulin and oligofructose-enriched inulin.
18387111The degree of polymerization of inulin-like fructans affects cecal mucin and immunoglobulin A in rats.
18387111Cecal fermentation products substantially differed between WS and SD rats fed DP8 fructan, with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the major organic acids in the former but lactate predominating in the latter.
18387111Cecal fermentability of fructans in both strains generally decreased with increasing DP of fructans, and this was especially manifest in reduction of the amounts of lactate in DP16 and 23.
18387111The present study shows that the different fermentation patterns of fructans affect cecal mucin and IgA; mucin is likely to respond to cecal SCFA production, whereas IgA increases when fermentation occurs rapidly and lactate is a major fermentation product.
18408060Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively.
18408060However, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type.
18430007The SCFA profile (51 : 32 : 17; acetate : propionate : butyrate) was considered propionate-rich.
18461293Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification.
18463979Orally administered PG significantly increased the concentration of total SCFAs and n-butyrate in rat colonic feces.
18539803During incubation, the increases in levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were considerably more pronounced in cultures with EPS, glucose, and inulin than in controls without carbohydrates added, indicating that the substrates assayed were fermented by intestinal bacteria.
18539803Shifts in molar proportions of SCFA during incubation with EPS and inulin caused a decrease in the acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio, a possible indicator of the hypolipidemic effect of prebiotics, with the lowest values for this parameter being obtained for EPS from the species Bifidobacterium longum and from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain C52.
18539808Differential transcriptional response of Bifidobacterium longum to human milk, formula milk, and galactooligosaccharide.
18539808In order to gain insight into the effects of human breast milk on the development of the intestinal bifidobacteria and associated health effects, the transcriptome of Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 grown in breast milk and formula milk containing galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides was compared to that obtained in a semisynthetic medium with glucose.
18567760Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50.
18567893Fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) is the enzyme responsible for inulin depolymerization, and its activity has been detected in rhizophores of sprouting plants.
18567893Results will contribute to understanding the role of fructans in the establishment of a very successful fructan flora of the Brazilian Cerrado, subjected to water limitation and low temperature during winter.
18603617Inulin-type fructans are flexible random-coiled structures that can adopt many conformations, allowing them to insert deeply within the membranes.
18618479Galacturonic acid, SCFA (acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid), as well as methanol were analyzed photometrically after carbazole reaction, GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and headspace solid-phase microextraction GC/MS (HS-SPME-GC/MS), respectively.
18629644BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major by-product of bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon.
18662357Day-old broilers (n = 80) were assigned to four dietary treatments, either fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with sucrose (4%), inulin (1%) or sucrose and inulin.
18662357Inulin enhanced the concentration or metabolic activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the caecum.
18673391Eight selected synbiotics (short-chain fructooligosaccharides or fructooligosaccharides, each combined with one of four probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 or Bifidobacterium longum 46) were added to 24-h pH-controlled anaerobic faecal batch cultures.
18701826Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A, and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a randomized controlled pilot trial.
18701826AIM: To determine the efficacy of a combination of Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.
18723323OBJECTIVE: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), butyrate, propionate, and acetate, produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, can modulate the transcription of certain genes by inhibiting histone deacetylase in colonocytes and several other cell types in vitro.
18779917NAT)Inulin) or a reformulated inulin ((REF)Inulin, based on a combination of short- and long chain fructans) or dehydrated chicory.
18779917SCFA), especially butyrate.
18779917In conclusion, with the present model, both (NAT)Inulin and (REF)Inulin exerted similar effects as to (1) cecal fermentation and profile of end-products of bacterial metabolism, (2) stimulation of Ca and Mg digestive absorption and (3) overall effects on bone parameters.
18779917The particular effects of the chicory crude fractions on digestive fermentation and bone parameters suggest possible synergisms between inulin-type fructans and other nutrients.
18812643In 2003, two orphan G protein coupled receptors (GPRs), GPR41 and GPR43, have been cloned and demonstrated to be receptors for SCFAs.
18812643Thus, we had attempted to make antibodies raised against GPR43 and GPR41 to elucidate the roles of SCFAs on colonic functions.
18812643We have also evaluated the effects of SCFAs on colonic motility to define the physiological roles on luminal SCFAs.
18812643By immunohistochemistry, GPR43 immunoreactivity was localized with enteroendocrine cells expressing peptide YY, whereas 5-HT immunoreactive enteroendocrine cells were not immunoreactive for GPR43.
18812643The present results suggest that the SCFA-induced physiological effects on colonic functions might be attributable to the activation of SCFA receptors on epithelial cells in the colon.
18818303FFA2 (GPR43) has been identified as a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that include acetate and propionate.
18954354METHODS: Six Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and 931; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LB21; Lactobacillus paracasei subsp.
19022956The AXOS and XOS preparations with a low avDP (butyrate production and boosted bifidobacteria concentrations in the cecum, but did not significantly lower the concentrations of branched SCFA, which are considered to be markers of protein fermentation by intestinal microbiota.
19022956Compared with this optimal AXOS preparation, FOS and inulin resulted in similar bifidogenic effects with increased production of colonic acetate (inulin) but not of butyrate.
19037899Plant fructan active enzymes (FAZYs), including the enzymes involved in inulin metabolism, namely sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.
19051017Short-chain inulin-like fructans reduce endotoxin and bacterial translocations and attenuate development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.
19051017Anti-inflammatory effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans (SCF) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis were investigated in rats, focusing specifically on endotoxin and bacterial translocations.
19053749Per-butanoylated N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (Bu(4)ManNAc), a SCFA-hexosamine cancer drug candidate with activity manifest through intact n-butyrate-carbohydrate linkages, reduced the invasion of metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells unlike per-butanoylated-D-mannose (Bu(5)Man), a clinically tested compound that did not alter cell mobility.
19054106During studies on fructan degradation in the rumen, a Treponema-like bacterium able to utilize Timothy grass fructan, commercial inulin and sucrose as the sole carbon source was recovered from sheep rumen.
19083428Samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours for total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acetate, propionate, and butyrate measurement via gas chromatography.
19083428The rate of FOS fermentation was higher than IN fermentation during 0 to 4 hours for all SCFAs, and the rate of IN fermentation was higher than FOS fermentation during 12 to 24 hours for all SCFAs.
19134020Infants received at least 60 mL of commercially available cow's milk formula with or without probiotic supplementation [Bifidobacterium longum (BL999) 1 x 10(7) colony forming unit (CFU)/g and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR) 2 x 10(7) CFU/g] daily for the first 6 months.
19138435The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta.
19138435In the colon, positive correlations were observed between the total thickness of the mucous layer and the area of neutral mucins, the pool of SCFA and the pool of acetic acid, while it was negatively correlated with the proportion of butyrate.
19138435In conclusion, a diet providing a large pool of SCFA with a low proportion of butyrate in the colon stimulates the formation of a thick mucous layer, which probably benefits intestinal health.
19199596In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose.
19199596Substrates studied included short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, and polydextrose.
19199596Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chain oligosaccharides were more rapidly fermented and produced more SCFA and gas than substrates with greater degrees of polymerization.
19202100We found that, although a high concentration of SCFAs inhibited the growth of EHEC, at low concentrations, the SCFAs markedly enhanced the expression of the virulence genes required for cell adherence and the induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions.
19202100Of the SCFAs tested, butyrate markedly enhanced the expression of these virulence-associated genes, even at the low concentration of 1.
19202100Expression of a constitutively active mutant of Lrp enhanced the expression of the LEE genes in the absence of butyrate, and a response-defective Lrp derivative reduced the response to butyrate.
19207856AIMS: To investigate the effects of the medium and cryoprotective agents used on the growth and survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during freeze drying.
19237621Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides.
19250571Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tumour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis.
19251883Coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium species and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveal a mechanistic insight into the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans.
19251883Four bifidobacteria, each representing a cluster of strains with specific inulin-type-fructan degradation capacities, were grown in coculture fermentations with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262, a strain able to metabolize both oligofructose and inulin.
19251883Bifidobacterium adolescentis LMG 10734, a strain that could degrade oligofructose (displaying a preferential breakdown mechanism) but that did not grow on inulin, managed to become competitive when oligofructose and short fractions of inulin started to accumulate in the fermentation medium.
19251883Bifidobacterium angulatum LMG 11039(T), a strain that was previously shown to degrade all oligofructose fractions simultaneously and to be able to partially break down inulin, was competitive from the beginning of the fermentation, consuming short fractions of inulin from the moment they appeared.
19251883These observations indicate that distinct subgroups within the large-intestinal Bifidobacterium population will be stimulated by different groups of prebiotic inulin-type fructans, a variation that could be reflected in differences concerning their health-promoting effects.
19271420Complex fermentable carbohydrates, such as inulin-type fructans have been shown to improve Mg2+ absorption in the hindgut and body stores.
19271420To determine the modulation of TRPM6 and TRPM7 expression in kidney and large intestine by long-chain inulin ingestion, C57B16J mice were fed a control or a long-chain inulin enriched diet (65 g of inulin/kg diet) for two weeks.
19326913First, a "mix and match" strategy showed that different SCFA (n-butyrate and acetate) appended to the same core sugar altered biological activity, complementing previous results [Campbell et al.
19331583The heavier hindgut of pellet-fed wallabies was correlated with increased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the fermentative hindgut (cecum and proximal colon) and particularly with increases in the molar proportions of n-butyric acid.
19333562Alternative time, temperature, and acid concentration combinations for fructan hydrolysis were considered using model fructans (inulin, beta-2,1, and levan, beta-2,6) and a grass seed straw (tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea) as representative feedstocks.
19369375DESIGN: In a bicentric, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial that was stratified for center and birth weight, 45 infants received enteral probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; BB536-LGG) and 49 received placebo.
19380871Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; butyrate and propionate) up-regulate embryonic/fetal globin gene expression through unclear mechanisms.
19380871Importantly, signaling intermediaries, previously implicated in induced embryonic/fetal globin gene expression (STAT5, p42/44, and p38), were not differentially activated by SCFAs in eFLCs; but increased bulk histone (H3) acetylation was seen in SCFA-treated eFLCs.
19383551Dietary fibres are indigestible food ingredients that reach the colon and are then fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting mainly in the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
19383551Those SCFA, especially butyrate, are recognised for their potential to act on secondary chemoprevention by slowing growth and activating apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
19383551Because butyrate increased histone acetylation and phosphorylation of ERK in HT29 cells, inhibition of histone deacetylases and the influence on MAPK signalling are possible mechanisms of GST activation by butyrate.
19480672These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae.
19523724BACKGROUND & AIMS: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate and butyrate) are important energy sources for colonocytes and are assumed to play a key role in gut health.
19523724Local effects of SCFAs have been investigated, but less is known about whole body metabolism of these SCFAs.
19523724SCFAs uptake by the liver was significant for propionate and butyrate; -5.
19563442Plant development, nutritional status and stress exposure all affect fructan metabolism, and while fructan biochemistry is well understood, knowledge of its regulation has remained fragmentary.
19563442However, upon transfer to high-carbon (C)/low-nitrogen (N) medium, expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) was strongly induced and inulin accumulated.
19563442In HRCs, cold-induced expression of fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH I and IIa) was similar to cold induction in taproots, even in the absence of accumulated inulin.
19574715Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the most commonly found anions found in the monogastric mammalian large intestine, and are known to have a variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
19625695Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier.
19625695To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model.
19633122In vitro kinetics of prebiotic inulin-type fructan fermentation by butyrate-producing colon bacteria: implementation of online gas chromatography for quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas production.
19633122Kinetic analyses of bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption, and metabolite production of five butyrate-producing clostridial cluster XIVa colon bacteria grown on acetate plus fructose, oligofructose, inulin, or lactate were performed.
19633122LMG 11047 on inulin, hardly any production of butyrate and CO2 was detected, indicating a lack of competitiveness of the butyrate producer.
19633122Complete recovery of metabolites during fermentations of clostridial cluster XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria allowed stoichiometric balancing of the metabolic pathway for butyrate production, including H2 formation.
19635162BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been focused on inulin and levan-type oligosaccharides, including fructosyl-xylosides and other fructosides due to their nutraceutical properties.
19700676The strains belong to the species Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
19732471HT29 cells were treated for 24-72 h with the fs or synthetic mixtures mimicking the fs in SCFA, butyrate or deoxycholic acid (DCA) contents, and the influence on cell growth was determined.
19741203Total SCFA and butyrate were significantly higher in Native Africans than in both American groups.
19830746Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.
19844649Two separate experiments were conducted with hybrid striped bass to evaluate four potential prebiotics: GroBiotic-A (partially autolyzed brewer's yeast, dairy ingredient components, and fermentation products), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and inulin.
19854378Substrates included medium- and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, polydextrose (POL), and 50:50 substrate blends.
20004081Butyrate and propionate induced activated or non-activated neutrophil apoptosis via HDAC inhibitor activity but without activating GPR-41/GPR-43 pathways.
20004081Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may be a candidate to control neutrophil apoptosis because SCFAs are normally produced in the gut and related products have been approved for human use.
20004081The mRNA expressions of GPR-43 and a1 protein were reduced by butyrate and propionate.
20100178Probiotic microorganisms include the LAB Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
20130660Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of the fermentable fibre inulin on postprandial glucose, insulin, SCFA, FFA, and gut hormone responses in healthy subjects.
20130660Overnight fasted healthy subjects (n = 12) were studied for 6 h after consuming 400 mL drinks, containing 80 g high-fructose corn syrup (80HFCS), 56 g HFCS (56HFCS), or 56 g HFCS plus 24 g inulin (Inulin), using a randomized, single-blind, crossover design.
20130660Serum acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher after Inulin than after HFCS drinks from 4-6 h.
20139609Inulin-type fructans stimulated the growth of exogenously administered Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20139609This study examined the effects of the inulin-type fructans known as fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and inulin on the growth and persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20139609Cultivation in medium that contained either FOS or inulin revealed that both fructans supported the growth of LP14.
20139609These results suggest that inulin-type fructans support the growth of LP14 in the luminal contents only during their passage through the gut.
20140077This paper describes the complementarity of high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to evaluate commercial available fructans (fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins), having different degrees of polymerization (DP) which are usually employed by food industry as functional ingredients either for their prebiotic properties or as a fat replacer, giving a fat-like mouth feel and texture.
20140077The developed HPAEC-PED methods are able to analyze FOS (fructans with DP 3-10) and inulins (DP ranging from 3 to 80) with a good resolution and relatively short retention times to evaluate structural differences between fructooligosaccharide and inulins and the possible presence of inulooligosaccharides as well as of branching.
20153640Purified (t)fosEp was thermostable (10-50 degrees C) with a pH optimum of 5; it showed highest affinity for bacterial levan (beta[2-6] linked fructose) followed by nystose, chicory inulin, 1-kestose (beta[2-1] linkages) and sucrose (K(m) values of 0.
20163663Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing butyrate producer, may help butyrate production particularly when combined with lactobacilli.
20361257Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius species isolated from early childhood caries and identified to the species level in a previous study (Svec et al.
20399779Acetate but not butyrate stimulated leptin secretion in wild-type mesenteric adipocytes, consistent with mediation of the response by GPR43 rather than GPR41.
20399779Pertussis toxin prevented stimulation of leptin secretion by propionate in epididymal adipocytes, implicating Galpha(i) signalling mediated by GPR43 in SCFA-stimulated leptin secretion.
20416127High dietary intake of prebiotic inulin-type fructans in the prehistoric Chihuahuan Desert.
20416127Archaeological evidence from dry cave deposits in the northern Chihuahuan Desert reveal intensive utilisation of desert plants that store prebiotic inulin-type fructans as the primary carbohydrate.
20416127Ancient cooking features, stable carbon isotope analysis of human skeletons, and well-preserved coprolites and macrobotanical remains reveal a plant-based diet that included a dietary intake of about 135 g prebiotic inulin-type fructans per d by the average adult male hunter-forager.
20451635In this paper we investigate the in vitro production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after addition of inulin, propionibacteria or a combination of both in an experimental model of mice cecal slurries.
20451635In conclusion, dairy propionibacteria are potential candidates to develop new functional foods helpful to ensure the intestinal production of SCFA during inulin supplementation and to control the overgrowth of bacteria belonging to Bacteroides and Clostridium genera.
20452074On the basis of these activities, two strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 20 and Bifidobacterium longum PCB 133, were chosen for an in vivo trial in poultry.
20459030To conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of inulin-type fructans on lowering blood lipids, randomized controlled intervention trials on the analysis of plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol resulted from the treatment of dietary inulin-type fructans were selected from international journal databases and reference lists of relevant publications.
20459030The results of 9 studies included in the systematic review indicated that the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol of subjects with hyperlipidemia could be significantly decreased by dietary inulin-type fructans, whereas the effects were absent in normal subjects.
20459030Blood lipids of subjects with hyperlipidemia could be decreased significantly by foods enriched with 17 g of inulin-type fructans per day.
20466731Fructosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a fructose unit from one sucrose/fructan to another and are engaged in the production of fructooligosaccharide/fructan.
20469910In the latter, the inulin accumulation was associated with the upregulation of fructan biosynthesis genes and the intense repression of fructan hydrolases.
20558054Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture.
20563285In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples.
20579402Dietary fibre is fermented by the human gut flora resulting mainly in the formation of SCFA, for example, acetate, propionate and butyrate.
20579402SCFA, in particular butyrate, may be important for secondary cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth of cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the promotion and/or progression of cancer.
20671196The major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced in the colonic lumen by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber.
20671196Since sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1, SLC5A8) has recently been shown to play a role in Na(+)-coupled transport of monocarboxylates, including SCFA, such as luminal butyrate, we examined the effects of proinflammatory TNF-α on SMCT1 expression and function and potential anti-inflammatory role of probiotic Lactobacillus species in counteracting the TNF-α effects.
20677449Studies in healthy infants also indicate that the consumption of prebiotic mixtures (galactooligosaccharides/fructooligosaccharides, inulin/galactooligosaccharides) decreases the incidence of fever, infections and pathogens.
20679207Real-time PCR analysis showed that the β-fructofuranosidase and adjacent ABC transport protein showed greatest induction during growth on inulin, whereas the 1-phosphofructokinase enzyme and linked sugar phosphotransferase transport system were most strongly up-regulated during growth on fructose, indicating that these two clusters play distinct roles in the use of inulin.
20679207Escherichia coli and shown to hydrolyze fructans ranging from inulin down to sucrose, with greatest activity on fructo-oligosaccharides.
20680564The bacterium was able to grow on Timothy grass fructan, inulin, sucrose, fructose and glucose as a sole carbon source, reaching absorbance of population in a range of 0.
20680564The bacterial cell extract catalyzed the degradation of Timothy grass fructan, inulin and sucrose in relation to carbon source present in growth medium.
20722300For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.
20735858Participants were children aged 1 - 23 months, who were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: Oral rehydration therapy plus placebo; Oral rehydration solution plus Saccharomyces boulardii; or Oral rehydration solution plus a compound containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii.
20801645AH22:psacC transformants secreted sacCp as an active, hyper-glycosylated (>180 kDa) protein allowing them to utilise inulin (β[2-1] linked fructose) and levan (β[2-6] linkages) as growth substrates.
20801645The control (AH22:pMA91) strain, transformed with empty plasmid DNA was not able to utilise inulin or levan.
20822177Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA24W and DPPMASL33, Lactobacillus fermentum DPPMA114, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DPPMAAZ1 showed the highest activities and were selected as the mixed starter to ferment various soy milk preparations, which mainly differed for chemical composition, protein dispersibility index, and size dimension.
20822875This study characterized a glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) β-galactosidase of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LacA) and compared lactose hydrolysis, hydrolysis of oNPG, pNPG and pNPG-analogues and galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) formation to GH2 β-galactosidases of Streptococcus thermophilus (LacZ type), Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
20826633Inulin prolongs survival of intragastrically administered Lactobacillus plantarum No.
20832691Microencapsulation was done by spray-coating of dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 or Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15708 cultures with fat.
20839056The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose.
20926374The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers.
20926374Together our data shows that a butyrate-rich microenvironment may select for tumor cells that are able to metabolize butyrate, which are also phenotypically more aggressive.
20930850SCFAs, mostly propionate and butyrate, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells, but clinical trials had mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of SCFAs.
20930850Herein we demonstrate that propionate and butyrate induced autophagy in human colon cancer cells to dampen apoptosis whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiated SCFA induced apoptosis.
20945073Propionate-induced epithelial K(+) and Cl(-)/HCO3(-) secretion and free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, GPR43) expression in the guinea pig distal colon.
20945073In the present study, we investigated propionate-induced transepithelial ion transport and the expression of SCFA receptor, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, otherwise known as GPR43) in the guinea pig distal colon utilizing the Ussing chamber technique and immunohistochemistry.
20951815Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties.
20959533Free fatty acid receptor 2 (Ffar2), also known as GPR43, is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and expressed in intestine, adipocytes, and immune cells, suggesting involvement in lipid and immune regulation.
20959533In the present study, Ffar2-deficient mice (Ffar2-KO) were given a high-fat diet (HFD) or chow diet and studied with respect to lipid and energy metabolism.
20971204Reduction of initial SCFA concentrations from 80 to 40 mmol/L resulted in diminished absolute flux rates, but the relative proportions of mucosal disappearance and intracellular metabolization of individual SCFA were slightly enhanced.
20971890These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption.
20971890Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule.
20979106The role of SCFAs, particularly butyrate, in colon cancer therapy has been extensively studied, and its tumor suppressive functions are believed to be due to their intracellular actions, notably inhibition of histone deacetylase.
20979106In our study, we show that SCFAs also exert their antitumor effects via receptor GPR43 and that GPR43 is frequently lost in colon cancer cells.
20979106Restoration of GPR43 expression in HCT8 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and activated caspases, leading to increased apoptotic cell death after propionate/butyrate treatment.
20979106Our results suggest that GPR43 functions as a tumor suppressor by mediating SCFA-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptotic cell death in colon cancer.
21043580Prebiotics such as inulin (Inu)-type fructans and alternative natural sweeteners such as stevioside (Ste) become more popular as food ingredients.
21059159Comparison of the anti-Salmonella activity of several Lactobacillus type strains with natural resistance to FOM revealed that Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869(T) , Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917(T) , Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741(T) conferred no activity even when they obtained the high population levels almost similar to those of the effective strains such as LcS, Lact.
21070220In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that immune cells from patients with IBD are less sensitive to anti-inflammatory agents in the gut as exemplified by the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) n-butyrate.
21078530Remarkably, although no variations in the proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate were found, at the end of the assay the total SCFA concentration in the faeces of rats fed bifidobacteria was significantly higher and those in caecum content significantly lower, than that of the placebo group.
21106924Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.
21106924The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects.
21115338Inulin-type fructans with prebiotic properties counteract GPR43 overexpression and PPARγ-related adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice.
21115338Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are nondigestible/fermentable carbohydrates which are able - through the modification of the gut microbiota - to counteract high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, endotoxemia and related-metabolic alterations.
21135754To determine the specificity of effect and sustainability of response in vivo, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v), Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (LrR0011), and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (BbR0071) were added repeatedly or intermittently to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats.
21167700The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2αβ)] by rat neutrophils.
21235278Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), principally butyrate, propionate, and acetate, are produced in the gut through the fermentation of dietary fiber by the colonic microbiotica.
21235278We have used proteomics, specifically 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, to identify proteins involved in butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells and also to identify proteins involved in the development of butyrate insensitivity in its derivative, the HCT116-BR cells.
21243500BACKGROUND/AIM: In order to define future chemoprevention strategies for adenomas or carcinomas in the pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a 4-weeks intervention with (1) sulindac, (2) inulin/VSL#3, and (3) sulindac/inulin/VSL#3 was performed on 17 patients with FAP in a single center intervention study.
21243500The three interventions (sulindac, inulin/VSL#3, sulindac/inulin/VSL#3) were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.
21243500RESULTS: Cell proliferation was lower after sulindac or VSL#3/inulin, the combination treatment with sulindac/inulin/VSL#3 showed the opposite.
21266094Do SCFA have a role in appetite regulation?The recently discovered SCFA-activated G-coupled protein receptors FFA receptor 2 and FFA receptor 3 are co-localised in l-cells with the anorexigenic 'ileal brake' gut hormone peptide YY, and also in adipocytes, with activation stimulating leptin release.
21266094However, findings are mixed from investigations into the effects of the prebiotic inulin-type fructans on appetite.
21276631There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate.
21292244RIM afforded eight fractions: levan exopolysaccharide (EPS), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) of levan and inulin types with different degrees of polymerization (dp 2-7) and monosaccharides fructose:glucose=9:1.
21292244Fractions with dp 4-7 were mixtures of FOSs of levan (2,6-βFruf) and inulin (1,2-βFruf) type.
21292244Identification of levan 2,6-βFruf and inulin 1,2-βFruf type oligosaccharides in the incubation medium suggests both levansucrase and inulosucrase enzymes activity in Bacillus sp.
21420242Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber.
21420242SCFAs in activating an immune response in preadipocytes is possible given the expression of a SCFA receptor in these cells, the demonstration that adipocytes and preadipocytes have immunity related functions, the observation that 2mM SCFAs stimulated the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and that concentrations of SCFAs can reach elevated levels at sites of bacterial infection.
21430242Butyrate and other SCFA produced by bacterial fermentation of resistant starch (RS) or nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) promote human colonic health.
21430242Fecal SCFA levels varied widely among participants at entry (butyrate concentrations: 3.
21430242BMI explained 27% of inter-individual butyrate variation, whereas protein, starch, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat intake explained up to 16, 6, 2, 4, and 2% of butyrate variation, respectively.
21430242Overall, acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations were higher when participants consumed RS compared with entry and NSP diets, but individual responses varied.
21430242SCFA concentrations (except butyrate) and excretions were higher for males than for females.
21450362Cross-feeding between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria explains bifdobacterial competitiveness, butyrate production, and gas production.
21450362Inulin-type fructans are not digested and reach the human colon intact, where they are selectively fermented by the colon microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria.
21450362Bifidobacteria display phenotypic variation on strain level as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans.
21450362Also, different chain lengths of inulin-type fructans may stimulate different subgroups within the bifidobacterial population.
21450362The end-metabolites of inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria reflect their growth rates on these polymers.
21450362Other colon bacteria are also able to degrade inulin-type fructans, as is the case for lactobacilli, Bacteroides, certain enterobacteria, and butyrate producers.
21463533However, enzymes such as inulinase or fructan 1-exohydorolase (1-FEH) involved in inulin degradation in burdock roots are still not known.
21463533Purified recombinant protein showed hydrolyzing activity against β-2, 1 type fructans such as 1-kestose, nystose, fructosylnystose and inulin.
21506616Degree of polymerization of inulin-type fructans differentially affects number of lactic acid bacteria, intestinal immune functions, and immunoglobulin A secretion in the rat cecum.
21506616This study examined the role of degree of polymerization (DP) of inulin-fructans in modulating the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and IgA cecal secretion.
21568326Glucans obtained from barley, seaweed, bacteria, and mushroom sclerotia were incubated with pure cultures of Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis for a 24 h batch fermentation to evaluate their bifidogenic effect with inulin as the positive control.
21593649OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled trial involving 110 healthy neonates studied physiological and bifidogenic effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), oligofructose, and long-chain inulin (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) in formula.
21628635Ileal and fecal starch output, postileal crude protein yield, fecal total SCFA and total butyrate content, and gene copies of Bifidobacterium spp.
21637015Association of the rats with the SIHUMI (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Blautia producta, Clostridium ramosum, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum) resulted in increased faecal concentrations of short chain fatty acids compared to germfree animals.
21645807To examine the effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on plasma ghrelin concentration, 4 wethers were injected intravenously with SCFA solutions [acetate (ACE), propionate (PRO), and butyrate (BUT) (0.
21698257SCFAs induce mouse neutrophil chemotaxis through the GPR43 receptor.
21698257Some of these effects have been suggested to occur through the direct actions of SCFAs on the GPR43 receptor in neutrophils, though the precise role of this receptor in neutrophil activation is still unclear.
21698257These effects of SCFAs were mimicked by low concentrations of the synthetic GPR43 agonist phenylacetamide-1 and were abolished in GPR43(-/-) BMNs.
21698257SCFAs and phenylacetamide-1 also elicited GPR43-dependent activation of PKB, p38 and ERK and these responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin, indicating a role for Gi proteins.
21712835SUBJECTS/METHODS: Overnight fasted NI (n=9) and HI (n=9) subjects were studied for 4  h on two separate days after consuming 300  ml drinks containing 75  g glucose (Glucose) or 75  g glucose plus 24  g inulin (Inulin) using a randomized, single-blind, crossover design.
21712835RESULTS: Inulin elicited a higher breath hydrogen and methane areas under the curve (AUC), but the increases in SCFA responses were not statistically significant.
21712835The rate of rebound of FFA was reduced by Inulin, with FFA at 4  h being less after Inulin than Glucose, regardless of insulin status (0.
21712835CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that inulin increases short-term markers for colonic fermentation, but a longer study period may be necessary to observe differences in SCFA production.
21831780The main SCFA are acetate, propionate and butyrate which have numerous documented effects promoting large bowel function.
21831780RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the host.
21883787Both LC-AX and IN increased SCFA levels and induced a shift from acetate towards health-promoting propionate and butyrate respectively.
21958046In this study, utilization of β(2-1) fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and plant polysaccharides as prebiotics by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and pediococci was investigated.
21979490The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate.
21979490The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3.
21992950Many of the physiologic properties of the microbiota can be attributed to fermentation and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
21992950Prebiotics such as galactooligosaccharides together with inulins and their fructooligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to modify the species composition of the colonic microbiota, and in various degrees, to manifest several health-promoting properties related to enhanced mineral absorption, laxation, potential anticancer properties, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects, including atopic disease.
22003235Total fecal SCFA concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments; however, molar ratios of SCFA were modified by diet, with cats fed RB and CB having an increased (P ≤ 0.
22072352INTRODUCTION: Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon.
22072352Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes.
22075547Butyrate is the most biologically potent of the SCFAs in colon epithelial cells, inhibiting human colon carcinoma cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in vitro.
22149628Both samples produced SCFA concentrations similar to guar gum, which favored acetate and propionate over butyrate production.
22157240METHODS: Fifty patients with D-IBS were randomized into placebo or probiotic mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus 1.
22186417This study investigated the expression of G protein-coupled receptors GPR43 and GPR41 receptors in human uteroplacental tissues and the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in modulating inflammatory pathways in fetal membranes.
22186417GPR43-SCFA interactions may represent novel pathways that regulate inflammatory processes involved in human labor.
22190648Quantitative PCR revealed enriched expression of the SCFA receptors ffar2 (grp43) and ffar3 (gpr41) in GLP-1-secreting L cells, and consistent with the reported coupling of GPR43 to Gq signaling pathways, SCFAs raised cytosolic Ca2+ in L cells in primary culture.
22254083The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate (C(2)), propionate (C(3)) and butyrate (C(4)) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacteria fermentation in the intestine.
22264499Consumption of XOS in combination with inulin did not decrease the concentrations of acetate and p-cresol, but increased in addition the faecal concentrations of total SCFA and propionate.
22281315Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus reuteri were screened.
22293211These results suggest raw yam is effective as a source of RS and facilitates production of short chain fatty acid (SCFA), especially butyrate, in the rat cecum.
22298522METHODS: Thirty-nine oral clinical strains and type strains of Lactobacillus, representing nine species, including Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus mucosae, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus vaginalis were studied.
22298522RESULTS: Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, and Lactobacillus plantarum grew rapidly and reached an optical density higher than other species.
22298522The strongest acid producers were Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, respectively.
22350318Probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were grown in media having water activities (a (w)) adjusted between 0.
22357741SCFA, respectively, indicating that β-glucan may partly modify gene expression via increased SCFA generation.
22399522LNnT fermentation produced larger amounts of gas, total SCFA, acetate, and butyrate than did the other substrates, whereas HMO and scFOS produced higher amounts of propionate and lactate, respectively.
22399522In general, pH change, total SCFA, acetate, and propionate production were greater in pooled inoculum from FF and 9-d-old piglets, whereas SR-derived inoculum produced higher amounts of butyrate and lactate after 4 h fermentation.
22444409The results of our study suggest the importance of using inulin-type fructans in the nutrition of young rabbits.
22444767SCFA) production was observed, accompanied by shifts towards increased butyrate at 20 mg and increased propionate at 30 mg of capric acid (P < 0.
22452835The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.
22457395SSB correlated inversely with total large bowel SCFA, including colonic butyrate concentration (R(2) = 0.
22491987Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici.
22495063Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles.
22495063RESULTS: When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production.
22506074Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms.
22506074Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates.
22506074It was suggested that SCFAs may regulate gut hormones via their endogenous receptors Free fatty acid receptors 2 (FFAR2) and 3 (FFAR3), but direct evidence is lacking.
22506074We examined the effects of SCFA administration in mice, and show that butyrate, propionate, and acetate all protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
22506074In addition, FFAR3 plays a minor role in butyrate stimulation of Glucagon-like peptide-1, and is not required for butyrate- and propionate-dependent induction of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.
22511773Schwanniomyces occidentalis β-fructofuranosidase (Ffase) is a GH32 dimeric enzyme that releases fructose from the nonreducing end of various oligosaccharides and essential storage fructans such as inulin.
22542995There was a significant difference between untreated CD patients and healthy adults, as well as between treated CD patients and healthy adults, regarding acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and total SCFAs.
22556209METHODS: We studied a group of 150 patients who were randomised in two groups after parental consent was obtained, to receive either a daily feeding supplementation with a multispecies probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacteruim infantis, Streptococcus thermophillus) 1 g per day plus their regular feedings or to receive their regular feedings with nothing added (control group), over the period of January 2007 through June 2010.
22648862Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly butyrate, are claimed to improve mucosal integrity, reduce intestinal permeability and act as anti-inflammatory agents for the colon mucosa.
22648862We evaluated the effects of oral administration of SCFA or butyrate in the 5FU-induced mucositis.
22648862Mice received water, SCFA or butyrate during all experiment (10 days) and a single dose of 5FU (200 mg/kg) 3 days before euthanasia.
22648862Butyrate alone was more efficient at improving those parameters than in SCFA solution and also reduced intestinal permeability.
22648862The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ZO-1 tended to be higher in the SCFA supplemented but not in the butyrate supplemented group.
22654504Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms, play a critical role in energy metabolism and physiology of ruminants as well as in human health.
22654504Our findings provide insight into the regulation of butyrate transport and metabolism in the rumen epithelium, which will guide our future efforts in exploiting potential beneficial effect of butyrate in animal well-being and human health.
22743314The fructans inulin and oligofructose have been shown to improve iron absorption in animals through colonic uptake, but this has not been confirmed in humans.
22750808Endo-inulinase is a member of glycosidase hydrolase family 32 (GH32) degrading fructans of the inulin type with an endo-cleavage mode and is an important class of industrial enzyme.
22795678Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season.
22795678The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism.
22795678SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.
22816655Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.
22816655This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression.
22859763Indices of gastrointestinal fermentation and manure emissions of growing-finishing pigs as influenced through singular or combined consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin.
22859763We hypothesized that dietary Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), with or without the inclusion of a purified oligofructose (inulin), may reduce odor without compromising nutrient digestibility.
22935343The benefits of inulin-type fructans for bowel health are well established, but less so for other fructan sources.
22968408The survival of single strains of Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri was investigated in synbiotics that included 10 mg/ml of fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and pectic-oligosaccharides in an alginate matrix under refrigerated (4 °C) aerobic storage conditions.
22976799We have tested the hypothesis that inulin-type fructans (ITF), by promoting microbial production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), influence cancer cell proliferation outside the gut.
22976799RESULTS: Inulin-type fructans treatment reduces hepatic BaF3 cell infiltration, lessens inflammation and increases portal propionate concentration.
22976799Furthermore, the activation of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), a Gi/Gq-protein-coupled receptor also known as GPR43 and that binds propionate, lessens the proliferation of BaF3 and other human cancer cell lines.
22990462Survival time of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (LGG) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radical was significantly longer compared with the mid- and non-antioxidative strains, Lactobacillus paracasei Fn032 and Lactobacillus plantarum Fn001, respectively.
23032642Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on structure, quality, sensory acceptance and glycemic response of gluten-free breads.
23032642The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed.
23060857Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets.
23060857The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length.
23060857Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health.
23060857The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence indicate that FFA2 and FFA3 mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet, and that they may be of interest as targets for treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases.
23121506Butyrate, propionate and total SCFA were higher (or tended) for RVU and WVU when compared with CB and SB (p = 0.
23145871Exposure to a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix at different developmental time points differentially modulates immune responses in mice.
23145871Mice were fed either a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix-enriched diet or a control diet during the perinatal and/or postweaning periods.
23166711Additionally, three SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate, and butyrate, exerted a strong synergy in augmenting HDP gene expression in chicken cells.
23166711Consistently, supplementation of chickens with a combination of three SCFAs in water resulted in a further reduction of Salmonella enteritidis in the cecum as compared to feeding of individual SCFAs.
23200660Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp.
23200660In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp.
23225440Gut fermentation products of inulin-type fructans modulate the expression of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in human colonic tumour cells.
23225440Our results show that complex fermentation samples of inulin-type fructans favourably modulate expression of genes related to biotransformation in carcinoma cells, which in turn supports the important role of dietary fibres in primary chemoprevention.
23300800We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two.
23300800In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host.
23325922The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet high in RS on luminal microbiota composition, luminal SCFA concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in SCFA uptake, SCFA signaling, and satiety regulation in mucosal tissue obtained from small intestine, cecum, and colon.
23339868At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling.
23396737The Lepicol probiotic formula contained Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus deslbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
23489932GPR43), also called free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2/FFAR2), binds short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates and has shown promising therapeutic potential.
23518684Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolic products of carbohydrate fermentation by the microbiota and constitute the main source of energy for host colonocytes.
23518684Here, we show that the SCFA butyrate regulates intestinal ANGPTL4 expression in a PPAR-γ-independent manner.
23518684Although PPAR-γ is not required for butyrate-driven intestinal ANGPTL4 expression, costimulating with PPAR-γ ligands and SCFAs leads to additive increases in ANGPTL4 levels.
23518684We suggest that PPAR-γ and butyrate rely on two separate regulatory sites, a PPAR-responsive element downstream the transcription start site and a butyrate-responsive element(s) within the promoter region, 0.
23518684Furthermore, butyrate gavage and colonization with Clostridium tyrobutyricum, a SCFA producer, can independently induce expression of intestinal ANGPTL4 in germ-free mice.
23518684Thus, oral administration of SCFA or use of SCFA-producing bacteria may be additional routes to maintain intestinal ANGPTL4 levels for preventive nutrition or therapeutic purposes.
23542733The reported validated method has been successfully used for the in vitro screening of supernatants of bacterial cultures for the presence of butyric acid, aiming to select for butyric acid-producing bacteria.
23571641The authors evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium longum (BL) on mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and inflammatory response in experimental model of septic peritonitis.
23572712Bifidobacterium breve + Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus rhamnosus was the most efficient.
23600961BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects.
23617813Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03.
23665276BACKGROUND & AIMS: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the most abundant microbial metabolites in the intestine, activate cells via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs), such as GPR41 and GPR43.
23665276Primary colon epithelial cells were isolated from GPR41(-/-), GPR43(-/-), and control mice; signaling pathways regulated by SCFAs were identified using immunohistochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and flow cytometry analyses.
23665276CONCLUSIONS: SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43 on intestinal epithelial cells, leading to mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and rapid production of chemokines and cytokines.
23669739Dietary fiber (DF) can be broken down into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid by gut microbiota to obtain energy.
23714623Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans.
23746232Perinatal and postweaning exposure to galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotics induced biomarkers linked to tolerance mechanism in a mouse model of strong allergic sensitization.
23831725Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium displayed positive correlations with butyrate/SCFA production (r = 0.
23864942The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important.
23864942To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids.
23864942Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries.
23882273Interest has shifted from the classic inulin-type fructans to more complex fructans.
23887189Effects of inulin-type fructans on appetite, energy intake, and body weight in children and adults: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
23887189AIM: To systematically evaluate the effects of inulin-type fructan (ITF) supplementation on appetite, energy intake, and body weight (BW) in children and adults.
23941288Healthy cultures gave two-fold higher growth and SCFA levels with up to ten-fold higher butyrate production.
23941288Starch gave the highest growth and SCFA production (particularly butyrate), indicating starch-enhanced saccharolytic activity.
23952674Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points.
24018374In a recent paper published in Science, Wendy Garrett and her colleagues report an exciting role of the three most abundant microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, in colonic regulatory T cell (cTreg) homeostasis.
24028202Using two such models (SHIME(R) and TIM-2), we compared how long-chain arabinoxylan (LC-AX), a wheat-derived potentially prebiotic fiber, and inulin (IN), a well-established prebiotic compound, modulate SCFA production and bifidobacteria composition.
24039030Our aim was to assess nonprebiotic, direct effects of 4 prebiotics, namely fructooligosaccharides, inulin, galactooligosaccharides, and goat's milk oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells.
24077708Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested.
24078132Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.
24078132Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was used as a source of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose.
24082880RESULTS: In coeliacs on GFD for more than 1 year, the individual SCFAs, total SCFA, and fermentation index did not differ significantly from the findings in controls.
24119813We conclude that transient increases in cyclin D1 transcription contribute to butyrate-induced papillae growth and subsequently to the increased absorption of SCFA in the ruminal epithelium of goats.
24132573These observations indicate that SCFAs exhibit protective effects against ethanol-induced barrier disruption via AMPK activation, suggesting a potential for SCFAs as prophylactic and/or therapeutic factors against ethanol-induced gut leakiness.
24158368These results suggest that the duration of time that animals are fed a high-grain diet may increase propionate, butyrate, and lactate absorption, and that cattle may decrease SCFA absorption and increase saliva production shortly after an acute bout of ruminal acidosis.
24177567These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription.
24247211OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ingestion of fructose and fructans (such as inulin) can exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.
24281559Biochemical Traits, Survival and Biological Properties of the Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Grown in the Presence of Prebiotic Inulin and Pectin as Energy Source.
24281559Inulin stimulated the production of the relevant healthy bio-molecule butyrate, which amount was 30% higher respect of growth in the presence of glucose.
24281668In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro.
24281668Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively.
24314205Small oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization or DP of 2-7) are taken up, in a sequential order, indicating intracellular degradation and as such giving these bacteria a competitive advantage towards other inulin-type fructan degraders such as lactobacilli, bacteroides and roseburias.
24314205The production of high amounts of acetate that accompanies inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria cross-feeds other colon bacteria involved in the production of butyrate.
24315753Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, also called GPR43) is reported to play a critical role in mediating the actions of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in humans and mice.
24315753With the use of a pGL4-SRE-luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that pFFA2 expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells could be activated by acetate, propionate, and butyrate equipotently, whereas pFFA2L could be activated only by acetate and propionate, indicating that both pFFA2 and pFFA2L are functional receptors for SCFAs with nonidentical pharmacologic properties.
24352969Continuous rumen pH and SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) absorption were measured.
24356281The antineoplastic potential of MCFA remains underexplored; accordingly, we compared the MCFA lauric acid (C12:0) to the SCFA butyrate (C4:0) in terms of their capacity to induce apoptosis, modify glutathione (GSH) levels, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and modify phases of the cell cycle in Caco-2 and IEC-6 intestinal cell lines.
24356281Butyrate protected IEC-6 cells from ROS-induced damage, whereas lauric acid induced high levels of ROS compared to butyrate.
24359228However, maize FOPS led to continual production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), resulting in the highest SCFA and butyrate production at the end of the fermentation.
24361558Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments.
24389673RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate a role for SCFAs, in particular propionate and butyrate, in metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases, through the activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors and modification of transcription factors.
24390308Mice fed a high-fiber diet had increased circulating levels of SCFAs and were protected against allergic inflammation in the lung, whereas a low-fiber diet decreased levels of SCFAs and increased allergic airway disease.
24394459The major products of carbohydrate metabolism are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate.
24412651Here, we show that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate, which are generated by fermentation of soluble fiber by the gut microbiota, activate IGN via complementary mechanisms.
24446899Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites.
24446899The in vitro fermentation of the fiber blend resulted in a delayed pH decrease and gas and SCFA production compared to the FOS and inulin.
24452331Inulin and levan were not hydrolyzed.
24454707The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1) with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations.
24458110In the mammalian colon SCFAs such as acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation and reach about 100 mM under physiological conditions.
24458110In this decade, SCFA receptor genes and their expression in the intestine have been identified as free fatty acid receptor (FFA)2 and FFA3.
24473752Therefore, we analyzed the circulating fatty acid profile including CLA/CLnA in obese women treated during 3 months with inulin-type fructan prebiotics.
24711120SCFA (butyrate, propionate, and acetate) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography.
24721092The fructans, inulin and oligofructose, are known to exert many food and pharmaceutical applications and are widely used in functional foods throughout the world for their nutritional and techno-functional properties.
24804847Both butyrate incubation and hypoxia upregulate genes involved in the ruminal transport of SCFA and their metabolites.
24804847We aimed to investigate the influence of n-butyrate on the mRNA expression of proteins involved in the transmembranal transfer of n-butyrate metabolites and short-chain fatty acids in ruminal epithelium.
24807711The lytic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are induced in cell culture by sodium butyrate (NaB), a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.
24840136Current studies, mostly in humans and rodents, have revealed that SCFAs acted as endogenous ligands for G protein-coupled receptor GPR41 and GPR43.
24840136Whether proteins similar to human GPR41 and GPR43 mediate the regulatory effects of SCFAs in swine remains unclear to date.
24840136The aims of this study were to determine whether GPR41 and GPR43 genes are expressed in porcine different tissues; and whether the expression of GPR41 and GPR43 is tissue-specific and/or time-associated.
24917457This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41 or GPR43, but dependent on direct histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity.
24926285The SCFA Receptor GPR43 and Energy Metabolism.
24926285Of these receptors, GPR43 is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.
24926285During feeding, SCFAs are produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, and these SCFAs become important energy sources for the host.
24933989Orally administered butyrate + inulin as supplement to mesalazine in UC or gluten free diet in CD was effective in reducing disease activity with a marked improvement of serum metabolomic profiles (including SA reduction) and gut microbiota in both diseases.
24936375Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei.
24936375Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains.
24936375Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.
24969566Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women.
24969566BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota.
24969566The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations between Bifidobacterium species, SCFA and host biological markers of metabolism.
24979150SCFA and not with the microbiota suggesting that SCFA and F:B ratio vary together and may be interrelated.
24979150More in-depth studies looking at the metabolic fate of SCFA produced in LN and OWOB participants are needed in order to determine the role of SCFA in obesity.
24991236Inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by strains of Lactobacillus plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with inulin.
24991236Inulin and RG14 + 0% Inulin had significantly (p < 0.
25015886This study determined the antiadhesive properties of bacterial exopolysaccharides (reuteran and levan) and related glycans (dextran and inulin) in a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) model.
25046106The effect on SCFA was correlated to specific neutral sugars where xylose increased the ileal butyric acid proportion, whereas arabinose increased the fecal butyric acid proportion.
25078377The SCFA concentrations in all the inulin groups were significantly higher than in the carbohydrate-free and cellulose groups at 24 and 48 h.
25078377In particular, inulin DP 15 exhibited a clear potential to be used as a prebiotic with significant increases in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations, and concomitantly propionate and butyrate productions than cellulose at the early incubation time.
25107979Distinct immunomodulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by two different polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900.
25118238Many commensal bacteria in the gut produce SCFAs, particularly butyrate, acetate, and propionate, which have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disorders.
25163639METHODS: Two hundred and ten infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks had been randomised for a trial with probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, colostrums and lactoferrin (NBL probiotic ATP®; Nobel, Istanbul, Turkey) between February 2012 and August 2013 when a VRE outbreak also took place.
25207862SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.
25212148The increase in butyrate seemed to be in exchange for propionate, whilst the total SCFA production remained similar.
25271242Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity.
25274213Two of these receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: acetate, propionate, and butyrate), which are important energy sources for the host.
25274213Hence, GPR41 and GPR43 are also a focus of research into energy regulation via SCFAs.
25274213We report that these SCFA receptors are involved in energy homeostasis: GPR41 regulates sympathetic activity, and GPR43 regulates adipose-insulin signaling by sensing SCFAs produced by gut microbiota.
25295259NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917.
25310566Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation.
25317120Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats.
25317120OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt.
25320182BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the main products of microbial fermentation in the gut and might mediate some of the effects of gut microbiota and nutrition on development, metabolism, and pathogenesis of obesity and other diseases.
25327394Limited evidence suggests that the dietary inclusion of oligofructose, an inulin-type fructan with prebiotic properties, may increase satiety and, thus, reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese adults.
25340203The aim of this intervention study was to investigate the influences of non-surgical periodontal therapy on levels of SCFAs in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP), and analyze the concentrations of SCFAs in sites with or without the detected putative periodontal pathogens.
25352682Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.
25367106APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice.
25369827OBJECTIVE: A parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-week intervention was performed in healthy males, to study the effect of a blend of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell-52, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11, Bifidobacterium longum ssp.
25375764Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated.
25375764The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.
25475691The highest hop cone concentration significantly decreased acetic and butyric acid productions and total SCFA production after 24 h of incubation, but not propionic acid production, resulting in a decreased ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid.
25490566Uptake of the butyrate receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, in lipidic bicontinuous cubic phases suitable for in meso crystallization.
25490566The butyrate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), GPR41 and GPR43, have been implicated in colorectal cancer and leptin production.
25518825Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 differently influence metabolic and immunological parameters in high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis.
25522547Studies using inulin-like fructans, which are produced as energy supplies by several plants, have demonstrated a chemo-protective effect of these fructans in colon cancer.
25551453The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography.
25551453We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate.
25551453Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic.
25563948Inulin is a food ingredient that belongs to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans.
25589612We observed that therapy with the three main SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) improved renal dysfunction caused by injury.
25617726Butyrate levels, however, were significantly higher in the stool samples of constipated subjects after lubiprostone treatment, suggesting that lubiprostone treatment had an effect on the net accumulation of SCFAs in the gut.
25659146C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated.
25659146In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism.
25695343Fructose was the main product of inulin, levan, and Jerusalem artichoke tubers hydrolyzed by the enzyme.
25697451These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes.
25722142Cooking qualities and textural properties of noodles containing 20% retrograded debranched starch were mostly comparable, while the capability of producing SCFAs and butyric acid was superior to the control rice noodles; the cooked noodle strips also showed fewer tendencies to stick together.
25732031Furthermore, the biological functions of SCFAs in anti-inflammation and energy metabolism are linked with the activation of FFAR2 and FFAR3.
25759547RESULTS: We found that African Americans had significantly lower levels of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFAs than all other racial/ethnic groups.
25759547We also identified a correlation between copy number for a butyrate kinase predicted from 16S rRNA gene abundance and levels of butyrate in stool.
25770259Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown to augment SCFA production, with the strongest relative effect on butyrate.
25770259Increased SCFA production in the large intestine was shown by the concentration in the portal vein, whereas the impact on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver.
25781881The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis.
25802859Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus.
25811420Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10) treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treated, DMH treated, AdF10 + DMH treated and LGG + DMH treated.
25841250In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response.
25850624Free Fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) also known as GPR43 belongs to this group of GPCRs and has been shown to participate in a number of important biological activities.
25850624FFAR2 is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate and butyrate.
25850624FFAR2 and other free fatty acid receptors are considered key components of the body's nutrient sensing mechanism and targeting these receptors is assumed to offer novel therapies for the management of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
25921788The underground reserve organs, the rhizophores, accumulate inulin-type fructans, which are known to confer tolerance to drought and low temperature.
25921788Fructans and fructan-metabolizing enzymes show a characteristic spatial and temporal distribution in the rhizophores during the developmental cycle.
25950401Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that inulin from Stevia rebaudiana roots has a degree of polymerization (DPn 28) higher than the value of DPn 12-15 for inulins from other plant species.
25963256We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days.
26056533Since Agave contains high levels of free and polyfructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two-step procedure was developed to depolymerize polyfructose while maintaining its fermentability.
26082720BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate.
26098097INU supplementation increased the portal SCFA propionate and butyrate, and decreased cancer cell invasion in the liver.
26106398Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars.
26106398High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans.
26112038Prebiotics (inulin and Bi²tos) and synbiotics (inulin + Lactococcus lactis subsp.
26112038Treatment with the prebiotics and synbiotics did not change the feed conversion ratio but Bi²tos (galacto-oligosaccharide) and inulin (fructan) + Lactococcus lactis subsp.
26113439Impact of bread making on fructan chain integrity and effect of fructan enriched breads on breath hydrogen, satiety, energy intake, PYY and ghrelin.
26113439Recently, there has been considerable interest in the satiety inducing properties of inulin type fructans (ITF) as a tool for weight management.
26113439Breads enriched with 12% fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and 12% inulin were baked and the degree of polymerisation of fructans extracted from the breads were compared to those of pure compounds.
26156796Hepatic Uptake of Rectally Administered Butyrate Prevents an Increase in Systemic Butyrate Concentrations in Humans.
26156796High plasma concentrations are potentially harmful; therefore, information about systemic SCFA clearance is needed before therapeutic use of prebiotics or colonic SCFA administration.
26156796OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rectal butyrate administration on SCFA interorgan exchange.
26156796During surgery, 1 group received a butyrate enema (100 mmol sodium butyrate/L; 60 mL; n = 7), and the other group a placebo (140 mmol 0.
26156796RESULTS: Rectal butyrate administration led to higher portal butyrate concentrations at 5 min compared with placebo (92.
26156796CONCLUSION: After colonic butyrate administration, splanchnic butyrate release was prevented in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.
26157446Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.
26157446Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs.
26159695We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells.
26163158Lactobacillus plantarum CIP 106786 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CSUR P567 exhibited the widest antimicrobial activity, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM 20079 was relatively inactive.
26188035Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42.
26203099Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin.
26243930Considering formula cost in a commercial production and the recommended daily intake (RDI) of inulin in the finished product at end of shelf life (≥3 g/d), an addition of 5 % inulin for tuna in spring water and 7 % inulin for tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream are recommended.
26260141In this Review, we discuss the effects of three SCFA (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on energy homeostasis and metabolism, as well as how these SCFA can beneficially modulate adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver tissue function.
26260141However, most data are derived from animal and in vitro studies, and consequently the importance of SCFA and differential SCFA availability in human energy and substrate metabolism remains to be fully established.
26286349SCFA compared to the control and a shift of molar ratios toward butyrate production.
26303129Fecal SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography in all enrolled subjects.
26333285In this study, the effects of agavins (branched fructans) along with a diet shift on metabolic parameters, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and gastrointestinal hormones in overweight mice were established.
26333285Furthermore, the consumption of agavins or inulin led to higher SCFA concentrations in the gut and modulated hormones such as GLP-1 and leptin involved in food intake regulation (P < 0.
26394664SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy.
26394664Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy.
26394664Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis.
26398897After 24 h of fermentation, probiotics growth and SCFAs production were investigated and the produced SCFAs were extracted.
26398897Inulin and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53013 (LGG) combination released highest concentrations of SCFAs compared to LGG and hi-maize or β-glucan.
26398897In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs, SCFAs particularly butyrate down-regulated tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-12, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and up-regulated IL-4, IL-10, while no significant effect was noted in non-LPS-stimulated PBMCs.
26404012Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively.
26412151GPR43), a key receptor for SCFAs, is expressed on cell types important for immunity and metabolism.
26436853Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetate, propionate and butyrate play an important role in the physiological functions of epithelial cells and colonocytes, such as immune response regulation.
26436853In conclusion, SCFAs showed regulatory effect on release of LPS-stimulated IL-8 as well as the expression of mRNA of IL-8; these might explain the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic mechanism of SCFAs.
26437644Are commercial probiotics and prebiotics effective in the treatment and prevention of honeybee nosemosis C?The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (a commercial probiotic) and inulin (a prebiotic) on the survival rates of honeybees infected and uninfected with Nosema ceranae, the level of phenoloxidase (PO) activity, the course of nosemosis, and the effect on the prevention of nosemosis development in bees.
26441994Inulin-Type β2-1 Fructans have Some Effect on the Antibody Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Healthy Middle-Aged Humans.
26442003Vernonia herbacea, is an Asteraceae native to the Cerrado which accumulates about 80% of the rhizophore dry mass as inulin-type fructans.
26442003Following, their fructan composition and activity and expression of genes encoding enzymes for fructan synthesis (1-SST and 1-FFT) and degradation (1-FEH) were evaluated.
26445629Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 × 10(9), Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 × 10(8), Bifidobacterium breve 2 × 10(10), Bifidobacterium longum 1 × 10(9) and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 × 10(8) CFU/g.
26458011Lyophilised Vegetal BM 297 ATO-Inulin lipid-based synbiotic microparticles containing Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197: design and characterisation.
26458011This study aimed at the manufacturing and characterisation of Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin-Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microparticles prepared by freeze drying.
26516911Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced during bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the human colon.
26516911In this study, we applied a stable-isotope dilution method to quantify the in vivo colonic production of SCFA in healthy humans after consumption of inulin.
26516911Colonic inulin fermentation was estimated to be 137 ± 75 mmol acetate, 11 ± 9 mmol propionate, and 20 ± 17 mmol butyrate over 12 h, assuming that 40%, 10%, and 5% of colonic derived acetate, propionate, and butyrate enter the systemic circulation.
26516911In conclusion, inulin is mainly fermented into acetate and, to lesser extents, into butyrate and propionate.
26516911Stable isotope technology allows quantifying the production of the three main SCFA in vivo and proved to be a practical tool to investigate the extent and pattern of SCFA production.
26579129Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists.
26583778The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr.
26583778Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation.
26622258Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks.
26713737Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation.
26713737Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.
26719580These receptors, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41), are each predominantly activated by the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, ligands that originate largely as fermentation by-products of anaerobic bacteria in the gut.
26731113Log10 bifidobacteria/g fresh faeces is consistent with those changes observed for inulin-type fructans, which are recognised prebiotics.
26778667The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model.
26778667On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin.
26858714To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin.
26862979The overall average SCFA ratio for the six fecal donors was 30 : 45 : 25 (acetate : propionate : butyrate), which is similar to other fermentable fibers analyzed using in vitro systems.
26868600Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health.
26870043GPR41 and GPR43 in Obesity and Inflammation - Protective or Causative?GPR41 and GPR43 are a pair of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in human adipocytes, colon epithelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
26870043These receptors are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate - which are produced during dietary fiber fermentation by resident gut bacteria.
26921846Compared with the control group, the densitometric quantification and mean density of GPR43 and ChAT proteins, and expression of GPR43 and CHAT genes, were significantly decreased in the patients with mixed refractory constipation (P < 0.
26921846CONCLUSION: In the patients with mixed refractory constipation, the levels of stool SCFAs, including acetate, propionate and butyrate, as well as the levels of GPR43 and ChAT expressed in the colon, which were all negatively correlated with the Wexner score, were decreased and may be associated with the pathogenesis of mixed refractory constipation.
26965706Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability.
26973663The family of the Buxaceae, harboring Pachysandra terminalis, an accumulator of graminan- and levan-type fructans, also harbors boxtree (Buxus sempervirens), a cold and drought tolerant species.
26973663Surprisingly, boxtree leaves do not accumulate the expected graminan- and levan-type fructans, but small inulin fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS: 1-kestotriose and nystose) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs: raffinose and stachyose) instead.
26973663The switch from RFO to fructan metabolism in spring strongly suggests that fructans and RFOs fulfill distinct roles in boxtree leaves.
26977303Concomitantly with these changes, increases in all SCFA were observed in cecal contents and in acetate and butyrate content of the stool.
26987626Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken.
26987626Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion.
26995125The protective effect of inulin on bacteria survival and viability in the food matrix was not verified in the prebiotic SMY during storage, regardless of inulin level.
26996537Such homology in inulin degradation products may be beneficial for the functional FOS production.
26998764Alterations in the amount of only one SCFA, butyrate, were observed only in the intestinal tissue.
26998764The reduced butyrate in CD326(+) intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after allo-BMT resulted in decreased histone acetylation, which was restored after local administration of exogenous butyrate.
27018846PBMCs were exposed to varying concentrations of individual SCFAs or of their mixtures of acetate, propionate and butyrate.
27018846Compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells (controls), SCFAs slightly decreased TGF-β1 production and reduced IL-6 production; butyrate was more effective than acetate or propionate.
27018846SCFAs particularly butyrate caused the induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) rather than Th17 cells.
27075877There was no diet effect on total and Cl--competitive absorption (mmol/h and %/h) of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total SCFA (acetate+propionate+butyrate), but eating salivation was less (131 v.
27077959SCFA, pH and total bacterial abundance remained unaltered, but relative abundance was higher for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (P=0.
27086652SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The bifidobacterial β-fructofuranosidase activity was evaluated with a wide variety of substrates including noncommercial fructans, such as levan-type and mixed agave fructans.
27100182Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.
27121286In the search for the best way to distinguish between subjects with and without IBS, the total amount and the amount of each of the SCFA were measured, and the proportions and differences between the SCFA were calculated.
27151945Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells.
27151945In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition.
27151945We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production.
27169834DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy nonobese men completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food picture evaluation task after consumption of control inulin or inulin-propionate ester, a unique dietary compound that selectively augments colonic propionate production.
27231730Active Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 or Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 administration positively influences liver fatty acid composition in mice on a HFD regime.
27231730The focus of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content of liver, heart and brain tissues of mice fed HFD and administered with either Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68, and to analyze the fatty acid content of these organs after a two months washout period.
27233082Bifidobacterial inulin-type fructan degradation capacity determines cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
27233082Prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITF) display a bifidogenic and butyrogenic effect.
27263293METHODS: Lactobacillus plantarum LP45 (LP45), Lactobacillus acidophilus La28 (La28), Lactobacillus acidophilus 6091 (6091), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were orally administrated to male BALB/C mice, respectively for 28 d.
27272781Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07, Inulin and Melatonin in NMU-induced Rat Model of Breast Cancer.
27272781BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemopreventive activity of a new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 (PRO) and prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (PRE) in rat mammary carcinogenesis induced by procarcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene has been reported before.
27272781CONCLUSION: In mammary carcinogenesis, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities, which are significantly amplified by melatonin co-administration.
27279272The capacity of immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) or Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 (Lp1506) to beneficially modulate IELs response after TLR3 activation was investigated in vivo using a mice model.
27348268Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota.
27356770Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake.
27428450In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated.
27433115Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters.
27446020Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon.
27448578Although the exact mechanisms for the action of SCFA are still not completely clear, most notable among the SCFA targets is the mammalian G protein-coupled receptor pair of GPR41 and GPR43.
27448578In addition to the well-documented inhibition of histone deacetylases activity mainly by butyrate and propionate, which causes anti-inflammatory activities on IEC, macrophages, and dendritic cells, SCFA has recently been implicated in promoting development of Treg cells and possibly other T cells.
27448578In addition to animal models, the beneficial effects have also been reported from the clinical studies that used SCFA therapeutically in controlled trial settings in inflammatory disease, in that application of SCFA improved indices of IBD and therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated in acute radiation proctitis.
27464984METHODS: Inulin SCFA esters were developed and tested as site-specific delivery vehicles for SCFA to the proximal colon.
27510655ABSTRACT: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate and butyrate, are bacterial metabolites that mediate the interaction between the diet, the microbiota and the host.
27510655Known amounts of 13 C-labelled acetate, propionate and butyrate were introduced in the colon of 12 healthy subjects using colon delivery capsules and plasma levels of 13 C-SCFAs 13 C-glucose, 13 C-cholesterol and 13 C-fatty acids were measured.
27510655Conversion of acetate into butyrate (24%) was the most prevalent interconversion by the colonic microbiota and was not related to the butyrate-producing capacity in the faecal samples.
27510655These results will allow future evaluation and quantification of SCFA production from 13 C-labelled fibres in the human colon by measurement of 13 C-labelled SCFA concentrations in blood.
27532866Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans.
27532866Interestingly, the suppressive effect of inulin extract on postprandial glycemia also occurred when inulin was directly added to the sucrose solution, suggesting that the effect on sucrose digestion did not require chronic inulin administration.
27532866In vitro tests confirmed a direct inhibition of sucrase enzyme by the inulin extract, thereby suggesting that native chicory inulin, in addition to its well-known prebiotic effect, is also able to decrease the digestibility of carbohydrates, a phenomenon that can contribute in the control of post prandial glycemia.
27588236Survival of Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microencapsulated in Vegetal or Vegetal-inulin matrix in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and yoghurt.
27588236In this study, Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 was encapsulated in Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin by freeze drying, followed by evaluation of its survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and yoghurt.
27634412Bacterially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, are vital in maintaining the symbiotic relationship that exists between humans and their gastrointestinal microbial populations.
27635781Coadministration of phlorizin significantly prevented metabolic syndrome by decreasing weight gain, energy intake, serum lipopolysaccharides, and insulin resistance, and the fecal level of total SCFAs was dramatically increased, especially butyric acid.
27681165This study determined the survival of 5 individual probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, along with a mixture of the 5 strains in hypromellose capsules with rice or potato maltodextrin at 4, 25, and 37 °C for 12 mo.
27724792Two kinds of SCFAs (acetate and propionate with 5 different ratios) and 4 kinds of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate with 10 different ratios) were evaluated.
27734288The produced inulin type FOS (kestose and neokestose) and levan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis.
27747984Serum levels of proinflammatory IL-6 and IL-8, as well as levels of fecal bacteria (Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), total SCFAs, and n-butyric acid, decreased significantly on the LFD as compared to baseline.
27748781SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased.
27757592Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model.
27760213The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin.
27761989AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined.
27761989Expression of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 in human islets was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
27773823In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner.
27779809METHODS: The probiotic strains used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, Lactobacillus paracasei ST11, and Bifidobacterium longum BL999.
27800650Cecal acetate and butyrate levels were reduced by OFS in both genotypes suggesting enhanced uptake of SCFAs that may target FFAR2 (upregulated expression) in adipose tissue.
27800650Enhanced uptake of SCFAs may favor interaction with FFAR2/3 on adipose tissue to induce weight loss.
27815279An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling.
27815279While certain lactobacilli can catabolize inulin, this has not yet been described for Lactobacillus plantarum, and an associated putative inulin operon has not been reported in this species.
27826653Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 14 days and at the day 21, 7 days after the wash-out) containing: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri (F_1), or Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
27841429Here, we show that oxalic acid-generated hydrolysates from CAX, which include a large xylooligosaccharide, and free arabinose fractions, increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, which included relatively high levels of both propionate and butyrate, an unusual SCFA combination.
27892486Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon.
27928878SCFA metabolism by the gut microbiota is necessary to underpin effective strategies to optimize SCFA supply to the host.
27959892During the insulin resistant phase of pregnancy, the mRNA expression of free fatty acid 2 receptor (Ffar2) is upregulated and as we recently reported, this receptor contributes to insulin secretion and pancreatic beta cell mass expansion in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy.
27959892To disrupt short chain fatty acid production, we chronically treated WT mice and Ffar2-/- mice with broad range antibiotics and further compared their glucose tolerance prior to pregnancy and at gestational day 15, and also quantified cecum and plasma SCFAs.
27959892We found that during pregnancy antibiotic treatment reduced the levels of SCFAs in the cecum of the mice, but resulted in elevated levels of plasma SCFAs and altered concentrations of individual SCFAs.
27994611Linking Expression of Fructan Active Enzymes, Cell Wall Invertases and Sucrose Transporters with Fructan Profiles in Growing Taproot of Chicory (Cichorium intybus): Impact of Hormonal and Environmental Cues.
27994611In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve.
28008786This LAB cocktail, designated GI7, includes four strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, two strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, and one strain of Streptococcus thermophilus.
28031748Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) quantities in the cecum and distal colon were higher in mice consuming DFs, and these mice exhibited higher butyrate concentrations in the distal colon during inflammation.
28045429Understanding determinants of individual SCFA production would enable substrate choice to be tailored for colonic SCFA manipulation.
28045429Despite some differences in the SCFA production of different glucose disaccharides, there was no clear relationship between SCFA production and bond configuration, suggesting that other factors may be responsible for promoting selective SCFA production by the gut microbiota from different carbohydrates.
28067041Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei BL23, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCSF1 were confirmed to use the xylooligosaccharides efficiently (83.
28070968Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), predominantly acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, are bacterial metabolites with an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis due to their metabolic and immunomodulatory actions.
28070968These effects were independent of free-fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) activation, the main SCFA receptor expressed on neutrophils, occurring possibly through inhibition of histone deacetylases because similar effects were obtained by using histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as SAHA, MS-275, and RGFP 966.
28105758SCOPE: Chicory inulin is a naturally occurring fructan that is conducive to glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus.
28109059We used the goat as a model to study the effects of rumen microbial composition and epithelial TLR signaling on maintaining rumen stability during exogenous butyrate interference.
28117694Blood samples were collected at regular time points for 14 h, in order to measure 13C-labeled short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate and butyrate) concentrations.
28117694Fermentation of 13C-inulin resulted in increased plasma SCFA for about 8 h, suggesting that a sustained increase in plasma SCFA can be achieved by administering a moderate dose of carbohydrates, three times per day.
28123937METHODS: Wild-type or Ffar2-/- mice were fed an inulin supplemented or control diet.
28123937Using mice that lack FFAR2, we demonstrate that the fermentable carbohydrate inulin acts via this receptor to drive an 87% increase in the density of cells that produce the appetite-suppressing hormone peptide YY (PYY), reduce food intake, and prevent diet-induced obesity.
28165863Instead, these polysaccharides are metabolized by microbes which generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
28174773Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied.
28174773In a 40 mM SCFA mixture, the butyrate proportion at 20% and 50% showed both a protective and a reparative effect on the monolayer to disrupting agents (LPS/TNF-α) applied simultaneously or prior to the SCFA mixtures.
28174773Relating this result to dietary fibre selection, slow fermenting fibres that deliver appropriate concentrations of SCFAs to the epithelium with a high proportion of butyrate may improve barrier function.
28199749Four different types of prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides, raffinose, inulin, and cellobiose, were evaluated based on their varying degree of polymerization, combined each with 2 different Lactobacilli strains, including Lactobacillus paracasei 276 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1.
28210256Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 are immunobiotic strains able to increase protection against viral intestinal infections as demonstrated in animal models and humans.
28244671Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders.
28244671The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides.
28247858Inulin-type fructans have no significant beneficial effects on lipid or glucose metabolism.
28255654Replacement of glycaemic carbohydrates by inulin-type fructans from chicory (oligofructose, inulin) reduces the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response to foods: report of two double-blind, randomized, controlled trials.
28255654PURPOSE: Inulin-type fructans are recognized as prebiotic dietary fibres and classified as non-digestible carbohydrates that do not contribute to glycaemia.
28255654The reduction of postprandial glycaemia was positively correlated to the proportion of sugars replaced by inulin-type fructans (p < 0.
28322790Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber.
28322790SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation.
28322790This study aimed at investigating whether SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43, and thereby exert anti-inflammatory effects in human renal cortical epithelial cells (HRCEs) as a main component of kidney tissue.
28322790Furthermore, SCFA-mediated inhibition of MCP-1 expression was significantly blocked by siRNA-induced gene silencing of GPR41 and GPR43.
28322790In conclusion, SCFAs lowered TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression by reducing phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in a GPR41/43-dependent manner in HRCEs, suggesting that SCFA modification may be a new therapeutic tool for preventing progression of renal inflammation and fibrosis.
28341907Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy.
28341907We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops.
28343402The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the ingestion of two selected antioxidant probiotics strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT8361 and Bifidobacterium longum CECT7347) on sperm quality parameters in asthenozoospermic males after three and six weeks of administration.
28368269INTERVENTION: Probiotic group (n=52) received a multicomponent probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii once a day at a dose of 1.
28368356The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination.
28368356Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration.
28377388Targeting the gut microbiota with inulin-type fructans: preclinical demonstration of a novel approach in the management of endothelial dysfunction.
28377388DESIGN: We examined the contribution of the gut microbiota to vascular dysfunction observed in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe-/-) mice fed an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-depleted diet for 12 weeks with or without inulin-type fructans (ITFs) supplementation for the last 15 days.
28396623The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways.
28396623With a growing literature demonstrating that SCFA can cross the blood brain barrier and target key inflammatory and metabolic pathways, this article highlights enriching dietary intake for SCFA as a potential adjunctive therapy for people with schizophrenia.
28403558Multiple strains of Streptococcus thermophilus (37), Lactobacillus casei (37), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (4), Lactobacillus paracasei (8) Lactobacillus plantarum (23) and Lactobacillus fermentum (22) were screened for biochemical evidence of the GSH system.
28452060In Cichorium intybus, inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan-active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), and fructan 1-exohydrolases 1, 2a and 2b (1-FEH1, -2a and -2b), respectively.
28452060Co-induction of CiMYB17 with 1-SST and 1-FFT (and, less consistently, with 1-FEH1/2) in nitrogen-starved or abscisic acid (ABA)-treated chicory seedlings and in salt-stressed chicory hairy roots supports a role in stress-induced fructan metabolism, including de novo fructan synthesis and trimming of pre-existing fructans, whereas the reduced expression of CiMYB17 in developing taproots excludes a role in fructan accumulation under normal growth conditions.
28487606Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the healthy gut microbiota composition at phyla and species level: A preliminary study.
28487606AIM: To evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize the intestinal environment of healthy subjects and modify the gut microbiota composition.
28487606The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize human gut microbiota was assessed by means of quantitative real-time PCR, while changes in gut microbiota composition were detected by using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine.
28510826For recycling uses, the aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of two hot-water extracts from GLR (HWP_GLR) and solid-state fermentation GLR inoculated with GL mycelia (HWP_GLRF) on the growths of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum.
28548573Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.
28548573Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677T) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953T) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production.
28548573Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains.
28548573DSM 17677T produced butyrate, formate, CO2, and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin.
28548573Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO2, and H2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.
28552897The major SCFAs acetates, propionate and butyrate, have different production ratios and physiological activities.
28552897Several receptors for SCFAs have been identified as the G-protein coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3), GPR43/FFAR2, GPR109A, and olfactory receptor 78, which are present in intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, despite their expression levels differing between tissues and cell types.
28552897This review will focus on SCFAs, especially butyrate, and their effects on various inflammatory mechanisms including atherosclerosis.
28568309SCFA, such as acetate and butyrate, and lactate, and a decrease in indole and skatole in the feces compared to those fed a 5.
28583137Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.
28586162We applied a relatively inefficacious vaccination-challenge to study chain length-dependent effects of inulin-type fructan (ITF) dietary fibers on human immunity.
28600026Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the abundant metabolites of gut microbiota in the fermentation of fiber, ranked highly (butyrate, 0.
28620472Animal studies have suggested that the ANGPTL4 protein is modulated by the gut microbiota, possibly through increased concentrations of SCFA, such as C4, found in whole-fat milk or as a result of fermentation of inulin.
28638851The patients' fecal samples also showed a substantially lower content of SCFA and especially lower levels of butyrate and acetate.
28658542Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate.
28658542Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body.
28659066Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h.
28659066Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production.
28659890In our study, we dwelled upon combinations of lactobacilli/prebiotics, considering four different strains belonging to the Lactobacillus rhamnosus species, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and different prebiotics often found in commercial synbiotic products, such as inulin, lactulose and polyols mannitol and sorbitol.
28662676Fecal total SCFAs, propionate and butyrate did not differ between treatment periods.
28683007Four species of bacteria with the most probiotic properties, including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, were characterized and their effects on different human cell lines were taken into consideration.
28698079However, the yield of SCFAs, particularly butyric acid, in the fermentation system of fecal extract in children was higher than that in adults.
28726987Effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, selected gene expression in the duodenum epithelium, and nutrient digestion in sheep.
28726987The aim of the study was to determine the effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters (monocarboxylate transporter-1, -2, and -4) and receptors (G protein coupled receptor-41 and -43) in the duodenal epithelium and nutrient digestion in sheep.
28726987The daily dose of butyrate was infused into the rumen via the rumen cannula, with 200 mL of solution of butyric acid and distilled water, at a constant rate (0.
28726987Butyrate infusion into the rumen did not affect total SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid ( > 0.
28726987Molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA linearly increased, and molar proportion of acetate and isovalerate linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.
28726987The molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA in the duodenal digesta linearly increased ( < 0.
28733671Body-fat gain and insulin resistance were greatly reduced by inulin, but not by guar gum, and completely prevented by SCFA supplementation.
28733671In addition, inulin and SCFA lowered hepatic triglycerides and improved insulin sensitivity.
28733671Both, inulin and HAc reduced hepatic fatty acid uptake, while only inulin enhanced mitochondrial capacity and only HAc suppressed lipogenesis in liver.
28733671We conclude that in contrast to guar gum, inulin and SCFA prevent the onset of diet-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis by different mechanisms on liver and adipose tissue metabolism.
28747861Acute fiber supplementation with inulin-type fructans curbs appetite sensations: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
28747861Objectives: To test the impact of 16 g/d of Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) on appetite and food intake in acute settings.
28784701For the first 6 months of life, intervention infants (n = 92) received a daily dose of 10 billion colony-forming units of LGG and 225 mg of inulin (Amerifit Brands, Cromwell, CT), and control infants (n = 92) received 325 mg of inulin alone.
28809557In silico docking simulation demonstrated that the lower binding energy of SCFAs toward HDACs was associated with the longer aliphatic chain length of SCFAs.
28809557The in vitro HDAC inhibition assay revealed that SCFAs more potently inhibit HDAC3 than HDAC7, with butyric acid being the most potent HDAC3 inhibitor among SCFAs (IC50 = 0.
28842539This study was aimed at improving the functional attributes and shelf life of burrata cheese by using protective lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB), fructooligosaccharides, and inulin.
28842539IMPORTANCE This study provides more in-depth knowledge of the microbiome of burrata cheese and the set-up for a novel biotechnology using prebiotic dietary fibers and protective probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB in milk.
28860561Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are important for gastrointestinal health and play a role in gut inflammation and the induction of T regulatory cells, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, propionate and acetate also induce similar protective responses.
28860561These results demonstrate SCFA-AhR ligand interactions in YAMC and Caco-2 cells where SCFAs synergistically enhance basal and ligand-induced expression of AhR-responsive genes.
28861559In addition, SCFAs, particularly propionate, butyrate, and total SCFAs, were increased in the feces, and SCFA receptors were upregulated in the small intestine.
28892150The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between butyrate and dysregulated BA synthesis-induced hepatitis as well as the effect of butyrate in reversing the liver pathology.
28892150Butyrate-generating bacteria and colonic butyrate concentration were reduced due to FXR inactivation and further reduced by WD intake.
28923170In conclusion, a daily supplementation of 10g of inulin, resistant starches or fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched inulin could have beneficial effects on MetS components in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
28928068GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro.
28950281In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery.
28974035The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups.
28980453After 24 h anaerobic fermentation of the preserved microbiota, butyrate and propionate production were maintained when glycerol was used as cryoprotectant, while acetate and butyrate were formed more rapidly with glycerol in combination with inulin.
28980453Our data indicate that butyrate producers, which are key organisms for gut health, can be well preserved with glycerol and inulin during frozen storage.
28992396RESULTS: Alcohol-fed mice exhibited colonic (but not small intestinal) hyperpermeability, steatohepatitis, and decreased butyrate/total SCFA ratio in stool.
29018453Inulin-Type Fructans Modulates Pancreatic-Gut Innate Immune Responses and Gut Barrier Integrity during Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner.
29018453Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet.
29072072Recently information has been published about the presence of fructans in Aloe vera but there are no publications about acemannan and fructans as prebiotic compounds.
29072072Fructans produced greater amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while the branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) did not increase with these polysaccharides.
29109552Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are products of microbial macronutrients fermentation that distribute systemically and are believed to modulate host immune responses.
29109552Recent data have indicated that certain SCFAs, such as butyrate and propionate, directly modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function.
29128870Silage was prepared of four treatments and one control with three replicates as control (EKC, adding 2 ml/kg sterilizing water), Lactobacillus plantarum (USA commercial bacteria) (EKP), Lactobacillus plantarum (EKA), Pediococcus acidilactici (EKB), and Pediococcus acidilactici (SKD) isolated from King grass.
29157907Fructan can also be hydrolyzed by plant fructan exohydrolases (FEHs), but these enzymes have not been used to produce fructose commercially.
29157907When heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, Ht1-FEH III not only demonstrated hydrolysis activity towards β (2, 1)-linked fructans and β (2, 6)-linked levan, but also towards sucrose.
29157907We found that inulin-type fructan or the tuber extract from Jerusalem artichoke could be rapidly degraded into fructose and sucrose by immobilized Ci1-FEH IIa.
29163504Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties.
29163504Taken together, we reveal that butyrate is a potent inducer of tolerogenic human DCs, thereby shedding new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which SCFAs can exert their immunomodulatory effects in humans.
29164486All antagonistic strains of lactobacilli have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and assigned to four species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei.
29169948Higher sucrose concentrations immensely contributed to inulin biosynthesis; the inulin yield reached its maximum after 1.
29169948Structural analyses of the polysaccharide produced by the recombinant enzyme from sucrose revealed that it is an inulin-type fructan with a molecular weight of 5.
29183414In addition, the acetic acid, butyric acid and total SCFA concentrations of enzymolyzed residues of KF diet were higher (P<0.
29186865Finally, vitamin D restored transepithelial barrier function, as evidenced by decreased inulin-FITC leakage in biofunctionalized hollow fiber membranes (HFM) carrying ciPTEC-OAT1.
29192904Fermentation produces the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have health-promoting effects for the human host.
29192904The strongest propionigenic effect was found with rhamnose, followed by galactomannans, whereas fructans and several α- and β-glucans led to higher butyrate production.
29192904Interestingly, butyrate formation was influenced not only by the overall % butyrate-producing bacteria in the community but also by the initial pH, consistent with a pH-dependent shift in the stoichiometry of butyrate production.
29211757CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels.
29244718Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin.
29276170Microbiota-generated fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and free fatty acid receptors including GPR43 are thought to mediate these effects.
29276170We find that while fermentable (inulin), but not insoluble (cellulose), fiber markedly protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, the effect was not significantly impaired by either inhibiting SCFA production or genetic ablation of GPR43.
29307330Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.
29307330HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic.
29307330This study demonstrates that those with HDF intakes have a greater gut microbiota response and are therefore more likely to benefit from an inulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes.
29307330Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.
29311987Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.
29312822Moreover, the SCFAs detected in supplemented mice (caproate, methyl butyrate, propionate, acetate and valerate) exceeded those concentrations detected in obese and lean controls except for butyrate.
29343276Dynamic analysis showed that major SCFAs-producers and key butyrate-producing gene were significantly enriched after treatment for 7-28 days.
29343276Under cultivation in vitro, fullerenols NPs can be degraded by gut flora and exhibited a similar capacity of inulin to promote SCFA-producing genera.
29353414The levels of colonic SCFAs and GPR43, NLRP3, ASC, and CASPASE-1 proteins also changed significantly (P < 0.
29353414Compound probiotics modulated gut microbiota, SCFAs, and their receptor GPR43 in NAFLD rats.
29362450By monitoring luciferase activity correlated with the clock gene Period2 in vivo, we found that oral administration of mixed SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) and an organic acid (lactate), or single administration of each SCFA or lactate for three days, caused phase changes in the peripheral clocks with stimulation timing dependency.
29362450However, this effect was not detected in cultured fibroblasts or cultured liver slices with SCFA applied to the culture medium, suggesting SCFA-induced indirect modulation of circadian clocks in vivo.
29372119Fermentations with inulin and lactulose showed that inulin leads to a microbiota dominated by obligate anaerobes, with high relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, while the more easily fermented lactulose leads to higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria.
29375478To further study potential mechanisms involved in the antilipolytic properties of SCFA, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of SCFA incubations on intracellular lipolysis and signaling using a human white adipocyte model, the human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells.
29391397Butyrate (BT) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) principally derived from the enteric microbiome.
29416529Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota.
29417378GPI-6 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-1(S) showed better β-galactosidase activity than the standard strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014.
29431874OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can induce t-PA in airway epithelial cells via their known receptors GPR41 and GPR43.
29431874METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine whether receptors for SCFAs, known as G protein-coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3) and GPR43/FFAR2, are expressed in nasal tissue.
29431874Gene silencing of GPR41 and GPR43 revealed that induction of t-PA by SCFAs was dependent upon both GPR41 and GPR43.
29462379The SCFAs, particularly butyrate (BT), regulate innate and adaptive immune cell generation, trafficing, and function.
29488010Total SCFA in faecal fermentation did not differ between groups, except for butyric acid (twofold higher in the older group; p = 0.
29488641Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are produced by fermentation by gut microbiota.
29494208Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L cells.
29494208We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects of the predominant SCFAs formed: acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
29494208FFAR2- and FFAR3-specific agonist [( S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl- N-(5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)butamide (CFMB)/ AR420626 ] had no effect on colonic GLP-1 output, and a FFAR3 antagonist ( AR399519 ) did not decrease the SCFA-induced GLP-1 response.
29494208FFAR2 receptor studies confirmed low-potent partial agonism of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, compared with CFMB, which is a full agonist with ~750-fold higher potency than the SCFAs.
29494208In conclusion, SCFAs may increase colonic GLP-1/PYY secretion, but FFAR2/FFAR3 do not seem to be involved.
29494208NEW & NOTEWORTHY By the use of in situ isolated perfused rat colon we show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) primarily are used as a colonocyte energy source in the rat, subsequently triggering glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion independent of the free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3.
29494208Opposite many previous studies on SCFAs and FFAR2/FFAR3 and GLP-1 secretion, this experimental model allows investigation of the physiological interactions between luminal nutrients and secretion from cells whose function depend critically on their blood supply as well as nerve and paracrine interactions.
29507837Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats.
29507837In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats.
29507837At the family and genus levels, probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria Lachnospiraceae, Phascolarctobacterium, and Bacteroides were found to be significantly more abundant in the inulin-treated diabetic group than in the non-treated diabetic group.
29510254Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture.
29522844The SCFA butyrate was administered through drinking water or intranasally in BALB/c mice to evaluate its role in the ILC2-driven inflammatory response in IL-33 and Alternaria alternata models of allergic inflammation.
29524208Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber.
29524208FFAR2's downstream cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway was enhanced, leading to overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the FFAR2-deficient mice.
29524208In addition, FFAR2 is required for butyrate to suppress HDAC expression and hypermethylation of inflammation suppressors.
29566154We found alterations of numerous operational taxonomic units potentially associated with SCFA-producing bacteria and reductions in the fecal levels of acetate, butyrate and propionate in hyperlipidemic subjects.
29615908Conclusion: SCFA, including acetate, butyrate and propionate, influenced LPS- or TNFα-induced endothelial activation by inhibiting the production of IL-6 and IL-8, and reducing the expression of VCAM-1 and subsequent cell adhesion.
29648971In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate.
29659013Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), for example, butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases.
29689277Butyrate ameliorated-NLRC3 protects the intestinal barrier in a GPR43-dependent manner.
29689277GPR43 on colonic epithelial cells is involved in the activation of NLRC3 induced by butyrate.
29689277CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that NLCR3 could ameliorate colonic epithelial barrier integrity in diabetes mellitus in a TRAF6-dependent manner, and NLCR3 was stimulated by butyrate via binding GPR43 on colonic epithelial cells.
29690739Cells in SCFA+ LPS group were cultured with DMEM medium, LPS and SCFA (consisting of 0.
29697703Corrigendum: Inulin-Type Fructans Modulates Pancreatic-Gut Innate Immune Responses and Gut Barrier Integrity during Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner.
29700505Compared to the GOS/FP diet, the G-GOS/FP diet greatly changed the pattern of SCFA production in the hindgut of rats, by increasing the total SCFA (44%), butyrate (55%) and propionate (1.
29710405SCFAs are produced in high amounts with acetic acid and succinic acid being the major products next to propionic acid and butyric acid.
29722430BACKGROUND: Butyrate, propionate and acetate are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), important for maintaining a healthy colon and are considered as protective in colorectal carcinogenesis.
29722430However, translating effects of SCFA from animal studies to human disease is limited by physiological and dietary differences and by the challenge of delivering sufficient amounts of SCFA to the target sites that include the colon and the systemic circulation.
29723298SCFAs group (orally infused with 200 mL SCFAs containing acetic acid 20.
29723298SCFAs group (orally infused with 200 mL SCFAs containing acetic acid 40.
29745350Increasing RS levels, however, did not affect SCFA concentrations in the hindgut, but enhanced the molar proportion of propionate in mid-colon and reduced those of acetate in mid-colon and of butyrate in mid- and distal colon (R 2=0.
29773375Characterization and prebiotic activity in vitro of inulin-type fructan from Codonopsis pilosula roots.
29778843In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.
29803436Paired combinations of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides dorei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli and Clostridium symbiosum were grown in inulin or xylan as carbon source.
29805879Results: Immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic consortium were studied, which consisted of the following strains: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
29848266While colonocytes use the three major SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate and butyrate, as energy sources, transformed CRC cells primarily undergo aerobic glycolysis.
29881616Interestingly, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 induced a significant reduction in genus Ruminococcus, dominated by taxa related to Ruminococcus bromii and Ruminococcus callidus, a significant increase in the SCFAs acetate and butyrate, and a significant reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15.
29884232Huddling or cold resulted in higher concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetic acid and butyric acid when compared to their counterparts.
29922239Increasing dietary concentrations of DON quadratically increased the cecal total SCFA and butyrate concentration (p < 0.
29935270The five tested substrates were raffinose, melibiose, a mixture of oligo- and polysaccharides produced from raffinose by levansucrase, levan synthesized from raffinose, and levan from timothy grass.
29935270In the fecal pool of normal-weight children, levans stimulated the growth of Senegalimassilia and Lachnoclostridium and this particular pool also showed the highest maximum heat production rate at levan fermentation.
29939970RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive.
29939970SUMMARY: Fructan fibers, which include fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose, and inulin, provided in low doses (<10 g/day), generally do not affect measures of human appetite including satiety or food intake and should not be recommended as a fiber with sole satiating power.
29950699This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43 and GPR109a, the transporter MCT1 as well as the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 present on TGFB1 promoter.
29953876SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
29953876We aimed to investigate the acute metabolic effects of ingesting inulin compared with digestible carbohydrates and to trace inulin-derived SCFAs using stable isotope tracer methodology.
29953876Inulin was fermented into SCFAs as indicated by higher plasma acetate concentrations after INU compared with PLA (P < 0.
29953876CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of the prebiotic inulin improves fat oxidation and promotes SCFA production in overweight to obese men.
29963455Introduction: We aimed to investigate the effects of intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum (BB536-y) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in preventing colorectal carcinogenesis in healthy subjects, and the preventive effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), whose production was enhanced by the intake of BB536-y and FOS, in human colon cancer cell lines.
29963455Subsequently, human colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1 cells, WirDr cells) were cultured in the presence of SCFA (butyric acid, isobutyric acid, acetic acid) in order to evaluate the cell growth-inhibitory activity of SCFA (WST-8 assay) by calculating the IC50 value from the dose-response curve.
29963455The contents of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and acetic acid, namely, of SCFA, were also decreased.
29963455Analysis of the results of culture of DLD-1 cells and WirDr cells in the presence of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and acetic acid revealed that each of the substances showed significant cell growth-inhibitory activity, with the activity being the highest for butyric acid, followed by that for isobutyric acid and acetic acid.
29992311High inulin supplementation (2%) significantly increased the gene expression of NF-κB, LITAF, IL-6, iNOS, and Claudin-1 at 14 and 21 d compared to low inulin concentration (0.
30019028Fructooligosaccharides, inulin, and galactooligosaccharides are universally agreed-upon prebiotics.
30052654While HDAC inhibition (HDI) by gut commensals has long been attributed to the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, the potent metabolic reservoir provided by the gut microbiota and its role in host physiology warrants further investigation in a variety of diseases.
30055351We found significant and progressive alterations in butyrate, and in additional SCFAs in stool in the first 14 days after transplant, a finding not observed in published mouse studies.
30064535Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on blood metabolite and hormone concentrations and faecal microbiota and metabolites in overweight dogs.
30066368In contrast, chronic stress-induced alterations in body weight gain, faecal SCFAs and the gene expression of the SCFA receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 remained unaffected by SCFA supplementation.
30066368Stress-induced increases in body weight gain, faecal SCFAs and the colonic gene expression of the SCFA receptors free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 remained unaffected by SCFA supplementation.
30073134These results revealed that overexpression of the 1-SST, the key gene in inulin biosynthesis in chicory, might serve as a novel approach to develop plants with the long-chain inulin content.
30124970The bacterial population differed, and the SCFA profile shifted toward acetate at the expense of butyrate in group LCF compared to the control group.
30140374Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate are generated by microbial fermentation of indigestible fiber by gut flora.
30140374SCFAs are ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, that modulate cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.
30140374However, it is unclear if SCFAs enhance the effects of chemotherapy in a GPR41- or GPR43-dependent manner.
30140374The aim of this study was to investigate whether SCFAs, and particularly propionate, activate GPR41 or GPR43, and thereby enhance the antitumor effects of cisplatin in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
30142973Chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of SCFAs: acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and isobutyric acid in fecal samples.
30154787Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced primarily by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, has been extensively studied pharmacologically as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and serves as an attractive therapeutic candidate, as butyrate has also been shown to be anti-inflammatory and improve memory in animal models.
30154787Findings indicate that mice fed inulin had an altered gut microbiome and increased butyrate, acetate, and total SCFA production.
30154787Taken together, high fiber supplementation in aging is a non-invasive strategy to increase butyrate levels, and these data suggest that an increase in butyrate through added soluble fiber such as inulin could counterbalance the age-related microbiota dysbiosis, potentially leading to neurological benefits.
30195509Physico-chemical and structural properties of crystalline inulin explain the stability of Lactobacillus plantarum during spray-drying and storage.
30195509The stabilizing capacity of crystalline inulin during spray-drying and storage of Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 was assessed.
30195509Furthermore, no accumulation of insoluble inulin was observed after resuspending the dehydrated microorganisms in crystalline inulin matrices, which appears as a clear technological advantage with regard to the amorphous one.
30201970GPR43 is critical for the protective effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), butyrate and propionate.
30201970The GVHD protective effect of SCFAs requires GPR43-mediated ERK phosphorylation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in non-hematopoietic target tissues of the host.
30234027Of note, a high correlation between the genus Blautia (known butyrate producer) and butyric acid was observed for both immediate freezing (r = 0.
30241862Overall, Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation could enhance the anti-diabetes effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides in rats by modifying the structure of polysaccharides to optimize gut microbiota and heighten the production of SCFAs.
30250967Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are synthesized from dietary carbohydrates by colonic bacterial fermentation.
30252114Histone H3 acetylation was concentration-dependently increased by SCFAs and likewise the differential regulation of HDAC activity, SCFAs effected differently histone H3 acetylation, where SB increased (P < 0.
30258117Increased IFN-γ and granzyme B expression by CTLs as well as the molecular switch of Tc17 cells towards the CTL phenotype was mediated by butyrate independently of its interaction with specific SCFA-receptors GPR41 and GPR43.
30259127The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and biotin.
30259127What is new: • The results of this observational, prospective, open-label, single-cohort study on 320 children with AD younger than 12 years old suggest that supplementation with multistrain synbiotics (Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and biotin) helps to improve AD symptoms in children.
30263799The beverage base was prepared by fermenting a mix containing oat flour (10%, w/w), sugar (4%, w/w), and inulin (1%, w/w) with a commercial Lactobacillus plantarum (0.
30277149This process can lead to a decreased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the gut microbiota, mainly butyrate, which is an important immunomodulatory molecule in the intestine.
30284066PURPOSE: Intestinal fermentation of inulin-type fructans, including oligofructose, can modulate adiposity, improve energy regulation, and increase mineral absorption.
30284066The fructan diets all lowered caecal pH and raised caecal digesta weight and total SCFA content, in comparison to the Control.
30297834Here, the effects of butyrate supplementation on rumen and hindgut microbiota and fermentation profiles were assessed in 16 Holstein-Friesian bull calves randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (CON) fed conventional milk replacer or Sodium-Butyrate (SB - added to milk replacer) from days 7 to 56 of life.
30319461Several metabolites generated by the gut microbiota have been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects, including the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate.
30319461However, recent work has suggested that the abundance of butyrate is not significantly changed in neither human nor experimental animals with depression, and butyrate has been reported to decrease upon the administration of prebiotics with antidepressant-like effects.
30342147Less attention has been focused on the industrial applications of levan-type fructan than that of inulin.
30342147Levan-type fructan is a unique homopolysaccharide consisting of fructose residues with a β-(2, 6) linkage that possesses unique physiochemical properties such as low intrinsic viscosity.
30349136This study aimed to identify the effects of seven dietary fibers (barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester) effective in preventing diet-induced obesity and links to differences in cecal bacteria and host gene expression.
30349136Mice (n = 12) were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD or a HFD supplemented with the DFs, barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester for 8 weeks.
30395776Inulin-type fructans improve active ulcerative colitis associated with microbiota changes and increased short-chain fatty acids levels.
30395776Our aim was therefore to determine if inulin-type fructans induce clinical benefits in UC, and identify if benefits are linked to compositional and/or functional shifts of the luminal (fecal) and mucosal (biopsy) bacterial communities.
30395776Fructans increased colonic butyrate production in the 15 g/d dose, and fecal butyrate levels were negatively correlated with Mayo score (r = -0.
30402226FOS intake also led to a significant increase in the cecum levels of SCFAs, namely lactate, propionate and n-butyrate (P<0.
30407866HLFs and ASM cells were exposed to SCFAs, acetate (C2:0), propionate (C3:0), and butyrate (C4:0) (0.
30407866Synergistic upregulation of IL-6 and CXCL8 was mediated through the activation of free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)3, but not FFAR2.
30409998Since the prebiotic inulin is thought to beneficially affect gut microbiota, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden.
30409998The effects of inulin were determined on: microbiota composition, cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, plasma lipid levels, atherosclerosis development, hepatic morphology and hepatic inflammation.
30413731Oxalate metabolizing bacterial species (OMBS) and butyrate-producing eubacteria species were found to be decreased in Oxalobacter non-colonizers; and Prevotella and Ruminococcus species which may contribute to oxalate metabolism and butyrate synthesis as well.
30446387Butyrate produced in the gut following LGG ingestion, or butyrate fed directly to germ-free mice, induced the expansion of intestinal and bone marrow (BM) regulatory T (Treg) cells.
30459574In this study, we explored the potential antidepressant efficacy of a multi-strain probiotics treatment (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus plantarum R1012, and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in a chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model of depression and determined its probable mechanism of action.
30465441Bifidobacterium longum IM55 and Lactobacillus plantarum IM76 alleviate allergic rhinitis in mice by restoring Th2/Treg imbalance and gut microbiota disturbance.
30465441We isolated Bifidobacterium longum IM55 and Lactobacillus plantarum IM76 from human faecal microbiota and kimchi, respectively, and examined their effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR and gut microbiota disturbance in mice.
30477292METHODS: Fresh rice straw was ensiled in 1-L laboratory silos with no additive control (C), Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) and molasses+Lactobacillus plantarum (ML) for 6, 15, 30, and 60 days.
30501018Three Inulin-Type Fructans from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.
30501018Inulin-type fructans are carbohydrates consisting mainly of β (2→1) fructosyl-fructose links in chemical structure and exhibit a range of properties such as prebiotic activity, fat substitutes in low-calorie foods and disease-modifying effects.
30501018The prebiotic effects of inulin-type fructans are hypothesized to improve gastrointestinal function through alterations to gut microbiota composition and metabolism.
30501018In the present study, three inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization (DP = 16, 22, and 31) were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.
30501018The prebiotic activity of these fructans was evaluated by detecting growth stimulation on Bifidobacterium longum.
30501018The data indicated that inulin-type fructans in Radix Codonopsis could be used as potential prebiotics.
30513668BG112, the Mw of HEP was decreased and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetic acid, isovaleric acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid were produced.
30515005SCFA mainly produced as microbial metabolites, acetate, propionate, and butyrate acids.
30515005Stool sample were analyzed for SCFA (acetate, propionate, and butyrate acids) with gas chromatography and the result is given as μg/mL and the protein expression of HSP70 was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and haematoxylin-eosin staining to determine the morphological changes in colon tissue.
30536938In vitro, LPS, low rumen fluid pH, high concentrations of SCFAs (90 mM acetate, 40 mM propionate, and 30 mM butyrate), and high concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, inhibited the expression of MCT1 in rumen epithelial cells.
30536938Taken together, these results indicated that LPS, low ruminal pH, and high concentrations of SCFAs decreased the expression of MCT1, further aggravating the accumulation of SCFAs in the rumen by decreasing the absorption of SCFAs.
30580556Nondigestible carbohydrates, butyrate, and butyrate-producing bacteria.
30580556Nonstarch polysaccharides, such as pectin, guar gum, alginate, arabinoxylan, and inulin fructans, and nondigestible oligosaccharides and their derivatives, can also be fermented by beneficial bacteria in the large intestine.
30580556In this review, several representative NDCs are introduced, and their chemical components, structures, and physiological functions, including promotion of the proliferation of butyrate-producing bacteria and enhancement of butyrate production, are discussed.
30580938Butyrate is used in weaning calves to support ruminal barrier development; however, excess butyrate may promote hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, and epithelial injury in the fully developed rumen of adult cows.
30591685Studies are conflicting as to whether SCFAs are beneficial or detrimental to cardiometabolic health, and how gut microbiota associated with SCFAs is unclear.
30591685Studies assessing both fecal and circulating SCFAs are needed to test the hypothesis that the association of higher fecal SCFAs with obesity and cardiometabolic dysregulation is due to less efficient SCFA absorption.
30595032Levan and inulin are two types of fructan.
30595032Levan is composed of β-(2, 6) fructosyl linkage and inulin is composed of β-(2, 1) linkage.
30595032Both levan and inulin have been accepted and applied in the food, medicinal and chemical industries for their outstanding physicochemical properties in recent years.
30619212Among the 91 OTUs whose relative abundance was altered in ASD patients, we observed a striking depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, one of the dominant bacteria in infant GM and, conversely, an increase of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a late colonizer of healthy human gut and a major butyrate producer.
30619249Therefore, we investigated the impact of individual cultivable commensal bacteria on IDO-1 transcriptional expression and found that the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate was the main metabolite controlling IDO-1 expression in human primary IECs and IEC cell-lines.
30619249This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a and of the transcription factors SP1, AP1, and PPARγ for which binding sites were reported in the IDO-1 promoter.
30619249In conclusion, our results showed that IDO-1 expression is down-regulated by butyrate via a dual mechanism: the reduction of STAT1 level and the HDAC inhibitor property of SCFAs.
30630039Inulin, a natural fructan, cannot be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in the human body and plays a role as a dietary fiber and prebiotic.
30634241Despite its highly branched structure, first-order kinetic behaviour with respect to substrate concentration was found with an activation energy of 95kJ/mol, similar to the value found for other linear fructans such as chicory inulin.
30670726In the present study, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, detected fecal SCFAs, assessed GI symptoms and analyzed the relationship between the gut microbiome and fecal SCFAs in autistic and neurotypical individuals.
30675119The effects of Queso Blanco cheese containing Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 was studied on the intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in healthy companion dogs.
30696735Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, in the gut microbiome is required for optimal health but is frequently limited by the lack of fermentable fiber in the diet.
30696735We attempted to increase butyrate production by supplementing the diets of 174 healthy young adults for 2 weeks with resistant starch from potatoes (RPS), resistant starch from maize (RMS), inulin from chicory root, or an accessible corn starch control.
30696735RPS resulted in the greatest increase in total SCFAs, including butyrate.
30696735Although the majority of microbiomes responded to RPS with increases in the relative abundance of bifidobacteria, those that responded with an increase in Ruminococcus bromii or Clostridium chartatabidum were more likely to yield higher butyrate concentrations, especially when their microbiota were replete with populations of the butyrate-producing species Eubacterium rectale RMS and inulin induced different changes in fecal communities, but they did not generate significant increases in fecal butyrate levels.
30704039The Efficacy of Probiotics, Prebiotic Inulin-Type Fructans, and Synbiotics in Human Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
30761137The microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate and propionate have been described as FOXP3 inducers and are known to have anti-inflammatory properties.
30761137Both Th9 cell adoptive transfer and IL-9 treatment restored lung inflammation in butyrate-treated OVA-challenged mice, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of butyrate may rely on suppressing Th9-mediated immune responses.
30762787In IBS-C patients, propionate and butyrate were reduced, whereas butyrate was increased in IBS-D patients in comparison to HCs.
30776899Supplementing kindergarten children during a cold season with a prebiotic inulin-type fructans product with shorter and longer fructan chains has been shown to reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis.
30776899The study was a randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 258 healthy children aged 3 to 6 years consuming 6 g/day prebiotic inulin-type fructans or maltodextrin.
30783436Butyrate is a major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract.
30783436Isolated mouse primary hepatocytes were incubated with sodium butyrate, other HDAC inhibitors and other SCFAs.
30800003Fermentation of FOS by intestinal bacteria leads to production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) including butyrate.
30800003Treg-mediated BMMC suppression was enhanced after in vivo butyrate and FOS exposure in combination with OIT but with a more pronounced effect for butyrate.
30831575SCFAs, mainly butyrate, propionate, and acetate, occur in specific amounts, and their proportions can change, depending on the diet, age and diseases.
30831575The levels of SCFAs are substantially influenced by the ratio of commensal intestinal bacteria, the disturbance of which (dysbiosis) can lead to a disproportion between the SCFAs produced.
30836015Recently, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), which uses SCFAs as ligands, was found to exert oncoprotective effects on several types of neoplasia.
30836015We also found that SCFAs inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells, and a FFAR2 antagonist, GLPG0974, used to suppress the binding of SCFAs significantly restored the cell viability of HeLa cells blocked by acetic acid treatment.
30836015These results suggest that ingestion of prebiotics and the resulting production of SCFAs may play an oncoprotective role against uterine cervical neoplasia via FFAR2 expression.
30842764Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Use Different Mechanisms to Prevent Salmonella Infection in vivo.
30875994Additionally, as a link between inulin and lifespan responses, the gut microbiota was distinctly separated by gender in both the standard diet group and the inulin treatment group, and the relationship between lifespan and the gut microbiota community was stronger in male flies than in females.
30880316Inulin enhances the growth of indigenous lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria by inducing colonic production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA's) and these properties are related to decreased mucosal lesion scores and diminished mucosal inflammation.
30888065Increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with altered intestinal microbiota as well as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) reduction of output The energy source of colon cells relies mainly on three SCFAs, namely butyrate (BT), propionate, and acetate, while CRC transformed cells rely mainly on aerobic glycolysis to provide energy.
30888065Furthermore, the link between gut microbiota and SCFAs in the metabolism of CRC, in addition, the proteins and genes related to SCFAs-mediated signaling pathways, coupled with their correlation with the initiation and progression of CRC are also discussed.
30888065Therefore, targeting the SCFA transporters to regulate lactate generation and export of BT, as well as applying SCFAs or gut microbiota and natural compounds for chemoprevention may be clinically useful for CRCs treatment.
30889210Herb-induced microbial communities are predicted to alter the relative abundance of taxa encoding SCFA (butyrate and propionate) pathways.
30889794Each oligosaccharide was capable of increasing the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyric acid, and altering the microbiota composition.
30918945METHODS: CBir1, an immunodominant microbiota antigen, transgenic T cells were treated with butyrate under various T-cell polarization conditions to investigate butyrate regulation of T-cell differentiation and the mechanism involved.
30918945Furthermore, butyrate induced T-cell B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) expression, and deficiency of Blimp1 in T cells impaired the butyrate upregulation of IL-10 production, indicating that butyrate promotes T-cell IL-10 production at least partially through Blimp1.
30918945Rag1-/- mice transferred with butyrate-treated T cells demonstrated less severe colitis, compared with transfer of untreated T cells, and administration of anti-IL-10R antibody exacerbated colitis development in Rag-/- mice that had received butyrate-treated T cells.
30918945Mechanistically, the effects of butyrate on the development of Th1 cells was through inhibition of histone deacetylase but was independent of GPR43.
30918945CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that butyrate controls the capacity of T cells in the induction of colitis by differentially regulating Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and promoting IL-10 production, providing insights into butyrate as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
30919578Stool samples from cirrhotic patients showed lower SCFAs content and reduced capacity to produce SCFAs in batch fermentations, with butyrate production being the most abnormal.
30919578CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic dysbiosis is associated with a decreased capacity to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates into SCFAs, especially into butyrate.
30965613To study the SCFA-producing capability of mycoprotein, in vitro batch fermentations were conducted, and SCFA production compared with that from extracted mycoprotein fibre, oligofructose (OF), rhamnose, and laminarin.
30982987METHODS: GC/MS was employed to monitor the production of several SCFAs (propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid) by representative anaerobic oral pathogens (Filifactor alocis 35896, Fusobacterium nucleatum 25586, Porphyromonas gingivalis 33277) that were exposed, or not, to a physiologically relevant dose of CSE (2000 ng/ml nicotine equivalents) generated from 3R4F reference cigarettes.
30982987SCFA (butyrate); P gingivalis provided the most robust overall SCFA signal, while F alocis and F nucleatum did not release detectable levels of isobutyrate or isovalerate.
30982987CONCLUSIONS: There is high disparity in the SCFA profiles of variant chronic periodontitis-associated bacteria, while CSE exposure reduces SCFA production by a specific clinical strain of P gingivalis.
31004166OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the role of butyrate, an SCFA, in the regulation of obesity, low-grade chronic inflammation, and alterations of microbiota composition in mice.
31006476We present a study of the hydration shells of some carbohydrate polymers of commercial and biological importance, namely, agave fructans, inulin, and maltodextrin, employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.
31006476In addition, the study reveals that agave fructans and inulin have good hydration ability.
31030117Their microbial degradation to SCFA already begins in the stomach potentially resulting in increased gastric concentrations of SCFA such as butyric acid.
31030117Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of butyric acid exposure on the functional integrity and morphology of the equine nonglandular and glandular gastric mucosa using butyric acid concentrations equivalent to the ones found in horses subjected to prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides feeding.
31063918To assure the neuroprotection came from increased production of butyrate, we further determined beneficial effects of butyrate in the MPTP-mediated PD model.
31075175Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate), which are primarily derived from the gut microbiome, may exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and regulate energy homeostasis.
31075175BMI ≥30 kg/m2) adults (≥18 y) on concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFAs in blood, urine, or feces.
31075175In the majority of studies, changes in fecal SCFA concentrations were assessed, whereas changes in serum SCFAs were reported from 1 trial.
31075175Because measurements of fecal SCFAs may not be ideal due to limited sample standardization, well-powered trials with repeated blood measurements of SCFAs are required.
31086553Effect of inulin-type fructans in patients undergoing cancer treatments: A systematic review.
31086553Nonetheless, possible inulin positive effects including improved stool consistency after abdomen radiotherapy and increased stool butyrate content which is involved in controlling tumor cells proliferation and apoptosis should not be denied.
31089311Aim: The research was conducted to determine the effect of temperature and storage duration on the physicochemical, lipolytic, microbiological, and proteolytic characteristics of goat cheese made using Lactobacillus plantarum TW14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus TW2 bacteria.
31089436Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, propionate, and acetate are microbial metabolites in the gut that are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the host.
31094471Reduction of Butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA transferase gene relative representation in CD patients, decrease of absolute content of SCFA total number as well as particular SCFAs and main SCFAs ratio in IBD patients may indicate inhibition of functional activity and number of anaerobic microflora and/or an change in SCFA utilization by colonocytes.
31108510BACKGROUND: Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are a type of fermentable dietary fiber that can confer beneficial health effects through changes in the gut microbiota.
31108759These results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation enhanced the anti-diabetic property of MC juice by favoring the regulation of gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs.
31117848Abbreviations: TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; HDACi: histone deacetylase inhibitor; SB: sodium Butyrate; CRC: colorectal cancer; SCFA: short-chain fatty acid; hrs: hours.
31118468Exploring the sequence variability of polymerization-involved residues in the production of levan- and inulin-type fructooligosaccharides with a levansucrase.
31118468However, changes at R370 abated the levansucrase capacity to synthesize levan-type oligosaccharides, with some mutations turning the product specificity towards neo-FOS and the inulin-like sugar 1-kestose.
31135191Long-chain length (DP) inulin-type fructans show pronounced beneficial effects to colon microbiota.
31135191The aim of the work was to evaluate different types of inulin, extracted from cardoon roots and buds, topinambur tubers and chicory roots local populations in order to identify crops more suitable for high DP inulin production in Mediterranean environment.
31135191With the aim to produce a functional food, substituting inulin in staple food tubers of topinambur could be a good alternative to cardoon roots, due to the biological cycle of the plant (annual vs poliennal), the lowest costs of harvest and the good amounts of high DP inulin.
31137970Supplementation of IN increased the content of putrescine, d- and l-lactate, total SCFA, acetate, propionate, n-butyrate (p ≤ 0.
31152455RESULTS: Chicory root, in contrast to chicory pulp, exhibited an extensive and rapid fermentation similar to inulin and oligofructose, although butyrate levels of root and pulp did not reach those of the purified fractions.
31170664Candesartan treatment also increased the amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in SHRs.
31185060The concentrations of acetate and n-butyrate in cecal digesta were significantly higher in the BM and BG groups than in the control group, whereas the concentration of total SCFAs in cecal digesta was significantly higher only in the BM group than in the control group.
31189087Prebiotic effects of Agave salmiana fructans at five different doses were evaluated by the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium strains and SCFA production in the cecum and proximal colon of healthy Wistar rats.
31189087High concentration of butyric acid and total SCFA were contained in the 12.
31208043Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria.
31218724SCFAs) concentration (including propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate) when compared with the allergic group.
31218724SCFAs receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors 41 (GPR41) and 43 (GPR43), in the spleen and colon of the allergic mice.
31220598Our previous study found that Xiexin Tang markedly ameliorated the composition of the gut microbiota, especially for some short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacteria, and then notably increased SCFAs production.
31220598Additionally, XXT could increase gut microbiota-derived SCFAs-producing capacity by enhancing mRNA levels and activities of SCFA-synthetic key enzymes such as acetate kinase (ACK), methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD), butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA transferase (BUT) and butyrate kinase (BUK), which markedly decreased the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, elevated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels and further lowered the energy charge (EC) in obese rats via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)/uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) signaling pathway.
31222050Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have protective effects on experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) responses but the detailed roles of SCFAs and their receptors in regulating autoimmune CNS inflammation have been unclear.
31222050In line with the overall protective effect, blood levels of major SCFAs, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, are significantly decreased in long-term active progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
31222050In contrast to the moderate protective effect of SCFAs, mice deficient in GPR41 or GPR43 are more resistant to EAE pathogenesis.
31222050Thus, despite the overall protective function of SCFAs, SCFAs and their receptors have the potential to regulate autoimmune CNS inflammation both positively and negatively.
31257531Short‑chain fatty acids (SCFAs; butyrate, propionate and acetate) are metabolites derived from the gut microbiota via dietary fiber fermentation.
31257531In colon cancer, treatment with SCFAs, mainly butyrate and propionate, suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
31293552In terms of SCFAs, the concentrations of acetate on day 28, propionic acid on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, butyrate on day 1, and isovalerate on day 14 were significantly higher in the F group compared with the C group.
31295342Gut microbial analysis exhibited that butyrate intervention increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria and decreased pathogenic bacteria, such as endotoxin-secreting bacteria.
31295342Our result also demonstrated that butyrate intervention enhanced fecal SCFAs concentrations, and inhibited endotoxin levels in feces and serum.
31295342Apart from inhibiting expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, butyrate exerted anti-inflammation effect through selectively modulating gut microbiota, such as increasing SCFAs-producing bacteria and decreasing endotoxin-secreting bacteria, as well as via regulating levels of microbiota-dependent metabolites and components, such as SCFAs and endotoxin.
31311843Lactobacillus plantarum Conversely, bioreactors without these species did not show butyrate production.
31312663The fecal SCFAs' contents (acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate) were noticeably declined after burn injury (p < 0.
31338086Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Its ccpA-Knockout Mutant Under Galactooligosaccharides and Glucose Conditions.
31338923The participants were randomly assigned to receive probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum), prebiotic (galactooligosaccharide) or placebo for 8 weeks.
31345057SCFAs (mainly butyric acid) inversely correlated with the model for end-stage liver disease score and were further reduced in patients with history of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
31356781Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate are generated by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber.
31365980Probiotics was composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis, while synbiotics was composed of the aforementioned probiotics, inulin and galactooligosaccharide.
31368529Concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline decreased with molasses, declined over time, and were negatively correlated with lactic, propionic, and butyric acid, or with lactic and butyric acid in case of seneciphylline.
31373710RESULTS: Animal studies and the first emerging studies in humans show promising results for both the common probiotics Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococci as for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate-producing bacteria.
31375426Subjects received 3 × 7 day oral interventions in random order; soluble fibre (inulin 12 g/day), soluble fibre + probiotic (inulin 12 g/day + multi-strain probiotic >25 billion CFU) and placebo.
31375426Individual bacterial operational taxonomic units changed following both inulin and inulin+probiotic arms.
31395200The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.
31401753Growing attention has been focused on levan, a β-(2,6) fructan that possesses more favorable physicochemical properties, such as lower intrinsic viscosity and greater colloidal stability, than β-(2,1) inulin.
31430863When compared with glucose, IMO could significantly improve growth of Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
31467135The present study aims to evaluate the levels of SCFAs in healthy and CKD patients, and to test the hypothesis that SCFAs play a critical role in delaying CKD progression.
31467135Our results showed that SCFA levels were reduced in CKD patients and that butyrate supplementation might delay CKD progression.
31467327Therefore, circulating SCFA are more directly linked to metabolic health, which indicates the need to measure circulating SCFA in human prebiotic/probiotic intervention studies as a biomarker/mediator of effects on host metabolism.
31469342However, it has been reported that receptors for SCFAs, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and FFAR3 are expressed not only on gut endocrine cells secreting GLP-1 and PYY, but also on pancreatic islet cells.
31469342None of the SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, influenced glucagon secretion, whereas they had weak inhibitory effects on somatostatin and insulin secretion.
31469342In conclusion, the small effects of acetate, propionate and butyrate we observed here may not be physiologically relevant, but the effects of CFMB and Compound 4 on somatostatin secretion suggest that it may be possible to manipulate pancreatic secretion pharmacologically with agonists of the FFAR2 and 3 receptors, a finding which deserves further investigation.
31487233In particular, FFAR1 (GPR40) and FFAR4 (GPR120) are activated by long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, while FFAR3 (GPR41) and FFAR2 (GPR43) are activated by SCFAs, mainly acetate, butyrate, and propionate.
31491513Interestingly, MDG-1, as an inulin-type fructan, is poorly absorbed and its possible mechanism against lipid disturbance remained unclear.
31504729Fecal SCFAs-acetic, propionic, and butyric acid-were also measured.
31519656At weaning, offspring were allocated, within sow treatment, to (i) control (n = 67; no dietary supplement) or (ii) inulin (n = 65; 6-week dietary inulin supplementation) treatments.
31519656Due to the FMTp and/or inulin supplementation, relative abundances of potential pathogens (Chlamydia and Treponema) in the ileum and cecal concentrations of butyric acid were significantly lower.
31521614Correlation analysis identified seven bacterial species positively correlated with n-butyrate levels; the major n-butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was particularly underrepresented in CD patients, but not in UC patients.
31521614In UC patients, there were inverse correlations between mucin O-glycan levels and the production of SCFAs, such as n-butyrate, suggesting that mucin O-glycans serve as an endogenous fermentation substrate for n-butyrate production.
31556210METHODS AND RESULTS: Constipation causes a significantly reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and a higher level of iso-butyrate.
31556210Desulfovibrionaceae is identified to be an important endotoxin producer in constipated patients, and a butyrate-enriched SCFAs profile achieved by dietary fiber supplement accelerates gastrointestinal transit and increases the thickness of the mucosal layer, possibly through triggering the secretion of colonic hormones and enhancing the expression of tight junction proteins for maintaining intestinal barrier integrity.
31556210More importantly, an interacting regulatory mechanism among SCFAs, in particular butyrate and propionate, may be involved in signaling between the microbiome and host cells in the colon.
31569909METHODS: A single factor experiment was used to investigate the effects of prebiotics (inulin, stachyose, isomaltooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides), inorganic salts (Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, CH3COONa and C6H14N2O7) and amino acids (arginine, leucine, serine, lysine, alanine and glutamic acid) on the activity of cell envelope proteinases (CEPs), specific activity, protein content, OD600 value and pH in MRS broth fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69.
31581791On d 14, caecal acetic acid, iso-butyric acid, iso-valeric acid, n-valeric acid and total SCFA concentrations were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.
31616028Inulin-rich foods exert a prebiotic effect, as this polysaccharide is able to enhance beneficial colon microbiota populations, giving rise to the in situ production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionic and butyric acids.
31616396The broilers were subjected to dietary treatments of combined probiotics (Animal bifidobacterium: 4 × 108 cfu/kg; Lactobacillus plantarum: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Enterococcus faecalis: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Clostridium butyrate: 2 × 108 cfu/kg, PB) and guar gum (1 g/kg, GG), respectively.
31616396In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) up-regulated the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, mainly via the phospho - extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and phospho-p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways.
31618992However, while HAMS increased fecal butyrate in both groups of children, HAMSA increased butyrate in healthy but not stunted children.
31650841Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides such as α-glucan, levan, and inulin, which are promising for applications in food systems because of their prebiotic properties.
31659687In this study, we investigated the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which are metabolites fermented by gut microbiota, on the growth of Enterococci.
31662964Extraction and Characterization of Inulin-Type Fructans from Artichoke Wastes and Their Effect on the Growth of Intestinal Bacteria Associated with Health.
31662964Globe artichoke is an intriguing source of indigestible sugar polymers such as inulin-type fructans.
31662964The inulin-type fructans content both from bracts and stems was measured using an enzymatic fructanase-based assay, while its average degree of polymerization (DP) was determined by HPLC-RID analysis.
31662964Results show that this method provides artichoke extracts with an inulin-type fructans content of 70% with an average DP between 32 and 42 both in bracts and in stems.
31662964Besides, we considered the possibility to industrialize the process developing a simpler method for the production of inulin-type fructans from the artichoke wastes so that the artichoke inulin preparation could be suitable for its use in synbiotic formulations in combination with different probiotics for further studies including in vivo trials.
31678187Furthermore, the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut were also increased (P<0.
31686768Fecal SCFAs concentrations did not differ between groups, while the relative abundance of Roseburia hominis, a major butyrate producer, was significantly increased in the prebiotic group (P = 0.
31699173Nowadays, inulin-type fructans are used as prebiotics in the feed of piglets to manipulate gut ecology for health purposes.
31699173The fermentation kinetics, SCFA and microbiota profiles in the fermentation broth were assessed as indicators of prebiotic activity and compared with the ones of inulin.
31699173Chicory root displayed a rapid and extensive fermentation and induced the second highest butyrate ratio after inulin.
31700622Results of metabolic analysis reveal that HS lowers the concentrations of propionate, butyrate, total SCFA, succinate, fumarate, malate, lactate, aspartate, ethanolamine, β-alanine and niacin, whereas that of fructose and azelaic acid are higher in HS group.
31724526The gut microbiota can be influenced by the intake of dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, such as inulin-type fructans.
31724526The fermentation of cellulose and inulin hydrolysates of six different inulin-rich and inulin-poor vegetables of both groups was analysed in vitro on faecal inocula.
31724526The results showed that the microbiota from obese patients who received a fructan-rich diet for 3 weeks produces more gas and total SCFA compared with the microbiota taken from the same individuals before the treatment.
31724526Obese individuals fed with a low-fructan diet produce less gas and less SCFA compared with the treated group.
31734274Adipose-specific LSD1 knockout mice (LSD1 aKO) were generated by crossing LSD1-lox/lox with adiponectin-cre mice and sodium butyrate and dietary fiber inulin was administrated through oral-gavage.
31734274Notably, our results showed that butyrate directly increased the expression of LSD1 and UCP1 as well as butyrate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and catabolic enzyme acyl-CoA medium-chain synthetase 3 (ACSM3) in ex vivo cultured adipocytes.
31734274Moreover, after gavaging HFD-fed mice with the dietary fiber inulin, a substrate of microbial fermentation that rapidly produces butyrate, thermogenesis in both BAT and scWAT was increased, and DIO was decreased; however, these beneficial metabolic effects were blocked in LSD1 aKO mice.
31744168Then, 10-14 days after inulin intake, cecal content and feces were collected, and cecal pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured.
31744168Inulin feeding in the morning rather than the evening decreased the cecal pH, increased SCFAs, and changed the microbiome composition.
31749800These changes in Treg population associated first with the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum followed by increasing colonization with butyrate producing bacteria.
31766706Of the six GABA-positive LAB strains-one Lactobacillus futsaii, two Lactobacillus namurensis, and three Lactobacillus plantarum strains-two Lactobacillus plantarum strains produced high amounts of GABA (20.
31779730Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and SCFA that are derived from gut bacteria, for example, propionate and butyrate.
31805963Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials.
31805963BACKGROUND: Currently, many clinical trials have shown that inulin-type fructans (ITF) supplementation is associated with glycemic control; nevertheless, the results are inconclusive.
31809283On the other hand, SCFAs, such as acetate and butyrate, have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on myeloid and intestinal epithelial cells.
31821320Beneficial short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic and butyric acid, were also significantly increased in oregano powder supplemented cultures.
31830621Inulin alleviates inflammation of alcoholic liver disease via SCFAs-inducing suppression of M1 and facilitation of M2 macrophages in mice.
31830621CONCLUSION: In ALD, inulin ameliorates the inflammation via SCFAs-inducing suppression of M1 and facilitation of M2 Mψ, which may potentially contribute to the control of the disease.
31836471Butyrate is an SCFA produced by the gut microbiota.
31845185The SCFA butyrate was significantly reduced at baseline in the middle-aged OVX+E females, while circulating endotoxin LPS were elevated in this group after stroke, suggesting that gut metabolites were differently affected by estrogen treatment in the two age groups.
31894986This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism.
31905970For example, dietary fiber is fermented by intestinal bacteria, thereby producing the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which affect each component of the kidney-gut-muscle axis.
31915895AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been linked to altered gut microbiota and more specifically to a shortage of intestinal production of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, which may play key roles in maintaining intestinal epithelial integrity and in human and gut microbial metabolism.
31915895Faecal butyrate and propionate levels were significantly affected by oral butyrate supplementation and butyrate treatment was safe.
31932631The gut microbiota participates in the control of energy homeostasis partly through fermentation of dietary fibers hence producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which in turn promote the secretion of the incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) by binding to the SCFA receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 on enteroendocrine L-cells.
31932631In vitro FXR activation inhibited GLP-1 secretion in response to SCFAs and FFAR2 synthetic ligands, mainly by decreasing FFAR2 expression and downstream Gαq-signaling.
31932631FXR KO mice displayed elevated colonic FFAR2 mRNA levels and increased plasma GLP-1 levels upon local supply of SCFAs with prebiotic supplementation.
31932631Our results demonstrate that FXR activation decreases L-cell GLP-1 secretion in response to inulin-derived SCFA by reducing FFAR2 expression and signaling.
31952249The probiotic component of the synbiotic used in the study contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum and the prebiotic component was a galactooligosaccharide mixture.
31960952Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in IBS patients.
31960952We aimed to investigate the effects of a novel formulation of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 with vitamin B6 (LBB) on symptoms, intestinal permeability, cultivable bacteria and metabolome in IBS subjects.
31985122SCFAs might function not only as nutrients but also as signalling molecules by activating free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in the ruminal epithelium and thus influence pHi regulation.
31985122We hypothesize that modulation of cAMP levels by butyrate is accomplished by FFAR2 activation, regulating NHE activity for pHi homoeostasis at least in part.
32019174Cultures were supplemented with different inulin-type fructans (1-kestose, Actilight, P95, Synergy1 and Inulin) and a galactooligosaccharide.
32038241Furthermore, results showed that EHLJ7 could enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production especially butyric acid, suggesting that EHLJ7 could improve the metabolic disorder of intestinal flora to a certain extent.
32041173Burdock (Arctium lappa) root contains a high concentration of inulin/fructan (approximately 50%) and is a very popular vegetable in Japan.
32053988Concentrations of propionate, butyrate and other SCFAs did not change throughout the study.
32054171AID of gross energy (GE), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and hemicellulose, the hindgut disappearance and ATTD of dietary fiber components, the lactate and propionate concentrations in ileal digesta and the butyrate, valerate and total SCFA concentrations in feces.
32055194SCFA, acetic acid, and butyric acid) compared to the other groups.
32066357The SCFAs most abundantly generated by gastrointestinal microbiota are acetate, butyrate and propionate, which are reported to have physiological effects on the health of the host.
32067021Overall, these results suggested that SCFAs could reduce lipogenesis, and enhance lipolysis in different tissues of pigs via regulating related hormones and genes, which would further illustrate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SCFAs on appetite and body weight control.
32073295Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota.
32073295Molecular studies confirmed the selective bifidogenic effect of fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in human intervention studies.
32088749The relative abundance and diversity of lactobacilli present in feces of infants fed with breastmilk and fructooligosaccharide-galactooligosaccharide (FOS-GOS)-, and inulin-galactooligosaccharide (inulin-GOS)-supplemented infant formulae and combination of both were compared.
32098253In this work, we identified the lactic acid bacteria present in these cheeses using MALDI-TOF MS and pheS gene analyses, which showed they belong to the species Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
32102422Acetate showed more efficiency in enhancing metabolism and inhibiting ROS, while butyrate had less effect but was stronger in inhibiting the SCFA receptor GPR41 and NO generation.
32109839Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus lactis, which was accompanied by increased fecal butyric acid production.
32114169The prebiotic properties of MP induced a higher growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 than inulin and increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid more than inulin in vitro.
32114228The bacterial composition was modified dramatically in LBW group in association with an increase in propionate, butyrate and Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the ileal digesta.
32114228LBW impaired intestine results in damaged Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP2) and Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions, and the inhibition of Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) expressions, causing inefficient SCFAs absorption.
32121422The G-protein coupled receptor-43 (GPR43/ FFAR2) agonist but not the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, mimicked the butyrate effects.
32130898In the context of influenza infection, acetate supplementation reduces, in a free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2)-dependent manner, local and systemic bacterial loads.
32130898Lastly, pharmacological activation of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 during influenza reduces bacterial superinfection.
32131652After 48-h fermentation, SCFA molar ratio was 77:11:12 for acetic, propionic and butyric acid.
32148669Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum IS 10506 supplementation increase SCFA of women with functional constipation.
32153609Key enzymes involved in inulin biosynthesis are well known.
32153609We quantified inulin and starch levels, and qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of critical genes accounting for inulin biosynthesis.
32153609The expression of ESTs for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), the two critical genes for fructans polymerization, resulted to be temporarily synchronized and mirror the progress of inulin accumulation and stretching.
32160858SCFA butyric acid (mean difference = 0.
32198169Two different doses of inulin-type fructans (Synergy1) were later added (equivalent to 10 g per day in vivo and 15 g per day) to assess whether this influenced protein fermentation.
32202158Non-digestible carbohydrate (NDC) is a fiber that can be fermented into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in gut, represented by resistant starch (RS) and inulin.
32202158The meta-analysis showed the total SCFAs and butyrate concentrations (P = 0.
32208465Quantification of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels before and after infection revealed increased concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate in mice with delayed colonization.
32208465In vivo supplementation of susceptible, antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice with butyrate led to the same level of protection, notably only when cecal butyrate concentration reached a concentration higher than 50 nmol/mg indicating a critical threshold for protection.
32208927XOS showed a similar SCFA production per gram of substrate as the control medium, including butyrate, which is considered to be important for gut health.
32209026Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are important modulators of the inflammatory state in diseases such as asthma.
32209026We questioned whether the Gi-coupled FFAR2 or FFAR3 is expressed in human ASM, whether they modulate cAMP and [Ca2+]i, and whether SCFAs modulate human ASM tone.
32219347However, a growing body of study has implied that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: namely propionate, malonate, butyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (2-HIBA), β-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, succinate, and glutarate) and their cognate acylations (propionylation, malonylation, butyrylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, β-hydroxybutyrylation, crotonylation, succinylation, and glutarylation) participate in CVDs.
32247451The restoration of total SCFAs, especially propionate and butyrate might be an important strategy for mitigating HFD induced metabolic disorders.
32258492Fermentation was performed using lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 and inulin as a source of soluble fiber.
32278554The mRNA expression of genes involved in the SCFA transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 4, and Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1 were significantly elevated with 20 mM SCFA compared with untreated controls.
32296608Background: Dietary fiber, including inulin, promotes health via fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from the fiber by gut microbiota.
32296608Most of the commercial inulin is extracted from plant sources such as chicory roots, but it can also be enzymatically synthesized from sucrose using inulin producing enzymes.
32296608Studies conducted on rodents fed with a cafeteria diet have suggested that while increasing plasma propionic acid, synthetic inulin modulates glucose and lipid metabolism in the same manner as natural inulin.
32296608Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a synthetic inulin, Fuji FF, on energy metabolism, fecal SCFA production, and microbiota profiles in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.
32297948Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that fecal SCFA concentrations may associated with PD-1i efficacy; thus, SCFAs may be the link between the gut microbiota and PD-1i efficacy.
32302970This study aimed to assess the effects of three major SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on NASH phenotype in mice.
32306803This study aimed at comparing how a low- and high-dose of a multi-strain probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, Lactobacillus casei R0215, Pediococcus acidilactici R1001, Bifidobacterium breve R0070, Bifidobacterium longum ssp.
32320024Effect of chicory inulin-type fructan-containing snack bars on the human gut microbiota in low dietary fiber consumers in a randomized crossover trial.
32320024OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches.
32329478Study of the alleviation effects of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and inulin on mice with colitis.
32331660The highest butyric acid production was on AF and OF, while the molar ratio of SCFAS on Hb was 63:18:18 for acetic, propionic and butyric acid, respectively.
32344758The major end-products of dietary fiber fermentation by gut microbiota are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which have been shown to modulate host metabolism via effects on metabolic pathways at different tissue sites.
32345388In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation.
32354259Based on data from microbial sequencing and metabolomics analysis demonstrating that young fecal transplants contained much higher SCFA levels and related bacterial strains, we selected 4 SCFA-producers (Bifidobacterium longum, Clostridium symbiosum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Lactobacillus fermentum) for transplantation.
32354259These SCFA-producers alleviated poststroke neurological deficits and inflammation, and elevated gut, brain and plasma SCFA concentrations in aged stroke mice.
32356856Mice treated with MP exhibited increased levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, especially Lachnospiraceae, compared to normal mice, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes and SCFA-producing bacteria, especially Ruminococcaceae, compared to the CP-treated mice.
32372967Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, reduce endothelial activation induced by proinflammatory mediators, at least in part, by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs): GPR41 and GPR43.
32372967The beneficial effects of butyrate were inhibited by the GPR41 receptor antagonist, β-hydroxybutyrate, and by the GPR43 receptor antagonist, GLPG0794.
32372967Butyrate inhibited the down-regulation of GPR41 and GPR43 induced by AngII, being without effect acetate and propionate.
32416305In this way, the Lactobacillus plantarum, cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and inulin incorporated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based probiotic nanocomposite film was prepared.
32430495We found lower circulating concentrations of the microbe-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate in day 100 plasma samples from patients who developed cGVHD, compared with those who remained free of this complication, in the initial case-control cohort of transplant patients and in a further cross-sectional cohort from an independent transplant center.
32431262Nutrition of the epithelium itself is achieved by catabolism of the SCFA, especially butyrate.
32431262Catabolism of SCFA also helps to maintain a concentration gradient across the epithelium to ensure efficient SCFA uptake and stability of the epithelial osmolarity.
32440730Prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans on faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
32440730The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans on the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
32440730METHODS: The study was a placebo controlled crossover study, where 25 patients (15 men) aged 41-71 years consumed 16 g of inulin-type fructans (a mixture of oligofructose and inulin) and 16-g placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks in randomised order.
32440730RESULTS: Treatment with inulin-type fructans induced moderate changes in the faecal microbiota composition (1.
32440730CONCLUSION: Six weeks supplementation with inulin-type fructans had a significant bifidogenic effect and induced increased concentrations of faecal SCFA, without changing faecal microbial diversity.
32440730Our findings suggest a moderate potential of inulin-type fructans to improve gut microbiota composition and to increase microbial fermentation in type 2 diabetes.
32450182Among the six species assessed, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were generally insensitive to induction.
32459518COX-2, iNOS, and c-Myc expression; elevated levels of the selected gut bacteria and SCFAs especially butyrate, all of which add up to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, balanced gut biota, and ultimately anticancer effects.
32481649LAB isolates were grouped in seven different clusters which were assigned to Lactobacillus casei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella paramesenteroides, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactococcus garvieae.
32482126SCFA, in particular butyrate, were increased in oat FS (2.
32502642Meanwhile SCFAs-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a were also significantly upregulated.
32509596Although significant differences in SCFA levels were not detected between NDD patients and the Control group, a positive correlation was noted between number of rDNA amplicons obtained with universal primers and level of propionic acid, as well as a trend for levels of total SCFAs and butyric acid in the Control group.
32537469MFXD treatment also increased SCFA content, including that of acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
32554841The DAI scores of mice were significantly reduced following usage of four Lactobacillus strains included: Lactobacillus plantarum 03 and 06, Lactobacillus brevis 02 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 01.
32559598Combined enrichment with both inulin and milk mineral showed no cumulative effect on SCFA formation and seemed to oppose the milk mineral-induced reduction of nitroso compound formation.
32564366Further tests revealed that the enrichment of SCFA producers was associated with a decrease in the oxidative stress of cecum content caused by black tea, and related to increased luminal butyric acid levels and enhanced intestinal barrier function.
32580157Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolites produced from the fermentation of dietary fibre by intestinal microbiota.
32580613Herein, we aim to investigate the role of microbe-derived butyrate, FFAR2 (free fatty acid receptor 2), and FFAR3 (free fatty acid receptor 3) in mitigating neointimal hyperplasia development in remodeling murine arteries after injury.
32580613Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice treated with oral vancomycin before unilateral femoral wire injury to deplete gut microbiota had significantly diminished serum and stool butyrate and more neointimal hyperplasia development after arterial injury, which was reversed by concomitant butyrate supplementation.
32580613Deficiency of FFAR3 but not FFAR2, both receptors for butyrate, exacerbated neointimal hyperplasia development after injury.
32580613Conclusions Our results support a protective role for butyrate and FFAR3 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury and delineate activation of the butyrate-FFAR3 pathway as a valuable strategy for the prevention and treatment of neointimal hyperplasia.
32582042We aimed to explore the effects of PDCoV infection on chick gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production, and inflammatory cytokine expression in chicks, and also to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and SCFAs or inflammatory cytokine expression of the PDCoV-infected chicks.
32582042The production of SCFAs in the cecum of PDCoV HNZK-02-infected chicks, including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, decreased in all cases.
32601955In this placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, we have investigated the effect of multi-strain probiotic (Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus UBLR58, Bifidobacterium lactis UBBLa70, Lactobacillus plantarum UBLP40 (each of 2 billion CFU); Bifidobacterium breve UBBr01, Bifidobacterium infantis UBBI01 (each of 1 billion CFU)) capsule with glutamine (250 mg) on students facing examination stress.
32610452Then, a recently developed short-term (48 h) colonic incubation strategy was applied and revealed that cRG-I fermentation increased levels of health-promoting short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; mainly acetate and propionate) and lactate comparable but not identical to the reference prebiotic inulin.
32623619Moreover, the gut microbiota is responsible for the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) like acetate, propionate and butyrate.
32623619The SCFAs, acetate, butyrate, and propionate have been reported to affect on metabolic activities at the molecular level.
32623619Acetate affects the metabolic pathway through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2/GPR43) while butyrate and propionate transactivate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorsγ (PPARγ/NR1C3) and regulate the PPARγ target gene Angptl4 in colonic cells of the gut.
32630276The concentration of SCFAs increased over time and it was significantly higher for both legumes than in inulin (positive control) and potato:beef meal.
32663059In this study, we used Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 (Lp082) as a model probiotic to examine the impact of the continuous or pulsed supplementation of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the gut microbiome stability in mice using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.
32677055The addition of banana powder increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, with the production of acetate being higher than that of propionate and butyrate.
32679183CONCLUSION: These results provide solid evidence that fibre in the maternal diet regulates neurocognitive functions in offspring through altering SCFA levels and supports the use of SCFA-dependent perinatal intervention for improving offspring health in the clinic.
32679320High yield production of levan-type fructans by Gluconobacter japonicus LMG 1417.
32679320Levan, a β-2,6-glycosidic linked fructan, is a promising alternative for the inulin dominated fructan market.
32679320Although levan is already used in some cosmetic products, the commercial availability of the fructan is still limited.
32679320Here we show that Gluconobacter japonicus LMG 1417 is a potent levan-forming organism and a promising platform for the industrial production of levan.
32687341FruA hydrolyzed levan or inulin; expression of fruA was not subject to catabolite repression.
32688908In fully hydrated leaf tissue, the fructan pool was mainly composed of the low molecular weight fructans of the inulin and neokestose series with higher concentrations towards the leaf base.
32688908The negative correlation between fructan and sucrose content, which indicates an inter-conversion depending on tissue water content, suggests that, in this species, fructans serve as a carbohydrate pool, while sucrose stabilises the meristem during extreme water deficit.
32689425FEH expression analysis in petals correlates well with 1-FEH activity and inulin degradation patterns in vivo, suggesting that this enzyme fulfils an important role during flower opening.
32694821We discuss the effects of three primary SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, and we consider the potential mechanisms involved.
32696223Moreover, in the cell culture models, butyrate treatment significantly increased autophagy in HT29 cells under normal conditions, whereas butyrate had little effect on autophagy after HIF-1α ablation.
32707281Interestingly, the productions of SCFAs (mainly acetate and butyrate) in the cecal and colonic contents were significantly promoted.
32727210Effect of inulin-type fructans and galactooligosaccharides on cultures of Lactobacillus strains isolated in Algeria from camel's milk and human colostrum.
32727210We also tested the capacity of growth and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively, when these bacteria were incubated anaerobically in the presence of inulin, fructooligosaccharides, or galactooligosaccharides as the main carbon sources.
32727210The strains were able to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and to grow in inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides.
32737882In addition, we also observed that the abundances of certain specific bacteria (Anaerovibrio and Erysipelatoclostridium) were closely related to the SCFAs production (propionate and butyrate) at different fermentation times.
32741066This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with wheat bran fibre, inulin and their combination on growth performance, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in caecum and colon and liver lipid metabolism in growing pigs.
32741066The pigs were fed a control diet (CON), a diet containing 2% wheat bran fibre (WB), a diet containing 2% inulin (IN), and a diet containing both of 1% wheat bran fibre and 1% inulin (MIX), respectively.
32741066In this study, these data indicated that the combined supplementation of wheat bran fibre and inulin decreased the SCFAs concentrations in the colon, enhanced the genes FAS and HNF-4α mRNA expression in liver and induced liver lipid accumulation in growing pigs.
32752178Also, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) of the LG were significantly higher than the PG, which might be a result of a modulation of the associated microbiota.
32811176This study aimed to determine the impact of Lactobacillus plantarum PC170 concurrent with antibiotic treatment and/or during the recovery phase after antibiotic treatment on the body weight, faecal bacterial composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration, and splenic cytokine mRNA expression of mice.
32811176Orally administrated ceftriaxone quantitatively and significantly decreased body weight, faecal total bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and faecal SCFAs concentration.
32813896Effects of the prebiotic inulin-type fructans on post-antibiotic reconstitution of the gut microbiome.
32813896AIMS: Interventions using prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are widely prescribed to modulate the gut microbiota composition and activity to promote health.
32816830This diet reduces the intake of fermentable fibres, leading to changes of the gut microbiota and insufficient fermentation in the large bowel, resulting in reduced production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, which has unfavourable implications for gut health, sleep and mental health.
32824325Our data are discussed in view of the present theories on sugar signaling and fructan-based immunity, identifying areas for future research and highlighting the potential use of fructans in apple scab management in orchards.
32831998We found that exogenous SCFAs, especially butyrate, improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; prevented the formation of proteinuria and an increase in serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and cystatin C; inhibited mesangial matrix accumulation and renal fibrosis; and blocked NF-κB activation in mice.
32831998Specifically, the beneficial effects of SCFAs were significantly facilitated by the overexpression GPR43 or imitated by a GPR43 agonist but were inhibited by siRNA-GPR43 in GMCs.
32850999Compared with SCFA concentrations typical for control cows (60 mM acetate, 30 mM propionate, and 20 mM butyrate), gene and protein expression of SLC5A8 in rumen epithelium was lower at elevated SCFA concentrations typical for SARA cows (90 mM acetate, 40 mM propionate, and 30 mM butyrate), specifically for elevated concentrations of propionate or butyrate in contrast to elevated concentrations of acetate increased gene and protein expression of SLC5A8 in rumen epithelium.
32856645An increase in total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic acid and butyric acid, was also observed by FOS supplementation.
32865002Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) and have many potential tissue and SCFA specific actions, from providing fuel for colonic cells to appetite regulation.
32865002After 24-hour fermentation, galacto-oligosaccharide ranked highest for butyrate and total SCFA production and second for acetate production.
32865002This review demonstrates that choosing a substrate to selectively enhance a specific SCFA is difficult, and the molar proportion of each SCFA produced by individual substrates may be misleading.
32865024The SCFA acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced from the microbial fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates and appear to be key mediators of the beneficial effects elicited by the gut microbiome.
32865024In this review an expert group by ILSI Europe's Prebiotics Task Force discussed the current scientific knowledge on SCFA to consider the relationship between SCFA and gut and metabolic health with a particular focus on human evidence.
32865024Overall, the available mechanistic data and limited human data on the metabolic consequences of elevated gut-derived SCFA production strongly suggest that increasing SCFA production could be a valuable strategy in the preventing gastro-intestinal dysfunction, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
32865024Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for well controlled longer term human SCFA intervention studies, including measurement of SCFA fluxes and kinetics, the heterogeneity in response based on metabolic phenotype, the type of dietary fibre and fermentation site in fibre intervention studies and the control for factors that could shape the microbiome like diet, physical activity and use of medication.
32882837In the present study, we investigated whether tributyrin, a prodrug of the SCFA butyrate, could improve metabolic and inflammatory profiles in diet-induced obese mice.
32882837Our results indicate that exogenous targeting of SCFA butyrate attenuates metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction, highlighting a potentially novel approach to tackle obesity.
32887215Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are mainly produced by anaerobic fermentation of gut microbes.
32887215In recent years, many studies have shown that SCFAs demonstrate physiologically beneficial effects, and the signalling pathways related to SCFA production, absorption, metabolism, and intestinal effects have been discovered.
32900799While prebiotic selection has strongly focused on maximizing the production of SCFAs, less attention has been paid to gases, a by-product of SCFA production that also has physiological effects on the human body.
32900799Microbial community composition also impacted results: methane production was dependent on the presence of Methanobacteria, while interindividual differences in H2 production during inulin degradation were driven by a Lachnospiraceae taxon.
32903327Our results demonstrate that human milk contains detectable levels of the SCFAs acetate, butyrate, and formate.
32929853Molecular characterization of free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 in the domestic cat.
32929853FFAR2 and FFAR3 mediate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as signalling molecules.
32929853The inhibition of intracellular cAMP concentrations was observed in cells transfected with cat FFAR2 or FFAR3 and treated with SCFAs.
32929853Split luciferase assay (NanoLuc Binary Technology; NanoBiT) for FFAR2 or FFAR3 and Arrestin-3/β-arrestin-2 revealed acetate-/propionate-induced recruitment to cat FFAR2 or FFAR3 in CHO-K1 cells.
32936397The abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria was significantly reduced, and the key SCFA-producing enzymes were also significantly reduced.
32936397The ability of propionate and butyrate to inhibit breast cancer cell lines in vitro suggests that the relevant SCFA receptor may be a new target for the treatment of premenopausal breast cancer.
32942686DF detailing total, soluble DF, insoluble DF and prebiotic (oligo)saccharides (inulin-type fructans, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides) in food products consumed in Europe has been established.
How are my concepts related to BioSets? (back to top)

The concepts in your Start Set can also be connected to predefined sets of terms of your interest (BioSets) that describe a certain disease, state or process. These BioSet typically consists of around 50 terms. BioSets can be added upon your request. The link in the table brings you to the page on the TenWise Literature overview page that shows the abstracts in which the relation between the two concepts are described.

Your set BioSet member Hits Score
Lactobacillus plantarum Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 2 7
Bifidobacterium longum Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 5 61
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 12 83
butyrate Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 2 2
fructan Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 1 8
inulin Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 7
galactooligosaccharide Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 109
TLR signalling inflammatory bowel disease 31 7
TLR signalling colitis 48 7
TLR signalling colorectal carcinoma 1 1
TLR signalling diarrhea 10 1
TLR signalling cancer 221 1
TLR signalling gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
TLR signalling ulcerative colitis 10 2
TLR signalling Crohn's disease 14 3
TLR signalling colorectal cancer 15 1
TLR signalling irritable bowel syndrome 1 1
TLR signalling Vomiting 1 0
TLR signalling Celiac disease 2 1
TLR signalling Allergy 18 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus inflammatory bowel disease 38 9
Lactobacillus rhamnosus colitis 80 12
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ileitis 1 5
Lactobacillus rhamnosus colorectal carcinoma 1 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus lactose intolerance 6 43
Lactobacillus rhamnosus diarrhea 190 19
Lactobacillus rhamnosus cancer 82 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus gastroesophageal reflux disease 2 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ulcerative colitis 18 5
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Crohn's disease 16 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus colorectal cancer 15 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus irritable bowel syndrome 36 26
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Vomiting 18 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Nausea 9 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Constipation 28 11
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Abdominal pain 27 4
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Celiac disease 4 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Allergy 70 10
Lactobacillus rhamnosus serotonin metabolism 1 6
Lactobacillus plantarum Abdominal pain 15 1
Bifidobacterium longum Abdominal pain 14 4
butyrate Abdominal pain 20 0
fructan Abdominal pain 14 3
inulin Abdominal pain 12 1
short-chain-fatty-acid Abdominal pain 9 1
galactooligosaccharide Abdominal pain 3 3
SLC22A6 cancer 10 1
Lactobacillus plantarum irritable bowel syndrome 30 10
Bifidobacterium longum irritable bowel syndrome 24 31
butyrate irritable bowel syndrome 58 5
fructan irritable bowel syndrome 41 36
inulin irritable bowel syndrome 22 5
short-chain-fatty-acid irritable bowel syndrome 35 17
galactooligosaccharide irritable bowel syndrome 6 23
butyrate bowel dysfunction 2 2
short-chain-fatty-acid bowel dysfunction 1 5
Lactobacillus plantarum inflammatory bowel disease 45 5
Lactobacillus plantarum immunoglobulin alpha deficiency 1 3
Lactobacillus plantarum colitis 84 6
Lactobacillus plantarum colorectal carcinoma 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum lactose intolerance 1 3
Lactobacillus plantarum diarrhea 71 3
Lactobacillus plantarum cancer 90 0
Lactobacillus plantarum gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum ulcerative colitis 21 3
Lactobacillus plantarum Crohn's disease 10 1
Lactobacillus plantarum colorectal cancer 10 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Vomiting 5 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Nausea 5 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Constipation 15 3
Lactobacillus plantarum Celiac disease 4 2
Lactobacillus plantarum Allergy 21 1
Bifidobacterium longum inflammatory bowel disease 23 9
Bifidobacterium longum colitis 52 14
Bifidobacterium longum lactose intolerance 3 38
Bifidobacterium longum diarrhea 51 9
Bifidobacterium longum cancer 61 1
Bifidobacterium longum wheat allergy 1 46
Bifidobacterium longum ulcerative colitis 23 10
Bifidobacterium longum Crohn's disease 4 2
Bifidobacterium longum colorectal cancer 8 1
Bifidobacterium longum Vomiting 9 2
Bifidobacterium longum Nausea 5 1
Bifidobacterium longum Constipation 20 14
Bifidobacterium longum Celiac disease 12 17
Bifidobacterium longum Allergy 30 8
Bifidobacterium longum serotonin metabolism 1 11
FFAR2 Constipation 1 4
butyrate Constipation 37 2
fructan Constipation 13 6
inulin Constipation 41 5
short-chain-fatty-acid Constipation 36 10
galactooligosaccharide Constipation 6 13
butyrate Nausea 19 0
fructan Nausea 2 0
inulin Nausea 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Nausea 2 0
butyrate Vomiting 22 0
fructan Vomiting 2 0
inulin Vomiting 7 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Vomiting 3 0
galactooligosaccharide Vomiting 3 2
FFAR2 Crohn's disease 1 2
butyrate Crohn's disease 100 2
fructan Crohn's disease 8 2
inulin Crohn's disease 19 1
short-chain-fatty-acid Crohn's disease 44 6
butyrate colorectal carcinoma 45 4
short-chain-fatty-acid colorectal carcinoma 1 0
FFAR2 cancer 21 1
butyrate cancer 1646 1
fructan cancer 61 0
inulin cancer 185 0
short-chain-fatty-acid cancer 289 1
galactooligosaccharide cancer 7 0
butyrate ileitis 4 2
inulin ileitis 1 1
short-chain-fatty-acid ileitis 3 9
FFAR2 colitis 8 12
butyrate colitis 422 7
fructan colitis 15 3
inulin colitis 49 2
short-chain-fatty-acid colitis 193 19
galactooligosaccharide colitis 4 3
FFAR2 gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 4
butyrate gastroesophageal reflux disease 5 0
fructan gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 1
inulin gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid gastroesophageal reflux disease 3 1
FFAR2 ulcerative colitis 1 3
butyrate ulcerative colitis 251 7
fructan ulcerative colitis 7 2
inulin ulcerative colitis 24 2
short-chain-fatty-acid ulcerative colitis 88 15
galactooligosaccharide ulcerative colitis 1 1
short-chain-fatty-acid serotonin metabolism 2 8
FFAR2 inflammatory bowel disease 4 9
FFAR2 diarrhea 1 1
FFAR2 colorectal cancer 5 5
FFAR2 Allergy 1 2
fructan inflammatory bowel disease 12 3
fructan lactose intolerance 1 9
fructan diarrhea 24 3
fructan wheat allergy 6 186
fructan colorectal cancer 7 1
fructan Celiac disease 9 8
fructan Allergy 8 1
butyrate diarrhea 191 2
inulin diarrhea 58 2
short-chain-fatty-acid diarrhea 118 8
galactooligosaccharide diarrhea 13 7
butyrate Celiac disease 16 1
inulin Celiac disease 10 2
short-chain-fatty-acid Celiac disease 11 6
butyrate inflammatory bowel disease 186 5
inulin inflammatory bowel disease 28 2
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 94 15
galactooligosaccharide inflammatory bowel disease 1 1
galactooligosaccharide lactose intolerance 2 75
galactooligosaccharide Allergy 8 6
short-chain-fatty-acid lactose intolerance 4 19
short-chain-fatty-acid colorectal cancer 111 7
short-chain-fatty-acid Allergy 18 2
butyrate colorectal cancer 358 4
inulin colorectal cancer 30 1
butyrate Allergy 59 1
inulin Allergy 14 1
butyrate lactose intolerance 1 1
inulin lactose intolerance 5 11
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
FFAR2 triglyceride 10 8
TLR signalling triglyceride 3 0
Lactobacillus plantarum triglyceride 94 3
Bifidobacterium longum triglyceride 17 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus triglyceride 31 2
butyrate triglyceride 383 3
fructan triglyceride 44 4
inulin triglyceride 117 3
short-chain-fatty-acid triglyceride 124 6
galactooligosaccharide triglyceride 3 1
TLR signalling hypertension 8 0
TLR signalling prediabetes syndrome 2 3
TLR signalling type 2 diabetes mellitus 17 1
TLR signalling obesity 30 1
TLR signalling Insulin resistance 18 2
TLR signalling Stroke 18 1
TLR signalling Congestive heart failure 8 0
TLR signalling Hypercholesterolemia 3 1
TLR signalling Type I diabetes mellitus 14 2
TLR signalling glucose 25 0
TLR signalling cholesterol 14 1
TLR signalling hemoglobin 4 0
FFAR2 Type I diabetes mellitus 1 2
Lactobacillus plantarum Type I diabetes mellitus 2 0
Bifidobacterium longum Type I diabetes mellitus 3 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Type I diabetes mellitus 4 1
butyrate Type I diabetes mellitus 56 1
fructan Type I diabetes mellitus 2 0
inulin Type I diabetes mellitus 58 3
short-chain-fatty-acid Type I diabetes mellitus 21 2
galactooligosaccharide Type I diabetes mellitus 1 1
SLC22A6 hypertension 2 1
Lactobacillus plantarum hypertension 18 0
Bifidobacterium longum hypertension 1 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus hypertension 3 0
butyrate hypertension 82 0
fructan hypertension 2 0
inulin hypertension 277 2
short-chain-fatty-acid hypertension 37 1
SLC22A6 Hypercholesterolemia 1 8
Lactobacillus plantarum Hypercholesterolemia 39 6
Bifidobacterium longum Hypercholesterolemia 6 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Hypercholesterolemia 7 2
butyrate Hypercholesterolemia 17 1
fructan Hypercholesterolemia 3 1
inulin Hypercholesterolemia 30 3
short-chain-fatty-acid Hypercholesterolemia 19 4
galactooligosaccharide Hypercholesterolemia 1 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus glucose intolerance 3 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus type 2 diabetes mellitus 12 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus obesity 42 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Insulin resistance 13 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Congestive heart failure 3 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus carbohydrate metabolism 5 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus glucose 142 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus cholesterol 59 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus hemoglobin 7 1
SLC22A6 glucose 8 4
SLC22A6 cholesterol 2 2
FFAR2 cholesterol 11 4
inulin metabolism cholesterol 1 4
Lactobacillus plantarum cholesterol 169 3
Bifidobacterium longum cholesterol 30 2
butyrate cholesterol 363 2
fructan cholesterol 49 2
inulin cholesterol 231 3
short-chain-fatty-acid cholesterol 176 5
galactooligosaccharide cholesterol 17 4
Lactobacillus plantarum glucose intolerance 5 2
Lactobacillus plantarum type 2 diabetes mellitus 24 1
Lactobacillus plantarum obesity 84 2
Lactobacillus plantarum Insulin resistance 18 1
Lactobacillus plantarum Stroke 3 0
Lactobacillus plantarum carbohydrate metabolism 29 10
Lactobacillus plantarum glucose 430 4
Lactobacillus plantarum hemoglobin 9 0
Bifidobacterium longum type 2 diabetes mellitus 4 0
Bifidobacterium longum obesity 29 2
Bifidobacterium longum Insulin resistance 6 1
Bifidobacterium longum Stroke 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum carbohydrate metabolism 12 15
Bifidobacterium longum glucose 98 3
Bifidobacterium longum hemoglobin 3 0
butyrate hemoglobin 243 2
fructan hemoglobin 5 0
inulin hemoglobin 62 2
short-chain-fatty-acid hemoglobin 9 0
galactooligosaccharide hemoglobin 1 0
FFAR2 type 2 diabetes mellitus 26 19
butyrate type 2 diabetes mellitus 147 1
fructan type 2 diabetes mellitus 16 1
inulin type 2 diabetes mellitus 88 2
short-chain-fatty-acid type 2 diabetes mellitus 108 5
galactooligosaccharide type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 0
butyrate prediabetes syndrome 6 1
fructan prediabetes syndrome 1 2
inulin prediabetes syndrome 7 4
short-chain-fatty-acid prediabetes syndrome 1 1
FFAR2 carbohydrate metabolism 2 14
inulin metabolism carbohydrate metabolism 1 62
butyrate carbohydrate metabolism 74 6
fructan carbohydrate metabolism 45 38
inulin carbohydrate metabolism 13 3
short-chain-fatty-acid carbohydrate metabolism 24 11
galactooligosaccharide carbohydrate metabolism 2 7
inulin metabolism obesity 2 7
inulin metabolism Insulin resistance 1 11
inulin metabolism glucose 3 5
butyrate Congestive heart failure 17 0
inulin Congestive heart failure 37 1
short-chain-fatty-acid Congestive heart failure 5 0
FFAR2 glucose intolerance 3 29
FFAR2 obesity 51 21
FFAR2 Insulin resistance 21 26
FFAR2 glucose 56 11
fructan glucose intolerance 2 2
fructan obesity 48 2
fructan Insulin resistance 18 3
fructan Stroke 1 0
fructan glucose 361 9
butyrate glucose 1935 4
inulin glucose 858 5
short-chain-fatty-acid glucose 427 6
galactooligosaccharide glucose 69 7
butyrate obesity 328 2
inulin obesity 131 2
short-chain-fatty-acid obesity 297 8
galactooligosaccharide obesity 3 1
butyrate Insulin resistance 140 2
inulin Insulin resistance 51 2
short-chain-fatty-acid Insulin resistance 97 8
galactooligosaccharide Insulin resistance 1 1
butyrate Stroke 47 0
inulin Stroke 17 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Stroke 8 0
galactooligosaccharide glucose intolerance 2 10
short-chain-fatty-acid glucose intolerance 14 9
butyrate glucose intolerance 17 2
inulin glucose intolerance 7 2
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
butyrate Lewy bodies 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum autism spectrum disorder 2 1
Bifidobacterium longum autism spectrum disorder 1 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus autism spectrum disorder 1 1
butyrate autism spectrum disorder 15 1
short-chain-fatty-acid autism spectrum disorder 9 4
galactooligosaccharide autism spectrum disorder 1 3
TLR signalling Alzheimer's disease 15 1
TLR signalling Parkinson's disease 4 0
TLR signalling epilepsy 7 1
TLR signalling anxiety disorder 3 0
TLR signalling bipolar disorder 1 0
TLR signalling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5 2
TLR signalling schizophrenia 1 0
TLR signalling Neurodegeneration 8 1
TLR signalling Senile plaques 1 2
butyrate Huntington's disease 17 1
butyrate Addictive behavior 1 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Alzheimer's disease 2 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus dementia 2 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Parkinson's disease 1 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus anxiety disorder 19 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus schizophrenia 2 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus acute stress disorder 1 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Neurodegeneration 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Alzheimer's disease 7 0
Lactobacillus plantarum dementia 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Parkinson's disease 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum anxiety disorder 16 0
Lactobacillus plantarum amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum vascular dementia 1 1
Lactobacillus plantarum Neurodegeneration 5 0
Lactobacillus plantarum Transient ischemic attack 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum Alzheimer's disease 3 0
Bifidobacterium longum anxiety disorder 14 1
Bifidobacterium longum bipolar disorder 1 1
Bifidobacterium longum mood disorder 1 3
Bifidobacterium longum schizophrenia 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum Neurodegeneration 1 0
butyrate Lewy body dementia 1 0
butyrate epilepsy 136 1
inulin epilepsy 2 0
short-chain-fatty-acid epilepsy 1 0
butyrate anxiety disorder 114 1
fructan anxiety disorder 2 0
inulin anxiety disorder 4 0
short-chain-fatty-acid anxiety disorder 15 1
galactooligosaccharide anxiety disorder 6 2
butyrate Alzheimer's disease 75 1
inulin Alzheimer's disease 8 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Alzheimer's disease 15 1
butyrate Transient ischemic attack 3 0
butyrate schizophrenia 61 1
short-chain-fatty-acid schizophrenia 6 0
butyrate Parkinson's disease 63 1
inulin Parkinson's disease 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Parkinson's disease 11 1
butyrate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 11 1
inulin amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 0
galactooligosaccharide amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 2
butyrate acute stress disorder 14 1
inulin acute stress disorder 1 0
butyrate vascular dementia 5 1
inulin vascular dementia 1 0
butyrate Neurodegeneration 56 1
inulin Neurodegeneration 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid Neurodegeneration 8 1
galactooligosaccharide Neurodegeneration 1 1
butyrate Neurofibrillary tangles 4 1
butyrate dementia 30 0
inulin dementia 8 0
short-chain-fatty-acid dementia 2 0
butyrate eating disorder 1 0
butyrate personality disorder 2 0
galactooligosaccharide mood disorder 1 10
butyrate mood disorder 8 2
butyrate Senile plaques 1 0
butyrate bipolar disorder 43 2
inulin bipolar disorder 1 0
Your set BioSet member Hits Score
TLR signalling immune mediated 13 6
TLR signalling AIDS 9 1
TLR signalling inflammatory bowel disease 31 7
TLR signalling celiac disease 2 1
TLR signalling B cell deficiency 1 40
TLR signalling multiple sclerosis 19 2
TLR signalling agammaglobulinemia 12 25
TLR signalling autoimmune disease 48 15
TLR signalling encephalomyelitis 20 10
TLR signalling rheumatoid arthritis 47 4
TLR signalling ulcerative colitis 10 2
TLR signalling Crohn's disease 14 3
TLR signalling psoriasis 11 3
TLR signalling systemic lupus erythematosus 49 9
Lactobacillus plantarum type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 0
butyrate type 1 diabetes mellitus 19 1
fructan type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 0
inulin type 1 diabetes mellitus 29 3
short-chain-fatty-acid type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum autoimmune disease 1 0
butyrate autoimmune disease 9 0
fructan autoimmune disease 1 0
inulin autoimmune disease 2 0
short-chain-fatty-acid autoimmune disease 8 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus immune mediated 4 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus AIDS 6 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus inflammatory bowel disease 38 9
Lactobacillus rhamnosus celiac disease 4 2
Lactobacillus rhamnosus rheumatoid arthritis 4 0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ulcerative colitis 18 5
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Crohn's disease 16 3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus systemic lupus erythematosus 4 1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus hypoglycemia 1 0
SLC22A6 rheumatoid arthritis 1 2
butyrate primary immunodeficiency disease 7 0
inulin primary immunodeficiency disease 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum immune mediated 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum AIDS 6 0
Lactobacillus plantarum inflammatory bowel disease 45 5
Lactobacillus plantarum celiac disease 5 1
Lactobacillus plantarum multiple sclerosis 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum encephalomyelitis 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum rheumatoid arthritis 2 0
Lactobacillus plantarum ulcerative colitis 21 3
Lactobacillus plantarum Crohn's disease 10 1
Lactobacillus plantarum psoriasis 1 0
Lactobacillus plantarum hypoglycemia 1 0
Bifidobacterium longum immune mediated 3 3
Bifidobacterium longum inflammatory bowel disease 23 9
Bifidobacterium longum celiac disease 17 16
Bifidobacterium longum wheat allergy 1 46
Bifidobacterium longum ulcerative colitis 23 10
Bifidobacterium longum Crohn's disease 4 2
butyrate AIDS 23 0
fructan AIDS 1 0
inulin AIDS 5 0
short-chain-fatty-acid AIDS 3 0
butyrate hypoglycemia 34 1
fructan hypoglycemia 1 0
inulin hypoglycemia 12 1
short-chain-fatty-acid hypoglycemia 4 1
butyrate encephalomyelitis 8 0
fructan encephalomyelitis 1 1
inulin encephalomyelitis 1 0
short-chain-fatty-acid encephalomyelitis 4 1
butyrate Graves' disease 1 0
inulin Graves' disease 3 1
short-chain-fatty-acid Graves' disease 1 1
butyrate multiple sclerosis 25 0
inulin multiple sclerosis 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid multiple sclerosis 13 1
FFAR2 Crohn's disease 1 2
butyrate Crohn's disease 100 2
fructan Crohn's disease 8 2
inulin Crohn's disease 19 1
short-chain-fatty-acid Crohn's disease 44 6
FFAR2 psoriasis 1 2
butyrate psoriasis 34 1
inulin psoriasis 3 0
short-chain-fatty-acid psoriasis 2 0
FFAR2 rheumatoid arthritis 1 1
butyrate rheumatoid arthritis 16 0
inulin rheumatoid arthritis 7 0
short-chain-fatty-acid rheumatoid arthritis 9 1
galactooligosaccharide rheumatoid arthritis 1 0
FFAR2 ulcerative colitis 1 3
butyrate ulcerative colitis 251 7
fructan ulcerative colitis 7 2
inulin ulcerative colitis 24 2
short-chain-fatty-acid ulcerative colitis 88 15
galactooligosaccharide ulcerative colitis 1 1
FFAR2 inflammatory bowel disease 4 9
fructan immune mediated 3 2
fructan inflammatory bowel disease 12 3
fructan celiac disease 16 10
fructan wheat allergy 6 186
fructan systemic lupus erythematosus 1 0
butyrate celiac disease 22 1
inulin celiac disease 13 2
short-chain-fatty-acid celiac disease 14 5
butyrate inflammatory bowel disease 186 5
inulin inflammatory bowel disease 28 2
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 94 15
galactooligosaccharide inflammatory bowel disease 1 1
butyrate immune mediated 8 0
inulin immune mediated 9 1
short-chain-fatty-acid immune mediated 12 4
galactooligosaccharide immune mediated 1 3
short-chain-fatty-acid systemic lupus erythematosus 1 0
inulin goiter 1 0
butyrate systemic lupus erythematosus 6 0
inulin systemic lupus erythematosus 6 0
How is each concept related to new concepts? (back to top)
The table below shows the link between the concepts in your set and other concepts. For each term, the 25 most significant links are shown for each concept category. The hits are the number of abstracts in which both concepts co-occur. Clicking on this link opens a new window in which the abstracts are shown in which both concepts co-occur. You can use the search button in the top right corner to filter the results for your concept of interest.

Your setRelationHitsScore
short-chain-fatty-acid diversion colitis 14 8106
SLC22A6 hyperuricemia 14 7168
butyrate colon cancer 475 5225
inulin kidney failure 389 5057
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterial vaginosis 45 4995
Lactobacillus rhamnosus milk allergy 25 3775
short-chain-fatty-acid colitis 193 3667
Lactobacillus rhamnosus diarrhea 190 3610
inulin kidney disease 345 3105
butyrate colitis 422 2954
fructan hereditary spastic paraplegia 24 1 2887
short-chain-fatty-acid obesity 297 2376
butyrate diversion colitis 18 2322
Lactobacillus plantarum functional gastric disease 1 2316
inulin proteinuria 163 2119
butyrate colon carcinoma 148 2072
butyrate corticosteroid allergy 10 1960
butyrate ulcerative colitis 251 1757
short-chain-fatty-acid colon cancer 111 1665
fructan irritable bowel syndrome 41 1476
Lactobacillus rhamnosus perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 32 1440
inulin chronic kidney disease 157 1413
short-chain-fatty-acid inflammatory bowel disease 94 1410
Lactobacillus rhamnosus atopic dermatitis 58 1334
short-chain-fatty-acid ulcerative colitis 88 1320
Lactobacillus rhamnosus gastroenteritis 51 1275
fructan wheat allergy 6 1116
TLR signalling X-linked agammaglobulinemia 10 1080
FFAR2 obesity 51 1071
fructan familial adult myoclonic epilepsy 11 1001
FFAR2 bone osteosarcoma 1 824
galactooligosaccharide allergic urticaria 1 762
Bifidobacterium longum irritable bowel syndrome 24 744
Bifidobacterium longum colitis 52 728
TLR signalling autoimmune disease 48 720
Anaerococcus lactolyticus biliary atresia 1 706
TLR signalling viral infectious disease 87 696
SLC22A6 oculocerebrorenal syndrome 1 663
inulin glomerulosclerosis 44 572
inulin hypertension 277 554
SLC22A6 renal fibrosis 3 543
TLR signalling lupus erythematosus 64 512
Lactobacillus plantarum colitis 84 504
FFAR2 type 2 diabetes mellitus 26 494
SLC22A6 gout 5 485
TLR signalling bacterial sepsis 9 468
Bifidobacterium longum diarrhea 51 459
galactooligosaccharide autosomal recessive hyaline body myopathy 1 457
TLR signalling systemic lupus erythematosus 49 441
fructan cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 1 1 412
SLC22A6 chronic kidney disease 9 396
Bifidobacterium longum perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 12 360
SLC22A6 kidney disease 13 351
fructan myeloid neoplasm 38 342
FFAR2 ascending colon cancer 1 327
Bifidobacterium longum chemical colitis 1 303
Lactobacillus plantarum irritable bowel syndrome 30 300
FFAR2 colon adenoma 1 286
Bifidobacterium longum constipation 20 280
FFAR2 pertussis 9 279
Lactobacillus plantarum inflammatory bowel disease 45 225
Lactobacillus plantarum diarrhea 71 213
Anaerococcus lactolyticus cholestasis 1 212
Lactobacillus plantarum atopic dermatitis 29 174
galactooligosaccharide lactose intolerance 2 150
galactooligosaccharide irritable bowel syndrome 6 138
galactooligosaccharide atopic dermatitis 8 136
galactooligosaccharide dermatitis 12 108
inulin metabolism obesity 2 14
Your setRelationHitsScore
fructan fructan metabolism 119 1374093
butyrate butyrate metabolism 121 135157
inulin inulin metabolism 29 87348
TLR signalling TLR4 signalling 155 80290
fructan inulin metabolism 13 67288
inulin metabolism fructan metabolism 3 65199
TLR signalling MyD88 signalling 74 57720
TLR signalling TLR2 signalling 54 43416
TLR signalling TRIF signalling 30 38760
inulin fructan metabolism 36 32796
short-chain-fatty-acid short-chain fatty acid transport 8 27552
TLR signalling TLR3 signalling 33 26928
galactooligosaccharide verbascose metabolism 1 25151
Anaerococcus lactolyticus CXCR2 signalling 1 22978
TLR signalling TLR7 signalling 17 15062
FFAR2 medium-chain fatty acid metabolism 1 10893
inulin metabolism sucrose transport 2 10878
SLC22A6 organic anion transport 5 10180
short-chain-fatty-acid short-chain fatty acid metabolism 7 8323
Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin metabolism 7 7567
fructan exopolysaccharide metabolism 10 4370
inulin metabolism oligosaccharide metabolism 1 4247
fructan sucrose metabolism 18 3870
SLC22A6 urate transport 2 3508
butyrate apoptosis 1132 3396
butyrate propionate metabolism 29 3074
inulin metabolism pectin metabolism 1 3046
inulin paracellular pathway 30 2790
butyrate short-chain fatty acid metabolism 9 2385
Lactobacillus plantarum teichoic acid transport 1 2316
SLC22A6 anion transport 5 2255
galactooligosaccharide oligosaccharide metabolism 3 2229
butyrate beta-oxidation 95 2185
short-chain-fatty-acid lipid metabolism 112 1904
butyrate short-chain fatty acid transport 5 1860
fructan carbohydrate metabolism 45 1710
inulin organic anion transport 17 1411
fructan raffinose metabolism 2 1400
inulin sodium transport 41 1394
inulin transcellular transport 20 1360
short-chain-fatty-acid butyrate metabolism 5 1335
galactooligosaccharide short-chain fatty acid metabolism 1 1324
Lactobacillus plantarum D-xylose transport 3 1227
galactooligosaccharide AMPK-NRF2 signalling 1 1227
Bifidobacterium longum dTDP-rhamnose metabolism 1 1212
FFAR2 glucolipid metabolism 1 1196
short-chain-fatty-acid bile acid metabolism 19 1178
Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid metabolism 2 1090
SLC22A6 toxin transport 1 1052
galactooligosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine metabolism 1 986
Lactobacillus rhamnosus exopolysaccharide metabolism 5 910
short-chain-fatty-acid inulin metabolism 2 890
FFAR2 butyrate metabolism 1 810
SLC22A6 transepithelial transport 2 770
Bifidobacterium longum oligosaccharide metabolism 3 753
Bifidobacterium longum fucose metabolism 2 692
Lactobacillus plantarum citrulline metabolism 3 663
Bifidobacterium longum tetrahydrofolate metabolism 1 653
Bifidobacterium longum inulin metabolism 1 585
Lactobacillus plantarum ferrichrome metabolism 1 579
Bifidobacterium longum fructan metabolism 2 570
inulin metabolism starch metabolism 1 511
FFAR2 S6K signalling 1 444
FFAR2 AMPK signalling 3 354
galactooligosaccharide glycan metabolism 2 328
SLC22A6 drug transport 2 324
FFAR2 anion transport 3 315
Lactobacillus rhamnosus L-fucose metabolism 1 310
Lactobacillus rhamnosus necrosis 97 291
Lactobacillus rhamnosus sphingosine metabolism 1 235
inulin metabolism RNA metabolism 1 170
Lactobacillus rhamnosus oxalate metabolism 2 162
Lactobacillus rhamnosus TLR2 signalling 3 141
Your setRelationHitsScore
inulin inulin 8300 24999600
butyrate short-chain-fatty-acid 1523 668597
short-chain-fatty-acid butyrate 1523 668597
butyrate propionate 3853 616480
butyrate indole-3-butyric acid 514 574138
fructan inulin 602 504476
fructan inulin 602 504476
inulin fructan 602 504476
short-chain-fatty-acid fatty acid 3386 345372
short-chain-fatty-acid propionate 1149 315975
FFAR2 short-chain-fatty-acid 109 300840
butyrate ethyl butyrate 206 230102
butyrate acetate 5747 195398
butyrate valerate 830 185090
Lactobacillus plantarum lactate 2015 141050
Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin 349 100163
Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin 349 100163
inulin metabolism inulin 29 87348
inulin metabolism inulin 29 87348
fructan sucrose 679 78764
fructan fructose 452 76840
inulin metabolism fructan 13 67288
galactooligosaccharide oligosaccharide 187 52360
short-chain-fatty-acid acetate 1136 44304
short-chain-fatty-acid valerate 150 34800
galactooligosaccharide stachyose 21 34188
galactooligosaccharide lactose 120 33720
short-chain-fatty-acid isovalerate 72 32184
inulin short-chain-fatty-acid 199 30845
TLR signalling LPS 670 29480
inulin raffinose 155 28520
FFAR2 butyrate 78 26676
fructan raffinose 76 26296
FFAR2 propionate 79 22673
inulin creatinine 920 22080
FFAR2 fatty acid 220 22000
galactooligosaccharide raffinose 33 21615
inulin sucrose 675 20250
fructan oligosaccharide 242 20086
galactooligosaccharide lactulose 37 19277
galactooligosaccharide inulin 54 17658
Lactobacillus rhamnosus lactate 462 15246
Bifidobacterium longum oligosaccharide 163 13366
Bifidobacterium longum galactooligosaccharide 19 12331
Lactobacillus plantarum bile-acid 246 8610
Bifidobacterium longum inulin 53 5724
Bifidobacterium longum inulin 53 5724
Lactobacillus plantarum 3-phenyllactic acid 9 5436
Bifidobacterium longum short-chain-fatty-acid 35 5355
Lactobacillus rhamnosus galactooligosaccharide 16 4960
Lactobacillus plantarum nisin 48 4656
SLC22A6 uric acid 24 4344
FFAR2 acetate 86 3870
Bifidobacterium longum lactate 163 3423
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteriocin 40 2720
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteriocin 40 2720
FFAR2 glucagon 32 2624
Lactobacillus rhamnosus inulin 45 2340
Lactobacillus rhamnosus inulin 45 2340
inulin metabolism fructose 9 2268
Anaerostipes butyraticus short-chain-fatty-acid 1 2152
SLC22A6 xanthine 11 1782
inulin metabolism sucrose 11 1551
Anaerostipes butyraticus butyrate 2 1490
SLC22A6 carnitine 8 1072
SLC22A6 allopurinol 5 920
inulin metabolism short-chain-fatty-acid 2 890
SLC22A6 estrone 5 715
SLC22A6 stevioside 1 516
TLR signalling 10-hydroxydecanoic acid 1 459
TLR signalling tyrosine 91 455
TLR signalling phosphatidylinositol 50 400
TLR signalling phosphoinositide 29 348
Anaerostipes butyraticus oligosaccharide 1 248
Anaerococcus lactolyticus trimethoprim 1 185
TLR signalling serine 42 168
Anaerococcus lactolyticus butyrate 1 140
Anaerostipes butyraticus lactate 1 63
Anaerostipes butyraticus acetate 1 45
Anaerostipes butyraticus fatty acid 1 39
Your setRelationHitsScore
inulin Increased glomerular filtration rate 45 11160
SLC22A6 Hyperuricemia 15 6975
inulin Renal insufficiency 452 5876
inulin Decreased glomerular filtration rate 48 5712
short-chain-fatty-acid Decreased fecal pH 3 5283
butyrate Colon cancer 475 5225
fructan Decreased fecal pH 2 4200
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Cow milk allergy 25 3775
short-chain-fatty-acid Colitis 193 3667
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Diarrhea 190 3610
inulin Nephropathy 353 3177
inulin Acute kidney injury 212 2968
butyrate Colitis 422 2954
butyrate Affected 1443 2886
butyrate Neoplasm 2441 2441
short-chain-fatty-acid Obesity 297 2376
inulin Proteinuria 163 2119
short-chain-fatty-acid Healthy 528 2112
TLR signalling Autoimmunity 112 1904
SLC22A6 Hypouricemia 2 1882
fructan Gluten intolerance 13 1807
butyrate Ulcerative colitis 254 1778
butyrate Stable 839 1678
short-chain-fatty-acid Colon cancer 111 1665
short-chain-fatty-acid Inflammation of the large intestine 94 1410
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Enterocolitis 40 1320
SLC22A6 Abnormal renal morphology 1 1153
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Eczema 43 1118
TLR signalling Sepsis 110 1100
FFAR2 Obesity 51 1071
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 12 996
TLR signalling Neoplasm 480 960
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Colitis 80 960
TLR signalling Triggered by 73 949
SLC22A6 Renal fibrosis 4 844
fructan Irritability 41 779
Bifidobacterium longum Healthy 186 744
Bifidobacterium longum Colitis 52 728
Anaerococcus lactolyticus Biliary atresia 1 704
Lactobacillus plantarum Affected 294 588
FFAR2 Insulin resistance 21 546
Lactobacillus plantarum Colitis 84 504
SLC22A6 Chronic kidney disease 10 500
SLC22A6 Gout 5 490
TLR signalling Systemic lupus erythematosus 54 486
TLR signalling Agammaglobulinemia 10 480
Lactobacillus plantarum Increased body weight 80 480
Bifidobacterium longum Gastrointestinal inflammation 4 468
Bifidobacterium longum Irritability 26 468
Bifidobacterium longum Diarrhea 51 459
FFAR2 Type II diabetes mellitus 26 442
Lactobacillus plantarum Stable 218 436
Lactobacillus plantarum Increased reactive oxygen species production 131 393
Lactobacillus plantarum Epidermal thickening 5 365
fructan Abdominal distention 18 342
Bifidobacterium longum Decreased small intestinal mucosa lactase activity 3 336
galactooligosaccharide Recurrent infection of the gastrointestinal tract 3 327
fructan Affected 133 266
galactooligosaccharide Healthy 59 236
Anaerococcus lactolyticus Cholestasis 1 212
galactooligosaccharide Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections 3 153
fructan Stable 73 146
FFAR2 Impaired glucose tolerance 4 140
FFAR2 Centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers 1 132
galactooligosaccharide Congenital shortened small intestine 3 132
galactooligosaccharide Increased body weight 13 130
galactooligosaccharide Lactose intolerance 2 124
inulin metabolism Phenotypic variability 1 103
FFAR2 Colitis 8 96
Anaerococcus lactolyticus Jaundice 1 95
inulin metabolism Affected 4 20
inulin metabolism Obesity 2 14
inulin metabolism Insulin resistance 1 11
inulin metabolism Distal 1 4
Anaerococcus lactolyticus Healthy 1 4
inulin metabolism Stable 1 2